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Protein

Macrosialin

Gene

CD68

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Could play a role in phagocytic activities of tissue macrophages, both in intracellular lysosomal metabolism and extracellular cell-cell and cell-pathogen interactions. Binds to tissue- and organ-specific lectins or selectins, allowing homing of macrophage subsets to particular sites. Rapid recirculation of CD68 from endosomes and lysosomes to the plasma membrane may allow macrophages to crawl over selectin-bearing substrates or other cells.

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000129226-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-6798695. Neutrophil degranulation.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Macrosialin
Alternative name(s):
Gp110
CD_antigen: CD68
Gene namesi
Name:CD68
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:1693. CD68.

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Topological domaini22 – 319ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST298
Transmembranei320 – 344HelicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST25
Topological domaini345 – 354CytoplasmicPROSITE-ProRule annotation10

GO - Cellular componenti

  • endosome membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • integral component of membrane Source: ProtInc
  • lysosomal membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • membrane Source: ProtInc
  • plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Endosome, Lysosome, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi968.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000129226.
PharmGKBiPA26232.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCD68.
DMDMi147744552.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 21Sequence analysisAdd BLAST21
ChainiPRO_000001710222 – 354MacrosialinAdd BLAST333

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi88N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi96N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi118N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi126N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi164N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi169 ↔ 207PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Glycosylationi199N-linked (GlcNAc...)1 Publication1
Glycosylationi246N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi261N-linked (GlcNAc...)2 Publications1
Disulfide bondi277 ↔ 314PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Glycosylationi279N-linked (GlcNAc...)1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

N- and O-glycosylated.2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP34810.
PaxDbiP34810.
PeptideAtlasiP34810.
PRIDEiP34810.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP34810.
PhosphoSitePlusiP34810.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed by blood monocytes and tissue macrophages. Also expressed in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Expressed in many tumor cell lines which could allow them to attach to selectins on vascular endothelium, facilitating their dissemination to secondary sites.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000129226.
CleanExiHS_CD68.
ExpressionAtlasiP34810. baseline and differential.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000051.
CAB000066.
CAB072861.
CAB072862.
HPA048982.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107406. 15 interactors.
IntActiP34810. 3 interactors.
MINTiMINT-4824093.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000250092.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP34810.
SMRiP34810.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Repeati70 – 991Add BLAST30
Repeati100 – 1292Add BLAST30

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni23 – 140Mucin-likeAdd BLAST118
Regioni70 – 1292 X 30 AA tandem repeatsAdd BLAST60

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi140 – 152Pro-rich (hinge)Add BLAST13

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the LAMP family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG4818. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQ96. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063068.
HOGENOMiHOG000070034.
HOVERGENiHBG005287.
InParanoidiP34810.
KOiK06501.
OMAiGNDCPHK.
OrthoDBiEOG091G09EV.
PhylomeDBiP34810.
TreeFamiTF316339.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR018134. LAMP_CS.
IPR002000. Lysosome-assoc_membr_glycop.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11506. PTHR11506. 2 hits.
PfamiPF01299. Lamp. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00336. LYSASSOCTDMP.
PROSITEiPS00311. LAMP_2. 1 hit.
PS51407. LAMP_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (3)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform Long (identifier: P34810-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: CD68.1

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRLAVLFSGA LLGLLAAQGT GNDCPHKKSA TLLPSFTVTP TVTESTGTTS
60 70 80 90 100
HRTTKSHKTT THRTTTTGTT SHGPTTATHN PTTTSHGNVT VHPTSNSTAT
110 120 130 140 150
SQGPSTATHS PATTSHGNAT VHPTSNSTAT SPGFTSSAHP EPPPPSPSPS
160 170 180 190 200
PTSKETIGDY TWTNGSQPCV HLQAQIQIRV MYTTQGGGEA WGISVLNPNK
210 220 230 240 250
TKVQGSCEGA HPHLLLSFPY GHLSFGFMQD LQQKVVYLSY MAVEYNVSFP
260 270 280 290 300
HAAQWTFSAQ NASLRDLQAP LGQSFSCSNS SIILSPAVHL DLLSLRLQAA
310 320 330 340 350
QLPHTGVFGQ SFSCPSDRSI LLPLIIGLIL LGLLALVLIA FCIIRRRPSA

YQAL
Length:354
Mass (Da):37,408
Last modified:May 15, 2007 - v2
Checksum:i69E68D69EDE8EFB0
GO
Isoform Short (identifier: P34810-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: CD68.2

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     17-43: Missing.
     83-112: Missing.

Show »
Length:297
Mass (Da):31,738
Checksum:iB0A78BF5F01BC0B0
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: P34810-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     17-43: Missing.

Show »
Length:327
Mass (Da):34,654
Checksum:i8AD19346F7827330
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti95S → G in BAD96234 (Ref. 4) Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_016144254Q → K.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs25679dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_049725329I → T.Corresponds to variant rs35452170dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_016145340A → T.Corresponds to variant rs17607dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_049726350A → T.Corresponds to variant rs9901675dbSNPEnsembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00304117 – 43Missing in isoform Short and isoform 3. 2 PublicationsAdd BLAST27
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00304283 – 112Missing in isoform Short. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST30

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S57235 mRNA. Translation: AAB25811.1.
BT009923 mRNA. Translation: AAP88925.1.
AK290238 mRNA. Translation: BAF82927.1.
AK222492 mRNA. Translation: BAD96212.1.
AK222514 mRNA. Translation: BAD96234.1.
AK301223 mRNA. Translation: BAG62796.1.
AC016876 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471108 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW90165.1.
BC015557 mRNA. Translation: AAH15557.1.
AF060540 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC70006.1.
CCDSiCCDS11114.1. [P34810-1]
CCDS58512.1. [P34810-3]
PIRiA48931.
RefSeqiNP_001035148.1. NM_001040059.1. [P34810-3]
NP_001242.2. NM_001251.2. [P34810-1]
UniGeneiHs.647419.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000250092; ENSP00000250092; ENSG00000129226. [P34810-1]
ENST00000380498; ENSP00000369867; ENSG00000129226. [P34810-3]
GeneIDi968.
KEGGihsa:968.
UCSCiuc002ghu.4. human. [P34810-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S57235 mRNA. Translation: AAB25811.1.
BT009923 mRNA. Translation: AAP88925.1.
AK290238 mRNA. Translation: BAF82927.1.
AK222492 mRNA. Translation: BAD96212.1.
AK222514 mRNA. Translation: BAD96234.1.
AK301223 mRNA. Translation: BAG62796.1.
AC016876 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471108 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW90165.1.
BC015557 mRNA. Translation: AAH15557.1.
AF060540 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC70006.1.
CCDSiCCDS11114.1. [P34810-1]
CCDS58512.1. [P34810-3]
PIRiA48931.
RefSeqiNP_001035148.1. NM_001040059.1. [P34810-3]
NP_001242.2. NM_001251.2. [P34810-1]
UniGeneiHs.647419.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP34810.
SMRiP34810.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107406. 15 interactors.
IntActiP34810. 3 interactors.
MINTiMINT-4824093.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000250092.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP34810.
PhosphoSitePlusiP34810.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCD68.
DMDMi147744552.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP34810.
PaxDbiP34810.
PeptideAtlasiP34810.
PRIDEiP34810.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi968.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000250092; ENSP00000250092; ENSG00000129226. [P34810-1]
ENST00000380498; ENSP00000369867; ENSG00000129226. [P34810-3]
GeneIDi968.
KEGGihsa:968.
UCSCiuc002ghu.4. human. [P34810-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi968.
DisGeNETi968.
GeneCardsiCD68.
HGNCiHGNC:1693. CD68.
HPAiCAB000051.
CAB000066.
CAB072861.
CAB072862.
HPA048982.
MIMi153634. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P34810.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000129226.
PharmGKBiPA26232.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG4818. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQ96. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063068.
HOGENOMiHOG000070034.
HOVERGENiHBG005287.
InParanoidiP34810.
KOiK06501.
OMAiGNDCPHK.
OrthoDBiEOG091G09EV.
PhylomeDBiP34810.
TreeFamiTF316339.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000129226-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-6798695. Neutrophil degranulation.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiCD68. human.
GenomeRNAii968.
PROiP34810.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000129226.
CleanExiHS_CD68.
ExpressionAtlasiP34810. baseline and differential.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR018134. LAMP_CS.
IPR002000. Lysosome-assoc_membr_glycop.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11506. PTHR11506. 2 hits.
PfamiPF01299. Lamp. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00336. LYSASSOCTDMP.
PROSITEiPS00311. LAMP_2. 1 hit.
PS51407. LAMP_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCD68_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P34810
Secondary accession number(s): B4DVT4
, Q53HR6, Q53XI3, Q96BI7
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1994
Last sequence update: May 15, 2007
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 147 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Caution

CD68 is a commonly used marker for macrophages. However, a number of studies (PubMed:15194571, PubMed:15647451 and PubMed:18405323) have shown that CD68 antibodies react with other hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types, suggesting that CD68 may not be a macrophage-specific antigen.Curated

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human cell differentiation molecules
    CD nomenclature of surface proteins of human leucocytes and list of entries
  2. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.