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Protein

Pyrophosphate-energized vacuolar membrane proton pump 1

Gene

AVP1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Contributes to the transtonoplast (from cytosol to vacuole lumen) H+-electrochemical potential difference. It establishes a proton gradient of similar and often greater magnitude than the H+-ATPase on the same membrane. In addition, facilitates auxin transport by modulating apoplastic pH and regulates auxin-mediated developmental processes. Confers tolerance to NaCl and to drought by increasing ion retention.3 Publications

Miscellaneous

Has few direct interactions with pyrophosphate. Interacts with the substrate via divalent metal cations, such as magnesium ions, that are bound to the pyrophosphate (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

Diphosphate + H2O = 2 phosphate.

Enzyme regulationi

Activated by K+ and Mg2+. Inhibited by Ca2+, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and aminomethylenediphosphonate (AMDP), and, to a lower extent, by fluoride (KF).4 Publications

Kineticsi

  1. KM=110 µM for PPi (at pH 8 and 37 degrees Celsius)2 Publications
  1. Vmax=0.5 µmol/min/mg enzyme (at pH 8 and 37 degrees Celsius)2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei246Important for proton transportBy similarity1
Binding sitei254SubstrateBy similarity1
Metal bindingi257Magnesium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi257Magnesium 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi261Magnesium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi287Magnesium 3By similarity1
Sitei291Important for proton transportBy similarity1
Sitei298Important for proton transportBy similarity1
Sitei305Important for proton transportBy similarity1
Metal bindingi511Magnesium 3By similarity1
Metal bindingi538Magnesium 4By similarity1
Metal bindingi695Magnesium 4By similarity1
Metal bindingi731Magnesium 2By similarity1
Binding sitei734SubstrateBy similarity1
Sitei735Important for proton transportBy similarity1
Sitei746Important for proton transportBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • auxin polar transport Source: TAIR
  • establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient Source: TAIR
  • leaf development Source: TAIR
  • proton transmembrane transport Source: InterPro
  • response to salt stress Source: TAIR
  • response to water deprivation Source: TAIR

Keywordsi

Molecular functionHydrolase
Biological processHydrogen ion transport, Ion transport, Transport
LigandMagnesium, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G15690-MONOMER
BRENDAi3.6.1.1 399

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi3.A.10.1.1 the h(+), na(+)-translocating pyrophosphatase (m(+)-ppase) family

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Pyrophosphate-energized vacuolar membrane proton pump 1 (EC:3.6.1.1)
Alternative name(s):
Pyrophosphate-energized inorganic pyrophosphatase 1
Short name:
H(+)-PPase 1
Vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase 1
Vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase 3
Gene namesi
Name:AVP1
Synonyms:AVP, AVP-3, AVP3
Ordered Locus Names:At1g15690
ORF Names:F7H2.3
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT1G15690
TAIRilocus:2036134 AT1G15690

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Topological domaini1 – 9IntravacuolarBy similarity9
Transmembranei10 – 36HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST27
Topological domaini37 – 88CytoplasmicBy similarityAdd BLAST52
Transmembranei89 – 118HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST30
Topological domaini119 – 139IntravacuolarBy similarityAdd BLAST21
Transmembranei140 – 167HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST28
Topological domaini168 – 190CytoplasmicBy similarityAdd BLAST23
Transmembranei191 – 220HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST30
Topological domaini221 – 223IntravacuolarBy similarity3
Transmembranei224 – 252HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST29
Topological domaini253 – 290CytoplasmicBy similarityAdd BLAST38
Transmembranei291 – 316HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST26
Topological domaini317 – 324IntravacuolarBy similarity8
Transmembranei325 – 350HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST26
Topological domaini351 – 358CytoplasmicBy similarity8
Transmembranei359 – 386HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST28
Topological domaini387 – 405IntravacuolarBy similarityAdd BLAST19
Transmembranei406 – 429HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST24
Topological domaini430 – 451CytoplasmicBy similarityAdd BLAST22
Transmembranei452 – 476HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST25
Topological domaini477 – 482IntravacuolarBy similarity6
Transmembranei483 – 509HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST27
Topological domaini510 – 538CytoplasmicBy similarityAdd BLAST29
Transmembranei539 – 567HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST29
Topological domaini568 – 577IntravacuolarBy similarity10
Transmembranei578 – 606HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST29
Topological domaini607 – 635CytoplasmicBy similarityAdd BLAST29
Transmembranei636 – 664HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST29
Topological domaini665IntravacuolarBy similarity1
Transmembranei666 – 693HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST28
Topological domaini694 – 736CytoplasmicBy similarityAdd BLAST43
Transmembranei737 – 762HelicalBy similarityAdd BLAST26
Topological domaini763 – 770IntravacuolarBy similarity8

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Endosome, Membrane, Vacuole

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi119E → Q: Slight reduction of PPi hydrolysis and H(+) translocation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi229E → D: Slight increased PPi hydrolysis and H(+) translocation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi229E → Q: Slight reduction of PPi hydrolysis and H(+) translocation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi305E → D: Abolishes H(+) translocation and strong reduction of PPi hydrolysis. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi305E → Q: Abolishes H(+) translocation and strong reduction of PPi hydrolysis, reduced sensitivity to DCCD. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi427E → D: Increases H(+) translocation, normal PPi hydrolysis. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi427E → Q: Strong reduction of PPi hydrolysis and H(+) translocation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi504D → E: Abolishes H(+) translocation and strong reduction of PPi hydrolysis. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi504D → N: Abolishes H(+) translocation and strong reduction of PPi hydrolysis, reduced sensitivity to DCCD. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi573D → N: Increases H(+) translocation, normal PPi hydrolysis. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi634C → A or S: Reduced sensitivity to NEM. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi667E → Q: Slight reduction of PPi hydrolysis and H(+) translocation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi751E → Q: Slight reduction of PPi hydrolysis and H(+) translocation. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002170391 – 770Pyrophosphate-energized vacuolar membrane proton pump 1Add BLAST770

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi128 ↔ 136By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP31414
PRIDEiP31414

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP31414
SwissPalmiP31414

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ubiquitous (at protein level). Mostly expressed in vascular tissues, meristems and root pericycle.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Increase of expression in pollen during flower development. Expressed in developing leaves, sepals, petals, stamens and carpels.2 Publications

Inductioni

Repressed by light. Induced by CAMTA1 and/or CAMTA5 in pollen.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP31414 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP31414 AT

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi23378, 13 interactors
STRINGi3702.AT1G15690.1

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP31414
SMRiP31414
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domaini

Has 16 transmembrane helices and a cytoplasmic domain that contains the active site.By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IFIU Eukaryota
COG3808 LUCA
InParanoidiP31414
KOiK01507
OMAiLMEGHAR
OrthoDBiEOG093603U6
PhylomeDBiP31414

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_01129 PPase_energized_pump, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR004131 PPase-energised_H-pump
PANTHERiPTHR31998 PTHR31998, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF03030 H_PPase, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF001265 H+-PPase, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01104 V_PPase, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 1 isoform i produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Note: A number of isoforms are produced. According to EST sequences.
Isoform 1 (identifier: P31414-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVAPALLPEL WTEILVPICA VIGIAFSLFQ WYVVSRVKLT SDLGASSSGG
60 70 80 90 100
ANNGKNGYGD YLIEEEEGVN DQSVVAKCAE IQTAISEGAT SFLFTEYKYV
110 120 130 140 150
GVFMIFFAAV IFVFLGSVEG FSTDNKPCTY DTTRTCKPAL ATAAFSTIAF
160 170 180 190 200
VLGAVTSVLS GFLGMKIATY ANARTTLEAR KGVGKAFIVA FRSGAVMGFL
210 220 230 240 250
LAASGLLVLY ITINVFKIYY GDDWEGLFEA ITGYGLGGSS MALFGRVGGG
260 270 280 290 300
IYTKAADVGA DLVGKIERNI PEDDPRNPAV IADNVGDNVG DIAGMGSDLF
310 320 330 340 350
GSYAEASCAA LVVASISSFG INHDFTAMCY PLLISSMGIL VCLITTLFAT
360 370 380 390 400
DFFEIKLVKE IEPALKNQLI ISTVIMTVGI AIVSWVGLPT SFTIFNFGTQ
410 420 430 440 450
KVVKNWQLFL CVCVGLWAGL IIGFVTEYYT SNAYSPVQDV ADSCRTGAAT
460 470 480 490 500
NVIFGLALGY KSVIIPIFAI AISIFVSFSF AAMYGVAVAA LGMLSTIATG
510 520 530 540 550
LAIDAYGPIS DNAGGIAEMA GMSHRIRERT DALDAAGNTT AAIGKGFAIG
560 570 580 590 600
SAALVSLALF GAFVSRAGIH TVDVLTPKVI IGLLVGAMLP YWFSAMTMKS
610 620 630 640 650
VGSAALKMVE EVRRQFNTIP GLMEGTAKPD YATCVKISTD ASIKEMIPPG
660 670 680 690 700
CLVMLTPLIV GFFFGVETLS GVLAGSLVSG VQIAISASNT GGAWDNAKKY
710 720 730 740 750
IEAGVSEHAK SLGPKGSEPH KAAVIGDTIG DPLKDTSGPS LNILIKLMAV
760 770
ESLVFAPFFA THGGILFKYF
Length:770
Mass (Da):80,820
Last modified:July 1, 1993 - v1
Checksum:iCE7132B42B299860
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAD94555 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated
The sequence CAA79039 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at position 718.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti8P → L in BAA32210 (PubMed:11442058).Curated1
Sequence conflicti576T → A in CAA79038 (PubMed:8281187).Curated1
Sequence conflicti584L → P in CAA79038 (PubMed:8281187).Curated1
Sequence conflicti624E → K in AAL57660 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1
Sequence conflicti685I → T in AAL84953 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M81892 mRNA Translation: AAA32754.1
AB015138 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA32210.1
AC034256 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF82139.1
CP002684 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE29349.1
AY065016 mRNA Translation: AAL57660.1
AY078953 mRNA Translation: AAL84953.1
BT002481 mRNA Translation: AAO00841.1
Z17694 mRNA Translation: CAA79038.1
Z17695 mRNA Translation: CAA79039.1 Frameshift.
AK221989 mRNA Translation: BAD94555.1 Different initiation.
PIRiA38230
RefSeqiNP_173021.1, NM_101437.5 [P31414-1]
UniGeneiAt.21942
At.66944
At.67102
At.74973

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G15690.1; AT1G15690.1; AT1G15690 [P31414-1]
GeneIDi838138
GrameneiAT1G15690.1; AT1G15690.1; AT1G15690 [P31414-1]
KEGGiath:AT1G15690

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAVP1_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P31414
Secondary accession number(s): O80390
, Q41919, Q41920, Q56WP6, Q8RY20, Q8VZE3
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1993
Last sequence update: July 1, 1993
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 146 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

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