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Protein

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1

Gene

PAL1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

This is a key enzyme of plant metabolism catalyzing the first reaction in the biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine of a wide variety of natural products based on the phenylpropane skeleton.

Catalytic activityi

L-phenylalanine = trans-cinnamate + ammonia.

Kineticsi

  1. KM=68 µM for L-phenylalanine1 Publication
  1. Vmax=5.5 µmol/sec/mg enzyme1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8.4-9.2.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 46-48 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

Pathwayi: trans-cinnamate biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine.
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 3 (PAL3), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At3g10120), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (At3g53260), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At5g03600), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At2g33820), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 4 (PAL4), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At3g47660), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL3)
This subpathway is part of the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis, which is itself part of Phenylpropanoid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine, the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis and in Phenylpropanoid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei117Proton donor/acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei363SubstrateBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • cinnamic acid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
  • drought recovery Source: TAIR
  • lignin catabolic process Source: TAIR
  • L-phenylalanine catabolic process Source: InterPro
  • pollen development Source: TAIR
  • response to karrikin Source: TAIR
  • response to oxidative stress Source: TAIR
  • response to UV-B Source: TAIR
  • salicylic acid catabolic process Source: TAIR

Keywordsi

Molecular functionLyase
Biological processPhenylpropanoid metabolism

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi4.3.1.24 399
ReactomeiR-ATH-70921 Histidine catabolism
SABIO-RKiP35510
UniPathwayiUPA00713; UER00725

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (EC:4.3.1.24)
Gene namesi
Name:PAL1
Ordered Locus Names:At2g37040
ORF Names:T1J8.22
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT2G37040
TAIRilocus:2057981 AT2G37040

Subcellular locationi

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002153821 – 725Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1Add BLAST725

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Cross-linki211 ↔ 2135-imidazolinone (Ala-Gly)By similarity
Modified residuei2122,3-didehydroalanine (Ser)PROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Post-translational modificationi

Contains an active site 4-methylidene-imidazol-5-one (MIO), which is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of residues Ala-Ser-Gly.By similarity

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP35510
PRIDEiP35510

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP35510

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP35510 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP35510 AT

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi3624, 9 interactors
IntActiP35510, 4 interactors
STRINGi3702.AT2G37040.1

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP35510
SMRiP35510
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the PAL/histidase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0222 Eukaryota
COG2986 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000214384
InParanoidiP35510
KOiK10775
OMAiRCVPQIL
OrthoDBiEOG093603B9
PhylomeDBiP35510

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00332 PAL-HAL, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.274.20, 1 hit
1.10.275.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001106 Aromatic_Lyase
IPR024083 Fumarase/histidase_N
IPR008948 L-Aspartase-like
IPR022313 Phe/His_NH3-lyase_AS
IPR005922 Phe_NH3-lyase
IPR023144 Phe_NH3-lyase_shielding_dom_sf
PANTHERiPTHR10362 PTHR10362, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00221 Lyase_aromatic, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF48557 SSF48557, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01226 phe_am_lyase, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00488 PAL_HISTIDASE, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P35510-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEINGAHKSN GGGVDAMLCG GDIKTKNMVI NAEDPLNWGA AAEQMKGSHL
60 70 80 90 100
DEVKRMVAEF RKPVVNLGGE TLTIGQVAAI STIGNSVKVE LSETARAGVN
110 120 130 140 150
ASSDWVMESM NKGTDSYGVT TGFGATSHRR TKNGVALQKE LIRFLNAGIF
160 170 180 190 200
GSTKETSHTL PHSATRAAML VRINTLLQGF SGIRFEILEA ITSFLNNNIT
210 220 230 240 250
PSLPLRGTIT ASGDLVPLSY IAGLLTGRPN SKATGPNGEA LTAEEAFKLA
260 270 280 290 300
GISSGFFDLQ PKEGLALVNG TAVGSGMASM VLFETNVLSV LAEILSAVFA
310 320 330 340 350
EVMSGKPEFT DHLTHRLKHH PGQIEAAAIM EHILDGSSYM KLAQKLHEMD
360 370 380 390 400
PLQKPKQDRY ALRTSPQWLG PQIEVIRYAT KSIEREINSV NDNPLIDVSR
410 420 430 440 450
NKAIHGGNFQ GTPIGVSMDN TRLAIAAIGK LMFAQFSELV NDFYNNGLPS
460 470 480 490 500
NLTASRNPSL DYGFKGAEIA MASYCSELQY LANPVTSHVQ SAEQHNQDVN
510 520 530 540 550
SLGLISSRKT SEAVDILKLM STTFLVAICQ AVDLRHLEEN LRQTVKNTVS
560 570 580 590 600
QVAKKVLTTG VNGELHPSRF CEKDLLKVVD REQVYTYADD PCSATYPLIQ
610 620 630 640 650
KLRQVIVDHA LINGESEKNA VTSIFHKIGA FEEELKAVLP KEVEAARAAY
660 670 680 690 700
DNGTSAIPNR IKECRSYPLY RFVREELGTE LLTGEKVTSP GEEFDKVFTA
710 720
ICEGKIIDPM MECLNEWNGA PIPIC
Length:725
Mass (Da):78,726
Last modified:September 27, 2005 - v3
Checksum:i02626B3B2DEFE9CE
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti329I → V in AAC18870 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1
Sequence conflicti426A → R in AAC18870 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1
Sequence conflicti612I → V in AAC18870 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L33677 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC18870.1
AY303128 mRNA Translation: AAP59438.1
AC006922 Genomic DNA Translation: AAM15324.1
CP002685 Genomic DNA Translation: AEC09341.1
AY045919 mRNA Translation: AAK76593.1
AY079363 mRNA Translation: AAL85094.1
BT003330 mRNA Translation: AAO29949.1
X62747 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA44609.1
PIRiG84787
S52990
RefSeqiNP_181241.1, NM_129260.3
UniGeneiAt.21614
At.22705

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.1; AT2G37040
GeneIDi818280
GrameneiAT2G37040.1; AT2G37040.1; AT2G37040
KEGGiath:AT2G37040

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPAL1_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P35510
Secondary accession number(s): Q94AN1, Q9ZQD6
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 1, 1994
Last sequence update: September 27, 2005
Last modified: April 25, 2018
This is version 145 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health