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P34810 (CD68_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 130. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (6) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Macrosialin
Alternative name(s):
Gp110
CD_antigen=CD68
Gene names
Name:CD68
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length354 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Could play a role in phagocytic activities of tissue macrophages, both in intracellular lysosomal metabolism and extracellular cell-cell and cell-pathogen interactions. Binds to tissue- and organ-specific lectins or selectins, allowing homing of macrophage subsets to particular sites. Rapid recirculation of CD68 from endosomes and lysosomes to the plasma membrane may allow macrophages to crawl over selectin-bearing substrates or other cells.

Subcellular location

Isoform Short: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Isoform Long: Endosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Lysosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Tissue specificity

Highly expressed by blood monocytes and tissue macrophages. Also expressed in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Expressed in many tumor cell lines which could allow them to attach to selectins on vascular endothelium, facilitating their dissemination to secondary sites. Ref.12

Post-translational modification

N- and O-glycosylated.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the LAMP family.

Caution

CD68 is a commonly used marker for macrophages. However, a number of studies (Ref.9, Ref.10 and Ref.12) have shown that CD68 antibodies react with other hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types, suggesting that CD68 may not be a macrophage-specific antigen.

Alternative products

This entry describes 3 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform Long (identifier: P34810-1)

Also known as: CD68.1;

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform Short (identifier: P34810-2)

Also known as: CD68.2;

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     17-43: Missing.
     83-112: Missing.
Isoform 3 (identifier: P34810-3)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     17-43: Missing.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2121 Potential
Chain22 – 354333Macrosialin
PRO_0000017102

Regions

Topological domain22 – 319298Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane320 – 34425Helical; Potential
Topological domain345 – 35410Cytoplasmic Potential
Repeat70 – 99301
Repeat100 – 129302
Region23 – 140118Mucin-like
Region70 – 129602 X 30 AA tandem repeats
Compositional bias140 – 15213Pro-rich (hinge)

Amino acid modifications

Glycosylation881N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation961N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation1181N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation1261N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation1641N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation1991N-linked (GlcNAc...) Ref.13
Glycosylation2461N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation2611N-linked (GlcNAc...) Ref.11 Ref.13
Glycosylation2791N-linked (GlcNAc...) Ref.13
Disulfide bond169 ↔ 207 By similarity
Disulfide bond277 ↔ 314 By similarity

Natural variations

Alternative sequence17 – 4327Missing in isoform Short and isoform 3.
VSP_003041
Alternative sequence83 – 11230Missing in isoform Short.
VSP_003042
Natural variant2541Q → K. Ref.1
Corresponds to variant rs25679 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_016144
Natural variant3291I → T.
Corresponds to variant rs35452170 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_049725
Natural variant3401A → T.
Corresponds to variant rs17607 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_016145
Natural variant3501A → T.
Corresponds to variant rs9901675 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_049726

Experimental info

Sequence conflict951S → G in BAD96234. Ref.4

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform Long (CD68.1) [UniParc].

Last modified May 15, 2007. Version 2.
Checksum: 69E68D69EDE8EFB0

FASTA35437,408
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MRLAVLFSGA LLGLLAAQGT GNDCPHKKSA TLLPSFTVTP TVTESTGTTS HRTTKSHKTT 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
THRTTTTGTT SHGPTTATHN PTTTSHGNVT VHPTSNSTAT SQGPSTATHS PATTSHGNAT 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
VHPTSNSTAT SPGFTSSAHP EPPPPSPSPS PTSKETIGDY TWTNGSQPCV HLQAQIQIRV 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
MYTTQGGGEA WGISVLNPNK TKVQGSCEGA HPHLLLSFPY GHLSFGFMQD LQQKVVYLSY 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
MAVEYNVSFP HAAQWTFSAQ NASLRDLQAP LGQSFSCSNS SIILSPAVHL DLLSLRLQAA 

       310        320        330        340        350 
QLPHTGVFGQ SFSCPSDRSI LLPLIIGLIL LGLLALVLIA FCIIRRRPSA YQAL 

« Hide

Isoform Short (CD68.2) [UniParc].

Checksum: B0A78BF5F01BC0B0
Show »

FASTA29731,738
Isoform 3 [UniParc].

Checksum: 8AD19346F7827330
Show »

FASTA32734,654

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Molecular cloning of CD68, a human macrophage marker related to lysosomal glycoproteins."
Holness C.L., Simmons D.L.
Blood 81:1607-1613(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS LONG AND SHORT), VARIANT LYS-254.
[2]"Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
Submitted (JUL-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG).
[3]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS LONG AND 3).
Tissue: Spleen and Umbilical cord blood.
[4]Suzuki Y., Sugano S., Totoki Y., Toyoda A., Takeda T., Sakaki Y., Tanaka A., Yokoyama S.
Submitted (APR-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG).
Tissue: Adipose tissue.
[5]"DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage."
Zody M.C., Garber M., Adams D.J., Sharpe T., Harrow J., Lupski J.R., Nicholson C., Searle S.M., Wilming L., Young S.K., Abouelleil A., Allen N.R., Bi W., Bloom T., Borowsky M.L., Bugalter B.E., Butler J., Chang J.L. expand/collapse author list , Chen C.-K., Cook A., Corum B., Cuomo C.A., de Jong P.J., DeCaprio D., Dewar K., FitzGerald M., Gilbert J., Gibson R., Gnerre S., Goldstein S., Grafham D.V., Grocock R., Hafez N., Hagopian D.S., Hart E., Norman C.H., Humphray S., Jaffe D.B., Jones M., Kamal M., Khodiyar V.K., LaButti K., Laird G., Lehoczky J., Liu X., Lokyitsang T., Loveland J., Lui A., Macdonald P., Major J.E., Matthews L., Mauceli E., McCarroll S.A., Mihalev A.H., Mudge J., Nguyen C., Nicol R., O'Leary S.B., Osoegawa K., Schwartz D.C., Shaw-Smith C., Stankiewicz P., Steward C., Swarbreck D., Venkataraman V., Whittaker C.A., Yang X., Zimmer A.R., Bradley A., Hubbard T., Birren B.W., Rogers J., Lander E.S., Nusbaum C.
Nature 440:1045-1049(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[6]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (SEP-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[7]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG).
Tissue: Skin.
[8]"The linked human elongation initiation factor 4A1 (EIF4A1) and CD68 genes map to chromosome 17p13."
Jones E., Quinn C.M., See C.G., Montgomery D.S., Ford M.J., Koelble K., Gordon S., Greaves D.R.
Genomics 53:248-250(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-28.
[9]"Macrophage specificity of three anti-CD68 monoclonal antibodies (KP1, EBM11, and PGM1) widely used for immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry."
Kunisch E., Fuhrmann R., Roth A., Winter R., Lungershausen W., Kinne R.W.
Ann. Rheum. Dis. 63:774-784(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: USE AS A MACROPHAGE MARKER.
[10]"CD68 is not a macrophage-specific antigen."
Beranek J.T.
Ann. Rheum. Dis. 64:342-343(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: USE AS A MACROPHAGE MARKER.
[11]"Elucidation of N-glycosylation sites on human platelet proteins: a glycoproteomic approach."
Lewandrowski U., Moebius J., Walter U., Sickmann A.
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 5:226-233(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ASN-261.
Tissue: Platelet.
[12]"Expression of CD68 in non-myeloid cell types."
Gottfried E., Kunz-Schughart L.A., Weber A., Rehli M., Peuker A., Muller A., Kastenberger M., Brockhoff G., Andreesen R., Kreutz M.
Scand. J. Immunol. 67:453-463(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[13]"Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry."
Chen R., Jiang X., Sun D., Han G., Wang F., Ye M., Wang L., Zou H.
J. Proteome Res. 8:651-661(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ASN-199; ASN-261 AND ASN-279.
Tissue: Liver.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
S57235 mRNA. Translation: AAB25811.1.
BT009923 mRNA. Translation: AAP88925.1.
AK290238 mRNA. Translation: BAF82927.1.
AK222492 mRNA. Translation: BAD96212.1.
AK222514 mRNA. Translation: BAD96234.1.
AK301223 mRNA. Translation: BAG62796.1.
AC016876 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471108 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW90165.1.
BC015557 mRNA. Translation: AAH15557.1.
AF060540 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC70006.1.
CCDSCCDS11114.1. [P34810-1]
CCDS58512.1. [P34810-3]
PIRA48931.
RefSeqNP_001035148.1. NM_001040059.1. [P34810-3]
NP_001242.2. NM_001251.2. [P34810-1]
UniGeneHs.647419.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP34810.
SMRP34810. Positions 156-316.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid107406. 1 interaction.
IntActP34810. 3 interactions.
MINTMINT-4824093.
STRING9606.ENSP00000250092.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteP34810.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM147744552.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBP34810.
PaxDbP34810.
PRIDEP34810.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU968.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000250092; ENSP00000250092; ENSG00000129226. [P34810-1]
ENST00000380498; ENSP00000369867; ENSG00000129226. [P34810-3]
GeneID968.
KEGGhsa:968.
UCSCuc002ghv.3. human. [P34810-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTD968.
GeneCardsGC17P007482.
HGNCHGNC:1693. CD68.
HPACAB000051.
CAB000066.
HPA048982.
MIM153634. gene.
neXtProtNX_P34810.
PharmGKBPA26232.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG244352.
HOGENOMHOG000070034.
HOVERGENHBG005287.
InParanoidP34810.
KOK06501.
OMAGNDCPHK.
OrthoDBEOG7ZD1VH.
PhylomeDBP34810.
TreeFamTF316339.

Gene expression databases

BgeeP34810.
CleanExHS_CD68.
GenevestigatorP34810.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR018134. LAMP_CS.
IPR002000. Lysosome-assoc_membr_glycop.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR11506. PTHR11506. 1 hit.
PfamPF01299. Lamp. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR00336. LYSASSOCTDMP.
PROSITEPS00311. LAMP_2. 1 hit.
PS51407. LAMP_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSCD68. human.
GenomeRNAi968.
NextBio4050.
PROP34810.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameCD68_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P34810
Secondary accession number(s): B4DVT4 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q53HR6, Q53XI3, Q96BI7
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1994
Last sequence update: May 15, 2007
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 130 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 17

Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM

Human cell differentiation molecules

CD nomenclature of surface proteins of human leucocytes and list of entries