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Protein

L-lactate dehydrogenase

Gene

lldD

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate. Seems to be a primary dehydrogenase in the respiratory chain. To a lesser extent, can also oxidize DL-alpha-hydroxybutyrate, but not D-lactate.2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

(S)-lactate + an oxidized electron acceptor = pyruvate + a reduced electron acceptor.UniRule annotation1 Publication

Cofactori

FMNUniRule annotation1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Is activated by 2-fold in the presence of high concentrations of sodium and potassium ions. Is almost completely inhibited by a high concentration of pyruvate (10 mM).

Kineticsi

  1. KM=120 µM for L-lactate1 Publication
  2. KM=770 µM for DL-alpha-hydroxybutyrate1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 8-9.1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Binding sitei24SubstrateUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei106FMNUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei127FMNUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei129SubstrateUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei155FMNUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei164SubstrateUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei251FMNUniRule annotation1
    Active sitei275Proton acceptorUniRule annotation1
    Binding sitei278SubstrateUniRule annotation1

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Nucleotide bindingi306 – 330FMNUniRule annotationAdd BLAST25

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • FMN binding Source: EcoCyc
    • L-lactate dehydrogenase activity Source: EcoCyc

    GO - Biological processi

    • aerobic respiration Source: EcoCyc
    • lactate oxidation Source: EcoCyc
    • L-fucose catabolic process Source: EcoCyc

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    LigandFlavoprotein, FMN

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:L-LACTDEHYDROGFMN-MONOMER
    MetaCyc:L-LACTDEHYDROGFMN-MONOMER
    SABIO-RKiP33232

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    L-lactate dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.1.-.-UniRule annotation)
    Gene namesi
    Name:lldDUniRule annotation
    Synonyms:lctD
    Ordered Locus Names:b3605, JW3580
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    Proteomesi
    • UP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome
    • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG11963 lldD

    Subcellular locationi

    • Cell inner membrane UniRule annotation1 Publication; Peripheral membrane protein UniRule annotation1 Publication

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • plasma membrane Source: EcoCyc

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell inner membrane, Cell membrane, Membrane

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    Cells lacking this gene lose the ability to grow on L-lactate as the sole source of carbon and energy, but can still utilize D-lactate.1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00002063351 – 396L-lactate dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST396

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiP33232
    PaxDbiP33232
    PRIDEiP33232

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    Is induced by aerobic growth on L-lactate, but not by aerobic growth on D-lactate or glycerol or by anaerobic growth on glucose.2 Publications

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Forms homooligomers.1 Publication

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi4262561, 51 interactors
    DIPiDIP-10108N
    IntActiP33232, 16 interactors
    MINTiP33232
    STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_3787

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP33232
    SMRiP33232
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Domaini1 – 380FMN hydroxy acid dehydrogenaseUniRule annotationAdd BLAST380

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the FMN-dependent alpha-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4105DMF Bacteria
    COG1304 LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000217464
    InParanoidiP33232
    KOiK00101
    OMAiMQLYIYK
    PhylomeDBiP33232

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd02809 alpha_hydroxyacid_oxid_FMN, 1 hit
    Gene3Di3.20.20.70, 1 hit
    HAMAPiMF_01559 L_lact_dehydr, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR013785 Aldolase_TIM
    IPR012133 Alpha-hydoxy_acid_DH_FMN
    IPR000262 FMN-dep_DH
    IPR037396 FMN_HAD
    IPR008259 FMN_hydac_DH_AS
    IPR020920 LldD
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF01070 FMN_dh, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF000138 Al-hdrx_acd_dh, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS00557 FMN_HYDROXY_ACID_DH_1, 1 hit
    PS51349 FMN_HYDROXY_ACID_DH_2, 1 hit

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P33232-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MIISAASDYR AAAQRILPPF LFHYMDGGAY SEYTLRRNVE DLSEVALRQR
    60 70 80 90 100
    ILKNMSDLSL ETTLFNEKLS MPVALAPVGL CGMYARRGEV QAAKAADAHG
    110 120 130 140 150
    IPFTLSTVSV CPIEEVAPAI KRPMWFQLYV LRDRGFMRNA LERAKAAGCS
    160 170 180 190 200
    TLVFTVDMPT PGARYRDAHS GMSGPNAAMR RYLQAVTHPQ WAWDVGLNGR
    210 220 230 240 250
    PHDLGNISAY LGKPTGLEDY IGWLGNNFDP SISWKDLEWI RDFWDGPMVI
    260 270 280 290 300
    KGILDPEDAR DAVRFGADGI VVSNHGGRQL DGVLSSARAL PAIADAVKGD
    310 320 330 340 350
    IAILADSGIR NGLDVVRMIA LGADTVLLGR AFLYALATAG QAGVANLLNL
    360 370 380 390
    IEKEMKVAMT LTGAKSISEI TQDSLVQGLG KELPAALAPM AKGNAA
    Length:396
    Mass (Da):42,728
    Last modified:February 1, 1994 - v1
    Checksum:iCA0D8E308713BF83
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    L13970 Unassigned DNA Translation: AAA03585.1
    U00039 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB18582.1
    U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC76629.1
    AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE77687.1
    PIRiC49904
    RefSeqiNP_418062.1, NC_000913.3
    WP_000586962.1, NZ_LN832404.1

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC76629; AAC76629; b3605
    BAE77687; BAE77687; BAE77687
    GeneIDi948121
    KEGGiecj:JW3580
    eco:b3605
    PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.3101

    Similar proteinsi

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiLLDD_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P33232
    Secondary accession number(s): Q2M7R9
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1994
    Last sequence update: February 1, 1994
    Last modified: March 28, 2018
    This is version 146 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome
    UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
    Main funding by: National Institutes of Health