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Protein

Acetoin utilization protein AcuA

Gene

acuA

Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Part of the acuABC operon, which is possibly involved in the breakdown of acetoin and butanediol. Acts as an acetyltransferase inactivating acetyl-CoA synthetase AcsA via acetylation at a Lys residue.4 Publications

Enzyme regulationi

Activity is sensitive to salt concentration, a high concentration of KCL (500 mM) is needed for complete inactivation.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=22 mM for acetyl-CoA2 Publications
  1. Vmax=0.8 mmol/min/mg enzyme2 Publications

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 7.5.2 Publications

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature 37 degrees Celsius. Thermostable. Retains 93, 78 and 15 % of its protein acetyltransferase activity after heating to 100 degrees Celsius for 5, 30 and 60 minutes, respectively.2 Publications

Pathwayi: acetoin degradation

This protein is involved in the pathway acetoin degradation, which is part of Ketone degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway acetoin degradation and in Ketone degradation.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • acetoin dehydrogenase activity Source: UniProtKB
  • acetyl-CoA synthetase acetyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
  • N-acetyltransferase activity Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  • acetoin catabolic process Source: UniProtKB
  • butanediol catabolic process Source: UniProtKB
  • cellular response to acetate Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of transcription by glucose Source: UniProtKB
  • spore germination Source: UniProtKB
  • sporulation resulting in formation of a cellular spore Source: UniProtKB-KW

Keywordsi

Molecular functionAcyltransferase, Transferase
Biological processAcetoin catabolism, Sporulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciBSUB:BSU29690-MONOMER.
SABIO-RKiP39065.
UniPathwayiUPA00040.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Acetoin utilization protein AcuA (EC:2.3.1.-)
Alternative name(s):
Protein acetyltransferase AcuA
Gene namesi
Name:acuA
Ordered Locus Names:BSU29690
OrganismiBacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Taxonomic identifieri224308 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaFirmicutesBacilliBacillalesBacillaceaeBacillus
Proteomesi
  • UP000001570 Componenti: Chromosome

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Does not impair growth on acetate. Disruption together with other acetoin utilization genes acuB and acuC results in poor growth and sporulation on acetoin or butanediol. Triple deletion of acuA, acuC and srtN improves the growth on acetate but it does not reach that of wild-type under low-acetate conditions.3 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi43R → H: 25% retention of activity. Two to three-fold reduction in KM for acetyl-CoA. Three-fold slower turnover number. Retains 54% of the activity of the wild-type after heating it to 100 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi170T → A: 25% retention of activity. Two to three fold reduction in KM for acetyl-CoA. Three-fold slower turnover number. Retains 60% of the activity of the wild-type after heating it to 100 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi178H → P: Inactive. Leads to a rapid turnover of the enzyme. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi188G → E: Inactive. Leads to a rapid turnover of the enzyme. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000745711 – 210Acetoin utilization protein AcuAAdd BLAST210

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP39065.

Expressioni

Inductioni

Expression is maximal in stationary phase and is repressed by the addition of glucose to the growth medium. CcpA protein is required for glucose repression. Acetoin does not act as an inducer. Up-regulated during the 80 to 100 minutes of spore germination and into the outgrowth phase.2 Publications

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi224308.Bsubs1_010100016201.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP39065.
SMRiP39065.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini20 – 161N-acetyltransferasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST142

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the acetyltransferase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4105F1V. Bacteria.
ENOG410XRFR. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000097932.
KOiK04766.
OMAiKIMEKMM.
PhylomeDBiP39065.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR024699. AcuA.
IPR016181. Acyl_CoA_acyltransferase.
IPR000182. GNAT_dom.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00583. Acetyltransf_1. 1 hit.
PIRSFiPIRSF021278. AcuA. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF55729. SSF55729. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51186. GNAT. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P39065-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEHHKTYHSA NIKTATGSLL IEGPVSPEDL AGYEFHKDLT AFRPPREQHE
60 70 80 90 100
ALVDIAGLPE GRIIIARDGR TIVGYVTYLY PDPLERWSEG NMEDLIELGA
110 120 130 140 150
IEVAPDYRGC AVGKTLLTVS MMDEQMENYI VMTTEYYWHW DLKGMKKDVW
160 170 180 190 200
EYRKIMEKMM NAGGLVWFAT DEPEISSHPA NCLMARIGKN VSQESIEQFD
210
RLRFYHRYMY
Length:210
Mass (Da):24,333
Last modified:February 1, 1995 - v1
Checksum:i74DB94A46E8556DA
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L17309 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA68286.1.
AF008220 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC00396.1.
AL009126 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB14947.1.
PIRiS39645.
RefSeqiNP_390847.1. NC_000964.3.
WP_003229296.1. NZ_JNCM01000036.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiCAB14947; CAB14947; BSU29690.
GeneIDi937633.
KEGGibsu:BSU29690.
PATRICifig|224308.179.peg.3227.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiACUA_BACSU
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P39065
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1995
Last sequence update: February 1, 1995
Last modified: June 7, 2017
This is version 111 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Bacillus subtilis
    Bacillus subtilis (strain 168): entries, gene names and cross-references to SubtiList
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families