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Protein

Bifunctional 15-cis-phytoene synthase, chromoplast

Gene

PSY1

Organism
Capsicum annuum (Bell pepper)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the two steps reaction converting geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene via prephytoene diphosphate.1 Publication2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate.1 Publication

Cofactori

Mn2+1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate and hydroxyphenylglyoxal.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.30 µM for geranylgeranyl diphosphate1 Publication
  2. KM=0.27 µM for prephytoene diphosphate1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 7.6.1 Publication

    Pathway: phytoene biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes all-trans-phytoene from geranylgeranyl diphosphate.Curated
    Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Bifunctional 15-cis-phytoene synthase, chromoplast (PSY1)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway phytoene biosynthesis, which is itself part of Carotenoid biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes all-trans-phytoene from geranylgeranyl diphosphate, the pathway phytoene biosynthesis and in Carotenoid biosynthesis.

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    • carotenoid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Transferase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Carotenoid biosynthesis, Isoprene biosynthesis

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    SABIO-RKP37272.
    UniPathwayiUPA00799; UER00773.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Bifunctional 15-cis-phytoene synthase, chromoplast1 Publication (EC:2.5.1.321 Publication)
    Alternative name(s):
    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
    Phytoene synthase1 Publication
    Gene namesi
    Name:PSY11 Publication
    OrganismiCapsicum annuum (Bell pepper)
    Taxonomic identifieri4072 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaeasteridslamiidsSolanalesSolanaceaeSolanoideaeCapsiceaeCapsicum

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • chromoplast stroma Source: UniProtKB
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Chromoplast, Plastid

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Transit peptidei1 – 7474ChromoplastSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini75 – 419345Bifunctional 15-cis-phytoene synthase, chromoplastPRO_0000029853Add
    BLAST

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Expressed in fruits, at lower levels in leaves.1 Publication

    Developmental stagei

    Expressed during ripening.1 Publication

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Monomer.1 Publication

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP37272.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the phytoene/squalene synthase family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Transit peptide

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR008949. Isoprenoid_synthase_dom.
    IPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
    IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
    PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P37272-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MSVALLWVVS PCDVSNGTGF LVSVREGNRI FDSSGRRNLA CNERIKRGGG
    60 70 80 90 100
    KQRWSFGSYL GGAQTGSGRK FSVRSAIVAT PAGEMTMSSE RMVYDVVLRQ
    110 120 130 140 150
    AALVKRQLRS TDELDVKKDI PIPGTLGLLS EAYDRCSEVC AEYAKTFYLG
    160 170 180 190 200
    TMLMTPERRK AIWAIYVWCR RTDELVDGPN ASHITPAALD RWEDRLEDVF
    210 220 230 240 250
    SGRPFDMLDA ALSDTVSKFP VDIQPFRDMI EGMRMDLRKS RYRNFDELYL
    260 270 280 290 300
    YCYYVAGTVG LMSVPIMGIA PESKATTESV YNAALALGIA NQLTNILRDV
    310 320 330 340 350
    GEDARRGRVY LPQDELAQAG LSDEDIFAGR VTDKWRIFMK KQIQRARKFF
    360 370 380 390 400
    DEAEKGVTEL SAASRWPVLA SLLLYRRILD EIEANDYNNF TKRAYVSKPK
    410
    KLIALPIAYA KSLVPSTRT
    Length:419
    Mass (Da):47,126
    Last modified:October 1, 1994 - v1
    Checksum:i9167953D6EA92982
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    X68017 mRNA. Translation: CAA48155.1.
    EU753855 mRNA. Translation: ACE78189.1.
    GU085273 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04278.1.
    GU085274 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04279.1.
    GU085275 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04280.1.
    GU085276 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04281.1.
    GU085277 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04282.1.
    GU085278 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04283.1.
    GU085279 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04284.1.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    X68017 mRNA. Translation: CAA48155.1.
    EU753855 mRNA. Translation: ACE78189.1.
    GU085273 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04278.1.
    GU085274 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04279.1.
    GU085275 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04280.1.
    GU085276 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04281.1.
    GU085277 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04282.1.
    GU085278 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04283.1.
    GU085279 Genomic DNA. Translation: ADH04284.1.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP37272.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00799; UER00773.
    SABIO-RKP37272.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR008949. Isoprenoid_synthase_dom.
    IPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
    IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
    PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Expression of the genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Capsicum annuum."
      Roemer S., Hugueney P., Bouvier F., Camara B., Kuntz M.
      Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196:1414-1421(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
      Strain: cv. Lamuyo.
    2. Hou Z.L., Chen X.W., Wang H.Z., Mou C.L., Chen D.F.
      Submitted (MAY-2008) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    3. "Variability of carotenoid biosynthesis in orange colored Capsicum spp."
      Guzman I., Hamby S., Romero J., Bosland P.W., O'Connell M.A.
      Plant Sci. 179:49-59(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION.
      Strain: cv. Canary, cv. Dove, cv. Fogo, cv. NuMex Sunset, cv. Orange Grande, cv. Oriole and cv. Valencia.
      Tissue: Fruit.
    4. "Carotenoid biosynthesis: Isolation and characterization of a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of phytoene."
      Dogbo O., Laferriere A., D'Harlingue A., Camara B.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:7054-7058(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, COFACTOR, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, SUBUNIT.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiPSY_CAPAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P37272
    Secondary accession number(s): B3VKF0
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1994
    Last sequence update: October 1, 1994
    Last modified: April 29, 2015
    This is version 74 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Miscellaneous

    While the color of orange fruits is due either to the accumulation of beta-carotene, or due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids, all peppers studied have a wild type PSY1 enzyme.1 Publication

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Multifunctional enzyme

    Documents

    1. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.