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Protein

Alpha-synuclein

Gene

Snca

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Metal bindingi2 – 21CopperBy similarity
Metal bindingi50 – 501CopperBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • arachidonic acid binding Source: Ensembl
  • beta-tubulin binding Source: RGD
  • calcium ion binding Source: Ensembl
  • copper ion binding Source: UniProtKB
  • cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process Source: Ensembl
  • enzyme binding Source: RGD
  • ferrous iron binding Source: Ensembl
  • identical protein binding Source: UniProtKB
  • magnesium ion binding Source: Ensembl
  • microtubule binding Source: UniProtKB
  • oxidoreductase activity Source: Ensembl
  • phospholipase binding Source: RGD
  • phospholipid binding Source: RGD
  • protein domain specific binding Source: RGD
  • protein N-terminus binding Source: RGD
  • zinc ion binding Source: Ensembl

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Ligandi

Copper, Metal-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alpha-synuclein
Gene namesi
Name:Snca
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

RGDi3729. Snca.

Subcellular locationi

  • Cytoplasmcytosol By similarity
  • Membrane By similarity
  • Nucleus By similarity
  • Cell junctionsynapse By similarity
  • Secreted By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  • actin cytoskeleton Source: Ensembl
  • axon terminus Source: RGD
  • cell cortex Source: Ensembl
  • cell junction Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • cytoplasm Source: RGD
  • cytoplasmic vesicle membrane Source: BHF-UCL
  • cytosol Source: RGD
  • extracellular space Source: UniProtKB
  • fibril Source: Ensembl
  • Golgi apparatus Source: RGD
  • growth cone Source: RGD
  • inclusion body Source: Ensembl
  • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle Source: RGD
  • mitochondrion Source: BHF-UCL
  • nuclear outer membrane Source: RGD
  • perinuclear region of cytoplasm Source: Ensembl
  • plasma membrane Source: RGD
  • platelet alpha granule membrane Source: Ensembl
  • postsynapse Source: GOC
  • ribosome Source: RGD
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum Source: RGD
  • synaptic vesicle Source: RGD
  • terminal bouton Source: ParkinsonsUK-UCL
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell junction, Cytoplasm, Membrane, Nucleus, Secreted, Synapse

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 140140Alpha-synucleinPRO_0000184031Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei1 – 11N-acetylmethionineBy similarity
Modified residuei125 – 1251Phosphotyrosine; by FYNBy similarity
Modified residuei129 – 1291Phosphoserine; by PLK2By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated, predominantly on serine residues. Phosphorylated on Tyr-125 upon osmotic stress (By similarity).By similarity
Ubiquitinated. The predominant conjugate is the diubiquitinated form.1 Publication
Acetylation at Met-1 seems to be important for proper folding and native oligomeric structure.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP37377.

2D gel databases

World-2DPAGE0004:P37377.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP37377.
PhosphoSiteiP37377.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Found only in brain (hippocampus, brainstem and cortex). Specifically expressed in neuronal cell bodies and synapses.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP37377. RN.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with UCHL1.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • beta-tubulin binding Source: RGD
  • enzyme binding Source: RGD
  • identical protein binding Source: UniProtKB
  • microtubule binding Source: UniProtKB
  • phospholipase binding Source: RGD
  • protein domain specific binding Source: RGD
  • protein N-terminus binding Source: RGD

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi247897. 78 interactions.
IntActiP37377. 3 interactions.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP37377.
SMRiP37377. Positions 1-140.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Repeati20 – 30111Add
BLAST
Repeati31 – 41112Add
BLAST
Repeati42 – 56153; approximateAdd
BLAST
Repeati57 – 67114Add
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni20 – 67484 X 11 AA tandem repeats of [EGS]-K-T-K-[EQ]-[GQ]-V-X(4)Add
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the synuclein family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016161.
HOGENOMiHOG000008691.
HOVERGENiHBG000481.
InParanoidiP37377.
KOiK04528.
OMAiILEDMPM.
OrthoDBiEOG7034KG.
PhylomeDBiP37377.
TreeFamiTF332776.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.700. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001058. Synuclein.
IPR002460. Synuclein_alpha.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13820. PTHR13820. 1 hit.
PTHR13820:SF5. PTHR13820:SF5. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01387. Synuclein. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01212. ASYNUCLEIN.
PR01211. SYNUCLEIN.

Sequences (3)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Note: Additional isoforms seem to exist.

Isoform Syn1 (identifier: P37377-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MDVFMKGLSK AKEGVVAAAE KTKQGVAEAA GKTKEGVLYV GSKTKEGVVH
60 70 80 90 100
GVTTVAEKTK EQVTNVGGAV VTGVTAVAQK TVEGAGNIAA ATGFVKKDQM
110 120 130 140
GKGEEGYPQE GILEDMPVDP SSEAYEMPSE EGYQDYEPEA
Length:140
Mass (Da):14,515
Last modified:October 1, 1994 - v1
Checksum:i1FFD19CD3B9E636C
GO
Isoform Syn2 (identifier: P37377-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     104-140: EEGYPQEGIL...EGYQDYEPEA → YPMGECTNHP...CVVMDPFLPT

Show »
Length:149
Mass (Da):15,755
Checksum:i972D3414A95EA9DE
GO
Isoform Syn3 (identifier: P37377-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     42-42: S → R
     43-140: Missing.

Show »
Length:42
Mass (Da):4,354
Checksum:iDE5143DA62A2DEC3
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei42 – 421S → R in isoform Syn3. CuratedVSP_006365
Alternative sequencei43 – 14098Missing in isoform Syn3. CuratedVSP_006366Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei104 – 14037EEGYP…YEPEA → YPMGECTNHPPRLIALRVKS RYREHSWRPRKQLSLACVVM DPFLPT in isoform Syn2. 1 PublicationVSP_006367Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S73007 mRNA. Translation: AAB20688.1.
S73008 mRNA. Translation: AAB20689.1.
S73009 mRNA. Translation: AAB20690.1.
AF007758 mRNA. Translation: AAC16026.1.
AY550005 mRNA. Translation: AAS55694.1.
AY550006 mRNA. Translation: AAS55695.1.
BC087682 mRNA. Translation: AAH87682.1.
PIRiB43959.
RefSeqiNP_062042.1. NM_019169.2. [P37377-1]
XP_006236653.1. XM_006236591.2. [P37377-2]
UniGeneiRn.1827.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000039247; ENSRNOP00000030609; ENSRNOG00000008656. [P37377-1]
GeneIDi29219.
KEGGirno:29219.
UCSCiRGD:3729. rat. [P37377-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S73007 mRNA. Translation: AAB20688.1.
S73008 mRNA. Translation: AAB20689.1.
S73009 mRNA. Translation: AAB20690.1.
AF007758 mRNA. Translation: AAC16026.1.
AY550005 mRNA. Translation: AAS55694.1.
AY550006 mRNA. Translation: AAS55695.1.
BC087682 mRNA. Translation: AAH87682.1.
PIRiB43959.
RefSeqiNP_062042.1. NM_019169.2. [P37377-1]
XP_006236653.1. XM_006236591.2. [P37377-2]
UniGeneiRn.1827.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP37377.
SMRiP37377. Positions 1-140.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi247897. 78 interactions.
IntActiP37377. 3 interactions.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP37377.
PhosphoSiteiP37377.

2D gel databases

World-2DPAGE0004:P37377.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP37377.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000039247; ENSRNOP00000030609; ENSRNOG00000008656. [P37377-1]
GeneIDi29219.
KEGGirno:29219.
UCSCiRGD:3729. rat. [P37377-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi6622.
RGDi3729. Snca.

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016161.
HOGENOMiHOG000008691.
HOVERGENiHBG000481.
InParanoidiP37377.
KOiK04528.
OMAiILEDMPM.
OrthoDBiEOG7034KG.
PhylomeDBiP37377.
TreeFamiTF332776.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP37377.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP37377. RN.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.700. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001058. Synuclein.
IPR002460. Synuclein_alpha.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13820. PTHR13820. 1 hit.
PTHR13820:SF5. PTHR13820:SF5. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01387. Synuclein. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01212. ASYNUCLEIN.
PR01211. SYNUCLEIN.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The rat brain synucleins; family of proteins transiently associated with neuronal membrane."
    Maroteaux L., Scheller R.H.
    Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 11:335-343(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
    Tissue: Brain.
  2. "Synuclein: a neuron-specific protein localized to the nucleus and presynaptic nerve terminal."
    Maroteaux L., Campanelli J.T., Scheller R.H.
    J. Neurosci. 8:2804-2815(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM SYN2).
  3. "Increased expression of rat synuclein in the substantia nigra pars compacta identified by mRNA differential display in a model of developmental target injury."
    Kholodilov N.G., Neystat M., Oo T.F., Lo S.E., Larsen K.E., Sulzer D., Burke R.E.
    J. Neurochem. 73:2586-2599(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM SYN1).
  4. "Alpha-synuclein maps to a quantitative trait locus for alcohol preference and is differentially expressed in alcohol-preferring and - nonpreferring rats."
    Liang T., Spence J., Liu L., Strother W.N., Chang H.W., Ellison J.A., Lumeng L., Li T.K., Foroud T., Carr L.G.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:4690-4695(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM SYN1).
    Strain: Wistar.
    Tissue: Brain.
  5. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM SYN1).
    Tissue: Brain.
  6. Lubec G., Chen W.-Q.
    Submitted (APR-2007) to UniProtKB
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-97, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Strain: Sprague-Dawley.
    Tissue: Hippocampus.
  7. "The UCH-L1 gene encodes two opposing enzymatic activities that affect alpha-synuclein degradation and Parkinson's disease susceptibility."
    Liu Y., Fallon L., Lashuel H.A., Liu Z., Lansbury P.T. Jr.
    Cell 111:209-218(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: UBIQUITINATION, INTERACTION WITH UCHL1.
  8. "Quantitative maps of protein phosphorylation sites across 14 different rat organs and tissues."
    Lundby A., Secher A., Lage K., Nordsborg N.B., Dmytriyev A., Lundby C., Olsen J.V.
    Nat. Commun. 3:876-876(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSYUA_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P37377
Secondary accession number(s): P37378, Q53YM9
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1994
Last sequence update: October 1, 1994
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 133 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.