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P38316 (ATG12_YEAST) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified March 19, 2014. Version 119. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (4) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Interactions·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
Alternative name(s):
Autophagy-related protein 12
Gene names
Name:ATG12
Synonyms:APG12
Ordered Locus Names:YBR217W
ORF Names:YBR1506
OrganismSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier559292 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaSaccharomycotinaSaccharomycetesSaccharomycetalesSaccharomycetaceaeSaccharomyces

Protein attributes

Sequence length186 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Ubiquitin-like protein involved in cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt), autophagy vesicles formation, mitophagy, and nucleophagy. Conjugation with ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving also ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of ATG8 and ATG8 association to the vesicle membranes. ATG12-ATG5 rearranges the ATG3 catalytic center and enhances its E2 activity. Ref.1 Ref.5 Ref.9 Ref.11 Ref.15 Ref.16 Ref.17 Ref.18 Ref.19 Ref.20 Ref.21 Ref.23 Ref.26 Ref.27

Subunit structure

Forms a conjugate with ATG5. Forms a thioester bond with the 'Cys-133' of ATG10. Interacts with the ATG7 C-terminal 40 amino acids domain. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate forms a complex with several units of ATG16. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate associates also with ATG3. Interacts with COG2. Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.10 Ref.12 Ref.19 Ref.24

Subcellular location

Preautophagosomal structure membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note: Localizes to the isolation membrane (IM), a membrane sac which is generated from the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS). Ultimately, the IM expands to become a mature autophagosome. Localizes also to a dot at the junction between the IM and the vacuolar membrane, termed the vacuole-IM contact site (VICS). Ref.1 Ref.8 Ref.18 Ref.26 Ref.28

Miscellaneous

Small amount of ATG5-ATG12 conjugate is enough to perform normal autophagy.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the ATG12 family.

Binary interactions

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 186186Ubiquitin-like protein ATG12
PRO_0000212485

Amino acid modifications

Cross-link186Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Gly-Lys) (interchain with K-149 in ATG5)

Experimental info

Mutagenesis1061I → A: Decreases protein stability. Ref.15
Mutagenesis1081F → A: Decreases protein stability. Ref.15
Mutagenesis1491Y → A: Impairs conjugation to ATG5 and autophagic activity. Ref.15
Mutagenesis1541F → A: Impairs conjugation to ATG5 and autophagic activity. Ref.15
Mutagenesis1861G → A: Strong decrease of conjugation with ATG5. Ref.1

Secondary structure

.............. 186
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P38316 [UniParc].

Last modified October 1, 1994. Version 1.
Checksum: 74B3C9FD3CEA9265

FASTA18621,106
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MSRILESENE TESDESSIIS TNNGTAMERS RNNQELRSSP HTVQNRLELF SRRLSQLGLA 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
SDISVDQQVE DSSSGTYEQE ETIKTNAQTS KQKSHKDEKN IQKIQIKFQP IGSIGQLKPS 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
VCKISMSQSF AMVILFLKRR LKMDHVYCYI NNSFAPSPQQ NIGELWMQFK TNDELIVSYC 


ASVAFG 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"A protein conjugation system essential for autophagy."
Mizushima N., Noda T., Yoshimori T., Tanaka Y., Ishii T., George M.D., Klionsky D.J., Ohsumi M., Ohsumi Y.
Nature 395:395-398(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, PHOSPHORYLATION, CONJUGATION TO ATG5, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, MUTAGENESIS OF GLY-186.
Strain: ATCC 26109 / X2180.
[2]"Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome II."
Feldmann H., Aigle M., Aljinovic G., Andre B., Baclet M.C., Barthe C., Baur A., Becam A.-M., Biteau N., Boles E., Brandt T., Brendel M., Brueckner M., Bussereau F., Christiansen C., Contreras R., Crouzet M., Cziepluch C. expand/collapse author list , Demolis N., Delaveau T., Doignon F., Domdey H., Duesterhus S., Dubois E., Dujon B., El Bakkoury M., Entian K.-D., Feuermann M., Fiers W., Fobo G.M., Fritz C., Gassenhuber J., Glansdorff N., Goffeau A., Grivell L.A., de Haan M., Hein C., Herbert C.J., Hollenberg C.P., Holmstroem K., Jacq C., Jacquet M., Jauniaux J.-C., Jonniaux J.-L., Kallesoee T., Kiesau P., Kirchrath L., Koetter P., Korol S., Liebl S., Logghe M., Lohan A.J.E., Louis E.J., Li Z.Y., Maat M.J., Mallet L., Mannhaupt G., Messenguy F., Miosga T., Molemans F., Mueller S., Nasr F., Obermaier B., Perea J., Pierard A., Piravandi E., Pohl F.M., Pohl T.M., Potier S., Proft M., Purnelle B., Ramezani Rad M., Rieger M., Rose M., Schaaff-Gerstenschlaeger I., Scherens B., Schwarzlose C., Skala J., Slonimski P.P., Smits P.H.M., Souciet J.-L., Steensma H.Y., Stucka R., Urrestarazu L.A., van der Aart Q.J.M., Van Dyck L., Vassarotti A., Vetter I., Vierendeels F., Vissers S., Wagner G., de Wergifosse P., Wolfe K.H., Zagulski M., Zimmermann F.K., Mewes H.-W., Kleine K.
EMBO J. 13:5795-5809(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
[3]Saccharomyces Genome Database
Submitted (DEC-2009) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
[4]"Approaching a complete repository of sequence-verified protein-encoding clones for Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Hu Y., Rolfs A., Bhullar B., Murthy T.V.S., Zhu C., Berger M.F., Camargo A.A., Kelley F., McCarron S., Jepson D., Richardson A., Raphael J., Moreira D., Taycher E., Zuo D., Mohr S., Kane M.F., Williamson J. expand/collapse author list , Simpson A.J.G., Bulyk M.L., Harlow E., Marsischky G., Kolodner R.D., LaBaer J.
Genome Res. 17:536-543(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
[5]"Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Tsukada M., Ohsumi Y.
FEBS Lett. 333:169-174(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[6]"Apg10p, a novel protein-conjugating enzyme essential for autophagy in yeast."
Shintani T., Mizushima N., Ogawa Y., Matsuura A., Noda T., Ohsumi Y.
EMBO J. 18:5234-5241(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH ATG10.
[7]"Apg7p/Cvt2p: a novel protein-activating enzyme essential for autophagy."
Tanida I., Mizushima N., Kiyooka M., Ohsumi M., Ueno T., Ohsumi Y., Kominami E.
Mol. Biol. Cell 10:1367-1379(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH ATG7.
[8]"Apg5p functions in the sequestration step in the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting and macroautophagy pathways."
George M.D., Baba M., Scott S.V., Mizushima N., Garrison B.S., Ohsumi Y., Klionsky D.J.
Mol. Biol. Cell 11:969-982(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH ATG5, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
[9]"The pre-autophagosomal structure organized by concerted functions of APG genes is essential for autophagosome formation."
Suzuki K., Kirisako T., Kamada Y., Mizushima N., Noda T., Ohsumi Y.
EMBO J. 20:5971-5981(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[10]"The C-terminal region of an Apg7p/Cvt2p is required for homodimerization and is essential for its E1 activity and E1-E2 complex formation."
Komatsu M., Tanida I., Ueno T., Ohsumi M., Ohsumi Y., Kominami E.
J. Biol. Chem. 276:9846-9854(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH ATG7.
[11]"Membrane recruitment of Aut7p in the autophagy and cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathways requires Aut1p, Aut2p, and the autophagy conjugation complex."
Kim J., Huang W.-P., Klionsky D.J.
J. Cell Biol. 152:51-64(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[12]"Formation of the approximately 350-kDa Apg12-Apg5.Apg16 multimeric complex, mediated by Apg16 oligomerization, is essential for autophagy in yeast."
Kuma A., Mizushima N., Ishihara N., Ohsumi Y.
J. Biol. Chem. 277:18619-18625(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN A COMPLEX WITH ATG5 AND ATG16.
[13]"A unified nomenclature for yeast autophagy-related genes."
Klionsky D.J., Cregg J.M., Dunn W.A. Jr., Emr S.D., Sakai Y., Sandoval I.V., Sibirny A., Subramani S., Thumm M., Veenhuis M., Ohsumi Y.
Dev. Cell 5:539-545(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NOMENCLATURE.
[14]"The carboxyl terminal 17 amino acids within Apg7 are essential for Apg8 lipidation, but not for Apg12 conjugation."
Yamazaki-Sato H., Tanida I., Ueno T., Kominami E.
FEBS Lett. 551:71-77(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: CONJUGATION TO ATG5.
[15]"Structure-function relationship of Atg12, a ubiquitin-like modifier essential for autophagy."
Hanada T., Ohsumi Y.
Autophagy 1:110-118(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, CONJUGATION TO ATG5, MUTAGENESIS OF ILE-106; PHE-108; TYR-149 AND PHE-154.
[16]"Endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers autophagy."
Yorimitsu T., Nair U., Yang Z., Klionsky D.J.
J. Biol. Chem. 281:30299-30304(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[17]"The role of autophagy in mitochondria maintenance: characterization of mitochondrial functions in autophagy-deficient S. cerevisiae strains."
Zhang Y., Qi H., Taylor R., Xu W., Liu L.F., Jin S.
Autophagy 3:337-346(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[18]"Hierarchy of Atg proteins in pre-autophagosomal structure organization."
Suzuki K., Kubota Y., Sekito T., Ohsumi Y.
Genes Cells 12:209-218(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
[19]"The Atg12-Atg5 conjugate has a novel E3-like activity for protein lipidation in autophagy."
Hanada T., Noda N.N., Satomi Y., Ichimura Y., Fujioka Y., Takao T., Inagaki F., Ohsumi Y.
J. Biol. Chem. 282:37298-37302(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION OF THE ATG12-ATG5 CONJUGATE, INTERACTION WITH ATG3.
[20]"New insights into autophagy using a multiple knockout strain."
Cao Y., Klionsky D.J.
Autophagy 4:1073-1075(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[21]"In vivo reconstitution of autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Cao Y., Cheong H., Song H., Klionsky D.J.
J. Cell Biol. 182:703-713(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: CONJUGATION TO ATG5, FUNCTION OF THE ATG12-ATG5 CONJUGATE.
[22]"Crystallization of the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate bound to Atg16 by the free-interface diffusion method."
Noda N.N., Fujioka Y., Ohsumi Y., Inagaki F.
J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15:266-268(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE ATG12-ATG5 CONJUGATE BOUND TO ATG16.
[23]"Piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus requires the core macroautophagy genes."
Krick R., Muehe Y., Prick T., Bremer S., Schlotterhose P., Eskelinen E.L., Millen J., Goldfarb D.S., Thumm M.
Mol. Biol. Cell 19:4492-4505(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[24]"The conserved oligomeric Golgi complex is involved in double-membrane vesicle formation during autophagy."
Yen W.L., Shintani T., Nair U., Cao Y., Richardson B.C., Li Z., Hughson F.M., Baba M., Klionsky D.J.
J. Cell Biol. 188:101-114(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH COG2.
[25]"Sphingolipid synthesis is involved in autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Yamagata M., Obara K., Kihara A.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 410:786-791(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: CONJUGATION TO ATG5.
[26]"Mechanism and functions of membrane binding by the Atg5-Atg12/Atg16 complex during autophagosome formation."
Romanov J., Walczak M., Ibiricu I., Schuchner S., Ogris E., Kraft C., Martens S.
EMBO J. 31:4304-4317(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, FUNCTION OF THE ATG5-ATG12/ATG16 COMPLEX.
[27]"A late form of nucleophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Mijaljica D., Prescott M., Devenish R.J.
PLoS ONE 7:E40013-E40013(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[28]"Fine mapping of autophagy-related proteins during autophagosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Suzuki K., Akioka M., Kondo-Kakuta C., Yamamoto H., Ohsumi Y.
J. Cell Sci. 126:2534-2544(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
[29]"Structure of the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate reveals a platform for stimulating Atg8-PE conjugation."
Noda N.N., Fujioka Y., Hanada T., Ohsumi Y., Inagaki F.
EMBO Rep. 14:206-211(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.6 ANGSTROMS) OF 100-186 IN CONJUGATION WITH ATG5.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AB017924 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA33473.1.
Z36086 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA85181.1.
AY557706 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAS56032.1.
BK006936 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA07333.1.
PIRS46093.
RefSeqNP_009776.1. NM_001178565.1.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3W1SX-ray2.60C100-186[»]
ProteinModelPortalP38316.
SMRP38316. Positions 101-181.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid32914. 66 interactions.
DIPDIP-1189N.
IntActP38316. 62 interactions.
MINTMINT-388309.
STRING4932.YBR217W.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiYBR217W; YBR217W; YBR217W.
GeneID852518.
KEGGsce:YBR217W.

Organism-specific databases

CYGDYBR217w.
SGDS000000421. ATG12.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG236266.
HOGENOMHOG000234863.
KOK08336.
OMAELIVSYC.
OrthoDBEOG7ZSJ5R.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCycYEAST:G3O-29154-MONOMER.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorP38316.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR007242. Atg12.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR13385. PTHR13385. 1 hit.
PfamPF04110. APG12. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

NextBio971550.
PROP38316.

Entry information

Entry nameATG12_YEAST
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P38316
Secondary accession number(s): D6VQL3
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1994
Last sequence update: October 1, 1994
Last modified: March 19, 2014
This is version 119 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

Yeast chromosome II

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosome II: entries and gene names

Yeast

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): entries, gene names and cross-references to SGD

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references