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Protein

Protein skinhead-1

Gene

skn-1

Organism
Caenorhabditis elegans
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Transcription factor required to specify the fate of ventral blastomeres in the early embryo, and postembryonically for the development of the intestine. Directly regulates expression of zygotically expressed med-1 and med-2 to direct mesendoderm development (PubMed:1547503, PubMed:11463373). Required for stl-1 mRNA up-regulation in response to oxidative stress and anoxia. Required for the up-regulation of gcs-1 and several glutathione-S-transferase mRNAs in response to oxidative stress generated during pathogenic bacterial infection (PubMed:22216003). In neurons, involved in mitochondrial fusion and behavioral recovery during reoxygenation (PubMed:24385935). Required for riok-1 mRNA expression in the intestine (PubMed:25688864). Downstream of the let-60/Ras, mek-2 and pmk-1 pathway, positively regulates lifespan probably by preventing transcription of insulin-like peptides such as ins-39 (PubMed:20624915). Negatively regulates neurodegeneration of CEP neurons in response to high Al3+ levels (PubMed:23106139).7 Publications
Isoform a: Directed by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), mediates proteasomal homeostasis by regulating the expression of proteasomal subunits such as rpt-3 to confer resistance to proteasomal dysfunction.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • Hsp70 protein binding Source: WormBase
  • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: WormBase
  • sequence-specific DNA binding Source: WormBase
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • cell fate specification Source: WormBase
  • determination of adult lifespan Source: UniProtKB
  • embryonic digestive tract development Source: UniProtKB
  • embryonic pattern specification Source: WormBase
  • endodermal cell fate specification Source: UniProtKB
  • mesendoderm development Source: WormBase
  • multicellular organism development Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of cellular response to oxidative stress Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: WormBase
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to heat stress Source: WormBase
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in unfolded protein response Source: WormBase
  • regulation of translation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • response to heat Source: WormBase
  • response to oxidative stress Source: WormBase
  • response to paraquat Source: UniProtKB
  • response to superoxide Source: WormBase
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Stress response, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Translation regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiP34707.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein skinhead-1
Gene namesi
Name:skn-1
ORF Names:T19E7.2
OrganismiCaenorhabditis elegans
Taxonomic identifieri6239 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaNematodaChromadoreaRhabditidaRhabditoideaRhabditidaePeloderinaeCaenorhabditis
Proteomesi
  • UP000001940 Componenti: Chromosome IV

Organism-specific databases

WormBaseiT19E7.2a; CE27591; WBGene00004804; skn-1.
T19E7.2b; CE31238; WBGene00004804; skn-1.
T19E7.2c; CE31239; WBGene00004804; skn-1.

Subcellular locationi

Isoform a :
  • Nucleus 1 Publication

  • Note: Localizes to the nucleus in response to proteasomal dysfunction.1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  • endoplasmic reticulum Source: WormBase
  • mitochondrion Source: WormBase
  • nucleus Source: WormBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Isoform a: Viable, but there is failed activation of the expression of the proteasomal subunit rpt-3 in all tissues (PubMed:27528192). Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib or knockout with rpn-10 RNAi results in larval lethality (PubMed:27528192). Double knockout with pbs-5 results in failed expression the proteasomal subunit rpt-3 (PubMed:27528192). RNAi-mediated knockdown of all isoforms results in a severe reduction in transcription of gst-4, gst-5, gst-7 and gcs-1 mRNAs during infection by P.aeruginosa or P.faecalis (PubMed:22216003). Susceptibility to P.aeruginosa and P.faecalis is characterized by a decrease in survival rate (PubMed:22216003). Also causes a loss of transcription of riok-1 mRNA in intestine (PubMed:25688864). Reduces life span (PubMed:20624915). Moderate increase in transcription of ins-39 mRNA (PubMed:20624915). Moderate increase in CEP neuron death in response to high Al3+ levels (PubMed:23106139).5 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi164S → A: Abolishes phosphorylation by pmk-1. Loss of nuclear translocation and increased susceptibility in response to arsenite treatment; when associated with A-340. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi430S → A: Abolishes phosphorylation by pmk-1. Loss of nuclear translocation and increased susceptibility in response to arsenite treatment; when associated with A-74. 1 Publication1

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2146298.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000766391 – 623Protein skinhead-1Add BLAST623

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei164Phosphoserine; by pmk-11 Publication1
Modified residuei430Phosphoserine; by pmk-11 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

Isoform a: Cleaved by the aspartic protease ddi-1.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP34707.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP34707.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Postembryonic intestinal cells.1 Publication

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiWBGene00004804.
ExpressionAtlasiP34707. differential.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • Hsp70 protein binding Source: WormBase

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi42465. 5 interactors.
IntActiP34707. 5 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1094083.
STRINGi6239.T19E7.2a.2.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP34707.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1623
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi550 – 557Combined sources8
Helixi564 – 569Combined sources6
Helixi572 – 581Combined sources10
Helixi586 – 615Combined sources30
Turni616 – 618Combined sources3

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1SKNX-ray2.50P540-623[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP34707.
SMRiP34707.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP34707.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni540 – 623Basic motifBy similarityAdd BLAST84

Domaini

Alternative DNA-binding strategy due to lack of a leucine zipper dimerization segment: DNA binding domain binds to its cognate half-site, an N-terminal arm recognizes adjacent 5' AT-rich sequences in the minor groove and the intervening residues stabilize interactions of these two subdomains with DNA.1 Publication

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the bZIP family. Skn1 subfamily.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3863. Eukaryota.
ENOG410ZGMS. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000052725.
HOGENOMiHOG000021747.
InParanoidiP34707.
KOiK05638.
OMAiCNQVNIT.
OrthoDBiEOG091G02EB.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.880.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR004827. bZIP.
IPR004826. bZIP_Maf.
IPR008917. TF_DNA-bd.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF03131. bZIP_Maf. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47454. SSF47454. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00036. BZIP_BASIC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (3)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform a (identifier: P34707-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGGSSRRQRS TSATRRDDKR RRRQCFSSVA DDEEETTSIY GVSSIFIWIL
60 70 80 90 100
ATSSLILVIS SPSSNTSIQS SSYDRITTKH LLDNISPTFK MYTDSNNRNF
110 120 130 140 150
DEVNHQHQQE QDFNGQSKYD YPQFNRPMGL RWRDDQRMME YFMSNGPVET
160 170 180 190 200
VPVMPILTEH PPASPFGRGP STERPTTSSR YEYSSPSLED IDLIDVLWRS
210 220 230 240 250
DIAGEKGTRQ VAPADQYECD LQTLTEKSTV APLTAEENAR YEDLSKGFYN
260 270 280 290 300
GFFESFNNNQ YQQKHQQQQR EQIKTPTLEH PTQKAELEDD LFDEDLAQLF
310 320 330 340 350
EDVSREEGQL NQLFDNKQQH PVINNVSLSE GIVYNQANLT EMQEMRDSCN
360 370 380 390 400
QVSISTIPTT STAQPETLFN VTDSQTVEQW LPTEVVPNDV FPTSNYAYIG
410 420 430 440 450
MQNDSLQAVV SNGQIDYDHS YQSTGQTPLS PLIIGSSGRQ QQTQTSPGSV
460 470 480 490 500
TVTATATQSL FDPYHSQRHS FSDCTTDSSS TCSRLSSESP RYTSESSTGT
510 520 530 540 550
HESRFYGKLA PSSGSRYQRS SSPRSSQSSI KIARVVPLAS GQRKRGRQSK
560 570 580 590 600
DEQLASDNEL PVSAFQISEM SLSELQQVLK NESLSEYQRQ LIRKIRRRGK
610 620
NKVAARTCRQ RRTDRHDKMS HYI
Length:623
Mass (Da):70,709
Last modified:May 27, 2002 - v2
Checksum:i31A70303AB7CC691
GO
Isoform b (identifier: P34707-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-313: Missing.
     314-389: FDNKQQHPVI...WLPTEVVPND → MSLPSDFASS...YSGVSSTFDR

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:310
Mass (Da):34,588
Checksum:i21BD8A6536EE72B5
GO
Isoform c (identifier: P34707-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-90: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:533
Mass (Da):60,634
Checksum:iA911F45723ADCB13
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0114881 – 313Missing in isoform b. CuratedAdd BLAST313
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0114871 – 90Missing in isoform c. CuratedAdd BLAST90
Alternative sequenceiVSP_011489314 – 389FDNKQ…VVPND → MSLPSDFASSLLASSTTTNT TNTAPAAVNSFDEQEEESKK ILNMYLQMFNQQQVDQHGHH HQHPYAYSGVSSTFDR in isoform b. CuratedAdd BLAST76

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
FO080233 Genomic DNA. Translation: CCD62212.1.
FO080233 Genomic DNA. Translation: CCD62213.1.
FO080233 Genomic DNA. Translation: CCD62214.1.
M84359 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
PIRiA42143.
F88694.
RefSeqiNP_741404.1. NM_171345.4. [P34707-1]
NP_741405.1. NM_171346.3. [P34707-3]
NP_741406.1. NM_171347.5. [P34707-2]
UniGeneiCel.23037.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiT19E7.2a; T19E7.2a; WBGene00004804. [P34707-1]
GeneIDi177343.
KEGGicel:CELE_T19E7.2.
UCSCiT19E7.2b. c. elegans. [P34707-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
FO080233 Genomic DNA. Translation: CCD62212.1.
FO080233 Genomic DNA. Translation: CCD62213.1.
FO080233 Genomic DNA. Translation: CCD62214.1.
M84359 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
PIRiA42143.
F88694.
RefSeqiNP_741404.1. NM_171345.4. [P34707-1]
NP_741405.1. NM_171346.3. [P34707-3]
NP_741406.1. NM_171347.5. [P34707-2]
UniGeneiCel.23037.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1SKNX-ray2.50P540-623[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP34707.
SMRiP34707.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi42465. 5 interactors.
IntActiP34707. 5 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1094083.
STRINGi6239.T19E7.2a.2.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP34707.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL2146298.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP34707.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP34707.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiT19E7.2a; T19E7.2a; WBGene00004804. [P34707-1]
GeneIDi177343.
KEGGicel:CELE_T19E7.2.
UCSCiT19E7.2b. c. elegans. [P34707-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi177343.
WormBaseiT19E7.2a; CE27591; WBGene00004804; skn-1.
T19E7.2b; CE31238; WBGene00004804; skn-1.
T19E7.2c; CE31239; WBGene00004804; skn-1.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3863. Eukaryota.
ENOG410ZGMS. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000052725.
HOGENOMiHOG000021747.
InParanoidiP34707.
KOiK05638.
OMAiCNQVNIT.
OrthoDBiEOG091G02EB.

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiP34707.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP34707.
PROiP34707.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiWBGene00004804.
ExpressionAtlasiP34707. differential.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.880.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR004827. bZIP.
IPR004826. bZIP_Maf.
IPR008917. TF_DNA-bd.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF03131. bZIP_Maf. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47454. SSF47454. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00036. BZIP_BASIC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSKN1_CAEEL
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P34707
Secondary accession number(s): Q8MPW2, Q8MPW3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1994
Last sequence update: May 27, 2002
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 156 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programCaenorhabditis annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans
    Caenorhabditis elegans: entries, gene names and cross-references to WormBase
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.