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Protein

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1

Gene

PAL1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

This is a key enzyme of plant metabolism catalyzing the first reaction in the biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine of a wide variety of natural products based on the phenylpropane skeleton.

Catalytic activityi

L-phenylalanine = trans-cinnamate + ammonia.

Kineticsi

  1. KM=68 µM for L-phenylalanine1 Publication
  1. Vmax=5.5 µmol/sec/mg enzyme1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8.4-9.2.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 46-48 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

Pathwayi: trans-cinnamate biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine.
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 3 (PAL3), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At3g10120), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (At3g53260), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At2g33820), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At5g03600), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 4 (PAL4), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At3g47660), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL3)
This subpathway is part of the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis, which is itself part of Phenylpropanoid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine, the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis and in Phenylpropanoid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei117Proton donor/acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei363SubstrateBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • cinnamic acid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
  • drought recovery Source: TAIR
  • lignin catabolic process Source: TAIR
  • L-phenylalanine catabolic process Source: InterPro
  • pollen development Source: TAIR
  • response to karrikin Source: TAIR
  • response to oxidative stress Source: TAIR
  • response to UV-B Source: TAIR
  • salicylic acid catabolic process Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Lyase

Keywords - Biological processi

Phenylpropanoid metabolism

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi4.3.1.24. 399.
ReactomeiR-ATH-70921. Histidine catabolism.
SABIO-RKP35510.
UniPathwayiUPA00713; UER00725.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (EC:4.3.1.24)
Gene namesi
Name:PAL1
Ordered Locus Names:At2g37040
ORF Names:T1J8.22
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT2G37040.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002153821 – 725Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1Add BLAST725

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Cross-linki211 ↔ 2135-imidazolinone (Ala-Gly)By similarity
Modified residuei2122,3-didehydroalanine (Ser)PROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Post-translational modificationi

Contains an active site 4-methylidene-imidazol-5-one (MIO), which is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of residues Ala-Ser-Gly.By similarity

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP35510.
PRIDEiP35510.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP35510.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP35510. AT.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi3624. 9 interactors.
IntActiP35510. 4 interactors.
STRINGi3702.AT2G37040.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP35510.
SMRiP35510.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the PAL/histidase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0222. Eukaryota.
COG2986. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000214384.
InParanoidiP35510.
KOiK10775.
OMAiRINECRS.
OrthoDBiEOG093603B9.
PhylomeDBiP35510.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00332. PAL-HAL. 1 hit.
Gene3Di1.10.274.20. 1 hit.
1.10.275.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001106. Aromatic_Lyase.
IPR024083. Fumarase/histidase_N.
IPR008948. L-Aspartase-like.
IPR022313. Phe/His_NH3-lyase_AS.
IPR005922. Phe_NH3-lyase.
IPR023144. Phe_NH3-lyase_shielding_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00221. Lyase_aromatic. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48557. SSF48557. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01226. phe_am_lyase. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00488. PAL_HISTIDASE. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P35510-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEINGAHKSN GGGVDAMLCG GDIKTKNMVI NAEDPLNWGA AAEQMKGSHL
60 70 80 90 100
DEVKRMVAEF RKPVVNLGGE TLTIGQVAAI STIGNSVKVE LSETARAGVN
110 120 130 140 150
ASSDWVMESM NKGTDSYGVT TGFGATSHRR TKNGVALQKE LIRFLNAGIF
160 170 180 190 200
GSTKETSHTL PHSATRAAML VRINTLLQGF SGIRFEILEA ITSFLNNNIT
210 220 230 240 250
PSLPLRGTIT ASGDLVPLSY IAGLLTGRPN SKATGPNGEA LTAEEAFKLA
260 270 280 290 300
GISSGFFDLQ PKEGLALVNG TAVGSGMASM VLFETNVLSV LAEILSAVFA
310 320 330 340 350
EVMSGKPEFT DHLTHRLKHH PGQIEAAAIM EHILDGSSYM KLAQKLHEMD
360 370 380 390 400
PLQKPKQDRY ALRTSPQWLG PQIEVIRYAT KSIEREINSV NDNPLIDVSR
410 420 430 440 450
NKAIHGGNFQ GTPIGVSMDN TRLAIAAIGK LMFAQFSELV NDFYNNGLPS
460 470 480 490 500
NLTASRNPSL DYGFKGAEIA MASYCSELQY LANPVTSHVQ SAEQHNQDVN
510 520 530 540 550
SLGLISSRKT SEAVDILKLM STTFLVAICQ AVDLRHLEEN LRQTVKNTVS
560 570 580 590 600
QVAKKVLTTG VNGELHPSRF CEKDLLKVVD REQVYTYADD PCSATYPLIQ
610 620 630 640 650
KLRQVIVDHA LINGESEKNA VTSIFHKIGA FEEELKAVLP KEVEAARAAY
660 670 680 690 700
DNGTSAIPNR IKECRSYPLY RFVREELGTE LLTGEKVTSP GEEFDKVFTA
710 720
ICEGKIIDPM MECLNEWNGA PIPIC
Length:725
Mass (Da):78,726
Last modified:September 27, 2005 - v3
Checksum:i02626B3B2DEFE9CE
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti329I → V in AAC18870 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1
Sequence conflicti426A → R in AAC18870 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1
Sequence conflicti612I → V in AAC18870 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L33677 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC18870.1.
AY303128 mRNA. Translation: AAP59438.1.
AC006922 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM15324.1.
CP002685 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEC09341.1.
AY045919 mRNA. Translation: AAK76593.1.
AY079363 mRNA. Translation: AAL85094.1.
BT003330 mRNA. Translation: AAO29949.1.
X62747 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA44609.1.
PIRiG84787.
S52990.
RefSeqiNP_181241.1. NM_129260.3.
UniGeneiAt.21614.
At.22705.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.
GeneIDi818280.
GrameneiAT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.
KEGGiath:AT2G37040.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L33677 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC18870.1.
AY303128 mRNA. Translation: AAP59438.1.
AC006922 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM15324.1.
CP002685 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEC09341.1.
AY045919 mRNA. Translation: AAK76593.1.
AY079363 mRNA. Translation: AAL85094.1.
BT003330 mRNA. Translation: AAO29949.1.
X62747 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA44609.1.
PIRiG84787.
S52990.
RefSeqiNP_181241.1. NM_129260.3.
UniGeneiAt.21614.
At.22705.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP35510.
SMRiP35510.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi3624. 9 interactors.
IntActiP35510. 4 interactors.
STRINGi3702.AT2G37040.1.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP35510.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP35510.
PRIDEiP35510.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.
GeneIDi818280.
GrameneiAT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.
KEGGiath:AT2G37040.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT2G37040.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0222. Eukaryota.
COG2986. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000214384.
InParanoidiP35510.
KOiK10775.
OMAiRINECRS.
OrthoDBiEOG093603B9.
PhylomeDBiP35510.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00713; UER00725.
BRENDAi4.3.1.24. 399.
ReactomeiR-ATH-70921. Histidine catabolism.
SABIO-RKP35510.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP35510.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP35510. AT.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00332. PAL-HAL. 1 hit.
Gene3Di1.10.274.20. 1 hit.
1.10.275.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001106. Aromatic_Lyase.
IPR024083. Fumarase/histidase_N.
IPR008948. L-Aspartase-like.
IPR022313. Phe/His_NH3-lyase_AS.
IPR005922. Phe_NH3-lyase.
IPR023144. Phe_NH3-lyase_shielding_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00221. Lyase_aromatic. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48557. SSF48557. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01226. phe_am_lyase. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00488. PAL_HISTIDASE. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPAL1_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P35510
Secondary accession number(s): Q94AN1, Q9ZQD6
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 1, 1994
Last sequence update: September 27, 2005
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 138 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.