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Protein

Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase

Gene

al-2

Organism
Neurospora crassa (strain ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the reactions from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene (phytoene synthase) and from lycopene to beta-carotene via the intermediate gamma-carotene and from 3,4-didehydrolycopene to torulene (lycopene cyclase). Torulene is further processed to the acidic carotenoid neurosporaxanthin. The cyclase preferentially catalyzes single cyclizations at only one end of the substrate to produce monocyclic carotenoids.2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Carotenoid psi-end group = carotenoid beta-end group.
2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate.

Pathwayi

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
  2. intramolecular lyase activity Source: InterPro
  3. lycopene beta cyclase activity Source: UniProtKB
  4. phytoene synthase activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. carotene biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  2. carotenoid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Isomerase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Carotenoid biosynthesis

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-16129.
UniPathwayiUPA00799; UER00773.
UPA00802.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase
Alternative name(s):
Protein albino-2
Including the following 2 domains:
Lycopene beta-cyclase (EC:5.5.1.19)
Alternative name(s):
Carotene cyclase
Lycopene cyclase
Phytoene synthase (EC:2.5.1.32)
Gene namesi
Name:al-2
ORF Names:B22I21.230, NCU00585
OrganismiNeurospora crassa (strain ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987)
Taxonomic identifieri367110 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaSordariomycetesSordariomycetidaeSordarialesSordariaceaeNeurospora
ProteomesiUP000001805: Chromosome 1, Linkage Group I

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transmembranei6 – 2621HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei30 – 5021HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei76 – 9621HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei118 – 13821HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei146 – 16621HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei168 – 18821HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei230 – 25021HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi189 – 1891W → R in JA26; Abolishes lycopene cyclase activity and accumulates a polar precursor carotenoid of neurosporaxanthin. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi208 – 2081K → E in JA28; Abolishes lycopene cyclase activity and accumulates a polar precursor carotenoid of neurosporaxanthin. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 602602Bifunctional lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthasePRO_0000067440Add
BLAST

Expressioni

Inductioni

By blue light.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi5141.NCU00585.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP37295.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni1 – 241241Lycopene beta-cyclaseAdd
BLAST
Regioni248 – 602355Phytoene synthaseAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

In the N-terminal section; belongs to the lycopene beta-cyclase family.Curated
In the C-terminal section; belongs to the phytoene/squalene synthase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1562.
InParanoidiP37295.
KOiK17841.
OrthoDBiEOG7RBZJ2.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR017825. Lycopene_cyclase_dom.
IPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
IPR008949. Terpenoid_synth.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR03462. CarR_dom_SF. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P37295-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MYDYAFVHLK FTVPAAVLLT AIAYPILNRI HLIQTGFLVV VAFTAALPWD
60 70 80 90 100
AYLIKHKVWS YPPEAIVGPR LLGIPFEELF FFVIQTYITA LVYILFNKPV
110 120 130 140 150
LHALHLNNQQ NPPAWMRVVK VTGQVVLVAL SVWGWNAAQV HQETSYLGLI
160 170 180 190 200
LVWACPFLLA IWTLAGRFIL SLPWYATVLP MFLPTFYLWA VDEFALHRGT
210 220 230 240 250
WSIGSGTKLD FCLFGKLDIE EATFFLVTNM LIVGGMAAFD QYLAVIYAFP
260 270 280 290 300
TLFPKVNRYP TTHMLLQSRL INTSRYDLER IEGLREAVER LRLKSRSFYL
310 320 330 340 350
ANSLFSGRLR IDLILLYSFC RLADDLVDDA KSRREVLSWT AKLNHFLDLH
360 370 380 390 400
YKDADATEDP KKKAERIDAY IKTAFPPCAY QALHLLPTHI LPPKPLYDLI
410 420 430 440 450
KGFEMDSQFT FHGTSDSTDL QYPIADDKDL ENYAIYVAGT VGELCIALII
460 470 480 490 500
YHCLPDMSDT QKRELETAAC RMGIALQYVN IARDIVVDAR IGRVYLPTTW
510 520 530 540 550
LKKEGLTHKM VLENPEGPEV IERMRRRLLE NAFELYGGAR PEMQRIPSEA
560 570 580 590 600
RGPMIGAVEN YMAIGRVLRE RKEGTVFVRM EGRATVPKRR RLSTLLRALY

EQ
Length:602
Mass (Da):68,928
Last modified:October 1, 1994 - v1
Checksum:iDDFFBD725007E5C2
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L27652 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA19428.1.
BX842641 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAE76609.1.
CM002236 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAA36489.3.
PIRiA53583.
RefSeqiXP_965725.2. XM_960632.2.
UniGeneiNcr.25908.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiEFNCRT00000000733; EFNCRP00000000733; EFNCRG00000000733.
GeneIDi3881954.
KEGGincr:NCU00585.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L27652 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA19428.1.
BX842641 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAE76609.1.
CM002236 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAA36489.3.
PIRiA53583.
RefSeqiXP_965725.2. XM_960632.2.
UniGeneiNcr.25908.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP37295.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi5141.NCU00585.1.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiEFNCRT00000000733; EFNCRP00000000733; EFNCRG00000000733.
GeneIDi3881954.
KEGGincr:NCU00585.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1562.
InParanoidiP37295.
KOiK17841.
OrthoDBiEOG7RBZJ2.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00799; UER00773.
UPA00802.
BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-16129.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR017825. Lycopene_cyclase_dom.
IPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
IPR008949. Terpenoid_synth.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR03462. CarR_dom_SF. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Characterization of al-2, the phytoene synthase gene of Neurospora crassa. Cloning, sequence analysis, and photoregulation."
    Schmidhauser T.J., Lauter F.-R., Schumacher M., Zhou W., Russo V.E.A., Yanofsky C.
    J. Biol. Chem. 269:12060-12066(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987.
  2. "What's in the genome of a filamentous fungus? Analysis of the Neurospora genome sequence."
    Mannhaupt G., Montrone C., Haase D., Mewes H.-W., Aign V., Hoheisel J.D., Fartmann B., Nyakatura G., Kempken F., Maier J., Schulte U.
    Nucleic Acids Res. 31:1944-1954(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987.
  3. "The genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa."
    Galagan J.E., Calvo S.E., Borkovich K.A., Selker E.U., Read N.D., Jaffe D.B., FitzHugh W., Ma L.-J., Smirnov S., Purcell S., Rehman B., Elkins T., Engels R., Wang S., Nielsen C.B., Butler J., Endrizzi M., Qui D.
    , Ianakiev P., Bell-Pedersen D., Nelson M.A., Werner-Washburne M., Selitrennikoff C.P., Kinsey J.A., Braun E.L., Zelter A., Schulte U., Kothe G.O., Jedd G., Mewes H.-W., Staben C., Marcotte E., Greenberg D., Roy A., Foley K., Naylor J., Stange-Thomann N., Barrett R., Gnerre S., Kamal M., Kamvysselis M., Mauceli E.W., Bielke C., Rudd S., Frishman D., Krystofova S., Rasmussen C., Metzenberg R.L., Perkins D.D., Kroken S., Cogoni C., Macino G., Catcheside D.E.A., Li W., Pratt R.J., Osmani S.A., DeSouza C.P.C., Glass N.L., Orbach M.J., Berglund J.A., Voelker R., Yarden O., Plamann M., Seiler S., Dunlap J.C., Radford A., Aramayo R., Natvig D.O., Alex L.A., Mannhaupt G., Ebbole D.J., Freitag M., Paulsen I., Sachs M.S., Lander E.S., Nusbaum C., Birren B.W.
    Nature 422:859-868(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987.
  4. "Mutants of the carotene cyclase domain of al-2 from Neurospora crassa."
    Arrach N., Schmidhauser T.J., Avalos J.
    Mol. Genet. Genomics 266:914-921(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF TRP-189 AND LYS-208.
    Strain: ATCC 24698 / 74-OR23-1A / CBS 708.71 / DSM 1257 / FGSC 987.
  5. "The biotechnological potential of the al-2 gene from Neurospora crassa for the production of monocyclic keto hydroxy carotenoids."
    Sandmann G., Zhu C., Krubasik P., Fraser P.D.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1761:1085-1092(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiLCPS_NEUCR
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P37295
Secondary accession number(s): Q7RVN3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1994
Last sequence update: October 1, 1994
Last modified: January 7, 2015
This is version 99 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Multifunctional enzyme, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.