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Protein

Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 1

Gene

ACSL1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate.

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.

Cofactori

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Ligase

Keywords - Biological processi

Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Magnesium, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS07766-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS07766-MONOMER.
BRENDAi6.2.1.3. 2681.
ReactomeiR-HSA-1989781. PPARA activates gene expression.
R-HSA-2046105. Linoleic acid (LA) metabolism.
R-HSA-2046106. alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) metabolism.
R-HSA-75876. Synthesis of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs.

Chemistry databases

SwissLipidsiSLP:000000199.
SLP:000001468. [P33121-1]

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 1 (EC:6.2.1.3)
Alternative name(s):
Acyl-CoA synthetase 1
Short name:
ACS1
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1
Short name:
LACS 1
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2
Short name:
LACS 2
Long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase 2
Palmitoyl-CoA ligase 1
Palmitoyl-CoA ligase 2
Gene namesi
Name:ACSL1
Synonyms:FACL1, FACL2, LACS, LACS1, LACS2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:3569. ACSL1.

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transmembranei25 – 45Helical; Signal-anchor for type III membrane proteinSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini46 – 698CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST653

GO - Cellular componenti

  • endoplasmic reticulum membrane Source: Reactome
  • integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • membrane Source: UniProtKB
  • mitochondrial outer membrane Source: Reactome
  • mitochondrion Source: UniProtKB
  • peroxisomal membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • plasma membrane Source: Ensembl
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane, Microsome, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrion outer membrane, Peroxisome

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi2180.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000151726.
PharmGKBiPA27966.

Chemistry databases

DrugBankiDB00131. Adenosine monophosphate.
DB00171. Adenosine triphosphate.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiACSL1.
DMDMi417241.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00001931041 – 698Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 1Add BLAST698

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei1N-acetylmethionine1 Publication1
Modified residuei9Nitrated tyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei84PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Glycosylationi135O-linked (GlcNAc)By similarity1
Modified residuei207N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei356N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei386N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei620PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei632N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Glycoprotein, Nitration, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP33121.
MaxQBiP33121.
PaxDbiP33121.
PeptideAtlasiP33121.
PRIDEiP33121.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP33121.
PhosphoSitePlusiP33121.
SwissPalmiP33121.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed in liver, heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and erythroid cells, and to a lesser extent in brain, lung, placenta and pancreas.1 Publication

Developmental stagei

Expressed during the early stages of erythroid development while expression is very low in reticulocytes and young erythrocytes.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000151726.
CleanExiHS_ACSL1.
ExpressionAtlasiP33121. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP33121. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA011316.
HPA011964.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108476. 8 interactors.
IntActiP33121. 2 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000281455.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP33121.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal-anchor, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1256. Eukaryota.
COG1022. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00690000101725.
HOGENOMiHOG000159459.
HOVERGENiHBG050452.
InParanoidiP33121.
KOiK01897.
OMAiCSAFVKA.
OrthoDBiEOG091G03G9.
PhylomeDBiP33121.
TreeFamiTF313877.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR020845. AMP-binding_CS.
IPR000873. AMP-dep_Synth/Lig.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00501. AMP-binding. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00455. AMP_BINDING. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (3)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P33121-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MQAHELFRYF RMPELVDFRQ YVRTLPTNTL MGFGAFAALT TFWYATRPKP
60 70 80 90 100
LKPPCDLSMQ SVEVAGSGGA RRSALLDSDE PLVYFYDDVT TLYEGFQRGI
110 120 130 140 150
QVSNNGPCLG SRKPDQPYEW LSYKQVAELS ECIGSALIQK GFKTAPDQFI
160 170 180 190 200
GIFAQNRPEW VIIEQGCFAY SMVIVPLYDT LGNEAITYIV NKAELSLVFV
210 220 230 240 250
DKPEKAKLLL EGVENKLIPG LKIIVVMDAY GSELVERGQR CGVEVTSMKA
260 270 280 290 300
MEDLGRANRR KPKPPAPEDL AVICFTSGTT GNPKGAMVTH RNIVSDCSAF
310 320 330 340 350
VKATENTVNP CPDDTLISFL PLAHMFERVV ECVMLCHGAK IGFFQGDIRL
360 370 380 390 400
LMDDLKVLQP TVFPVVPRLL NRMFDRIFGQ ANTTLKRWLL DFASKRKEAE
410 420 430 440 450
LRSGIIRNNS LWDRLIFHKV QSSLGGRVRL MVTGAAPVSA TVLTFLRAAL
460 470 480 490 500
GCQFYEGYGQ TECTAGCCLT MPGDWTAGHV GAPMPCNLIK LVDVEEMNYM
510 520 530 540 550
AAEGEGEVCV KGPNVFQGYL KDPAKTAEAL DKDGWLHTGD IGKWLPNGTL
560 570 580 590 600
KIIDRKKHIF KLAQGEYIAP EKIENIYMRS EPVAQVFVHG ESLQAFLIAI
610 620 630 640 650
VVPDVETLCS WAQKRGFEGS FEELCRNKDV KKAILEDMVR LGKDSGLKPF
660 670 680 690
EQVKGITLHP ELFSIDNGLL TPTMKAKRPE LRNYFRSQID DLYSTIKV
Length:698
Mass (Da):77,943
Last modified:October 1, 1993 - v1
Checksum:iFD6669453589D362
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P33121-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     508-517: Missing.

Note: May be due to a competing acceptor splice site. No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:688
Mass (Da):76,871
Checksum:i815DF2AA8EE8A6B4
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: P33121-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     306-331: NTVNPCPDDTLISFLPLAHMFERVVE → KALPLSASDTHISYLPLAHIYEQLLK

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:698
Mass (Da):77,907
Checksum:i1EDBB04923DD129F
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAC04704 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti21 – 23YVR → CV in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated3
Sequence conflicti37 – 38AA → SRR in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated2
Sequence conflicti44 – 47YATR → RPRH in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated4
Sequence conflicti55 – 56CD → WH in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated2
Sequence conflicti229A → S in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated1
Sequence conflicti385L → V in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated1
Sequence conflicti400 – 401EL → DV in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated2
Sequence conflicti477A → T in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated1
Sequence conflicti492 – 494VDV → GWQL in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated3
Sequence conflicti502A → S in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated1
Sequence conflicti695T → I in AAB00959 (PubMed:8584017).Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_054391306 – 331NTVNP…ERVVE → KALPLSASDTHISYLPLAHI YEQLLK in isoform 3. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST26
Alternative sequenceiVSP_009604508 – 517Missing in isoform 2. 1 Publication10

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D10040 mRNA. Translation: BAA00931.1.
L09229 mRNA. Translation: AAB00959.1.
AK096117 mRNA. Translation: BAC04704.1. Different initiation.
AK296826 mRNA. Translation: BAH12438.1.
AC079257 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC084871 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04662.1.
CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04663.1.
CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04665.1.
BC026290 mRNA. Translation: AAH26290.1.
BC050073 mRNA. Translation: AAH50073.1.
CCDSiCCDS3839.1. [P33121-1]
CCDS68826.1. [P33121-3]
PIRiJX0202.
RefSeqiNP_001273637.1. NM_001286708.1. [P33121-1]
NP_001273639.1. NM_001286710.1. [P33121-3]
NP_001273640.1. NM_001286711.1.
NP_001273641.1. NM_001286712.1.
NP_001986.2. NM_001995.3. [P33121-1]
XP_005262885.1. XM_005262828.1. [P33121-1]
XP_005262886.1. XM_005262829.1. [P33121-1]
XP_005262888.1. XM_005262831.1. [P33121-1]
XP_011530044.1. XM_011531742.1. [P33121-1]
XP_016863376.1. XM_017007887.1. [P33121-1]
XP_016863377.1. XM_017007888.1. [P33121-3]
XP_016863378.1. XM_017007889.1. [P33121-3]
UniGeneiHs.406678.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000281455; ENSP00000281455; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-1]
ENST00000504342; ENSP00000425006; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-1]
ENST00000513317; ENSP00000426150; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-3]
ENST00000515030; ENSP00000422607; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-1]
GeneIDi2180.
KEGGihsa:2180.
UCSCiuc003iwt.2. human. [P33121-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D10040 mRNA. Translation: BAA00931.1.
L09229 mRNA. Translation: AAB00959.1.
AK096117 mRNA. Translation: BAC04704.1. Different initiation.
AK296826 mRNA. Translation: BAH12438.1.
AC079257 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC084871 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04662.1.
CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04663.1.
CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04665.1.
BC026290 mRNA. Translation: AAH26290.1.
BC050073 mRNA. Translation: AAH50073.1.
CCDSiCCDS3839.1. [P33121-1]
CCDS68826.1. [P33121-3]
PIRiJX0202.
RefSeqiNP_001273637.1. NM_001286708.1. [P33121-1]
NP_001273639.1. NM_001286710.1. [P33121-3]
NP_001273640.1. NM_001286711.1.
NP_001273641.1. NM_001286712.1.
NP_001986.2. NM_001995.3. [P33121-1]
XP_005262885.1. XM_005262828.1. [P33121-1]
XP_005262886.1. XM_005262829.1. [P33121-1]
XP_005262888.1. XM_005262831.1. [P33121-1]
XP_011530044.1. XM_011531742.1. [P33121-1]
XP_016863376.1. XM_017007887.1. [P33121-1]
XP_016863377.1. XM_017007888.1. [P33121-3]
XP_016863378.1. XM_017007889.1. [P33121-3]
UniGeneiHs.406678.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP33121.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108476. 8 interactors.
IntActiP33121. 2 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000281455.

Chemistry databases

DrugBankiDB00131. Adenosine monophosphate.
DB00171. Adenosine triphosphate.
SwissLipidsiSLP:000000199.
SLP:000001468. [P33121-1]

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP33121.
PhosphoSitePlusiP33121.
SwissPalmiP33121.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiACSL1.
DMDMi417241.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP33121.
MaxQBiP33121.
PaxDbiP33121.
PeptideAtlasiP33121.
PRIDEiP33121.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000281455; ENSP00000281455; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-1]
ENST00000504342; ENSP00000425006; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-1]
ENST00000513317; ENSP00000426150; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-3]
ENST00000515030; ENSP00000422607; ENSG00000151726. [P33121-1]
GeneIDi2180.
KEGGihsa:2180.
UCSCiuc003iwt.2. human. [P33121-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2180.
DisGeNETi2180.
GeneCardsiACSL1.
HGNCiHGNC:3569. ACSL1.
HPAiHPA011316.
HPA011964.
MIMi152425. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P33121.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000151726.
PharmGKBiPA27966.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1256. Eukaryota.
COG1022. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00690000101725.
HOGENOMiHOG000159459.
HOVERGENiHBG050452.
InParanoidiP33121.
KOiK01897.
OMAiCSAFVKA.
OrthoDBiEOG091G03G9.
PhylomeDBiP33121.
TreeFamiTF313877.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS07766-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS07766-MONOMER.
BRENDAi6.2.1.3. 2681.
ReactomeiR-HSA-1989781. PPARA activates gene expression.
R-HSA-2046105. Linoleic acid (LA) metabolism.
R-HSA-2046106. alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) metabolism.
R-HSA-75876. Synthesis of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiACSL1. human.
GeneWikiiACSL1.
GenomeRNAii2180.
PROiP33121.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000151726.
CleanExiHS_ACSL1.
ExpressionAtlasiP33121. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP33121. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR020845. AMP-binding_CS.
IPR000873. AMP-dep_Synth/Lig.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00501. AMP-binding. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00455. AMP_BINDING. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiACSL1_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P33121
Secondary accession number(s): B7Z452
, D3DP57, P41215, Q8N8V7, Q8TA99
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1993
Last sequence update: October 1, 1993
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 159 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 4
    Human chromosome 4: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.