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Protein

Bifunctional 15-cis-phytoene synthase, chromoplast

Gene

PSY1

Organism
Capsicum annuum (Bell pepper)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the two steps reaction converting geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene via prephytoene diphosphate.2 Publications1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate.1 Publication

Cofactori

Mn2+1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate and hydroxyphenylglyoxal.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.30 µM for geranylgeranyl diphosphate1 Publication
  2. KM=0.27 µM for prephytoene diphosphate1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 7.6.1 Publication

Pathwayi

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. carotenoid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Carotenoid biosynthesis, Isoprene biosynthesis

Enzyme and pathway databases

SABIO-RKP37272.
UniPathwayiUPA00799; UER00773.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Bifunctional 15-cis-phytoene synthase, chromoplast1 Publication (EC:2.5.1.321 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
Phytoene synthase1 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:PSY11 Publication
OrganismiCapsicum annuum (Bell pepper)
Taxonomic identifieri4072 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaeasteridslamiidsSolanalesSolanaceaeSolanoideaeCapsiceaeCapsicum

Subcellular locationi

Plastidchromoplast stroma 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. chloroplast Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  2. chromoplast stroma Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromoplast, Plastid

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 7474ChromoplastSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini75 – 419345Bifunctional 15-cis-phytoene synthase, chromoplastPRO_0000029853Add
BLAST

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in fruits, at lower levels in leaves.1 Publication

Developmental stagei

Expressed during ripening.1 Publication

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.1 Publication

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP37272.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the phytoene/squalene synthase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
IPR008949. Terpenoid_synth.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P37272-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSVALLWVVS PCDVSNGTGF LVSVREGNRI FDSSGRRNLA CNERIKRGGG
60 70 80 90 100
KQRWSFGSYL GGAQTGSGRK FSVRSAIVAT PAGEMTMSSE RMVYDVVLRQ
110 120 130 140 150
AALVKRQLRS TDELDVKKDI PIPGTLGLLS EAYDRCSEVC AEYAKTFYLG
160 170 180 190 200
TMLMTPERRK AIWAIYVWCR RTDELVDGPN ASHITPAALD RWEDRLEDVF
210 220 230 240 250
SGRPFDMLDA ALSDTVSKFP VDIQPFRDMI EGMRMDLRKS RYRNFDELYL
260 270 280 290 300
YCYYVAGTVG LMSVPIMGIA PESKATTESV YNAALALGIA NQLTNILRDV
310 320 330 340 350
GEDARRGRVY LPQDELAQAG LSDEDIFAGR VTDKWRIFMK KQIQRARKFF
360 370 380 390 400
DEAEKGVTEL SAASRWPVLA SLLLYRRILD EIEANDYNNF TKRAYVSKPK
410
KLIALPIAYA KSLVPSTRT
Length:419
Mass (Da):47,126
Last modified:October 1, 1994 - v1
Checksum:i9167953D6EA92982
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X68017 mRNA. Translation: CAA48155.1.
EU753855 mRNA. Translation: ACE78189.1.
GU085273 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04278.1.
GU085274 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04279.1.
GU085275 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04280.1.
GU085276 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04281.1.
GU085277 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04282.1.
GU085278 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04283.1.
GU085279 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04284.1.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X68017 mRNA. Translation: CAA48155.1.
EU753855 mRNA. Translation: ACE78189.1.
GU085273 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04278.1.
GU085274 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04279.1.
GU085275 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04280.1.
GU085276 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04281.1.
GU085277 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04282.1.
GU085278 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04283.1.
GU085279 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04284.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP37272.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00799; UER00773.
SABIO-RKP37272.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
IPR008949. Terpenoid_synth.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Expression of the genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Capsicum annuum."
    Roemer S., Hugueney P., Bouvier F., Camara B., Kuntz M.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196:1414-1421(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
    Strain: cv. Lamuyo.
  2. Hou Z.L., Chen X.W., Wang H.Z., Mou C.L., Chen D.F.
    Submitted (MAY-2008) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  3. "Variability of carotenoid biosynthesis in orange colored Capsicum spp."
    Guzman I., Hamby S., Romero J., Bosland P.W., O'Connell M.A.
    Plant Sci. 179:49-59(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION.
    Strain: cv. Canary, cv. Dove, cv. Fogo, cv. NuMex Sunset, cv. Orange Grande, cv. Oriole and cv. Valencia.
    Tissue: Fruit.
  4. "Carotenoid biosynthesis: Isolation and characterization of a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of phytoene."
    Dogbo O., Laferriere A., D'Harlingue A., Camara B.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:7054-7058(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, COFACTOR, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, SUBUNIT.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPSY_CAPAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P37272
Secondary accession number(s): B3VKF0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1994
Last sequence update: October 1, 1994
Last modified: March 4, 2015
This is version 72 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

While the color of orange fruits is due either to the accumulation of beta-carotene, or due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids, all peppers studied have a wild type PSY1 enzyme.1 Publication

Keywords - Technical termi

Multifunctional enzyme

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.