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Protein

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, chloroplastic

Gene

APT1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis. Contributes primarly to the recycling of adenine into adenylate nucleotides, but is also involved in the inactivation of cytokinins by phosphoribosylation. Catalyzes the conversion of cytokinins from free bases (active form) to the corresponding nucleotides (inactive form).4 Publications

Catalytic activityi

AMP + diphosphate = adenine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.2 Publications

Kineticsi

  1. KM=1 µM for adenine (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. KM=1800 µM for zeatin (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  3. KM=2500 µM for isopentenyladenine (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  4. KM=2400 µM for benzyladenine (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  1. Vmax=9.6 µmol/min/mg enzyme with adenine as substrate (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. Vmax=10 µmol/min/mg enzyme with zeatin as substrate (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  3. Vmax=6.7 µmol/min/mg enzyme with isopentenyladenine as substrate (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  4. Vmax=1.5 µmol/min/mg enzyme with benzyladenine as substrate (at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8.8.1 Publication

Pathwayi: AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes AMP from adenine.
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 3 (APT3), Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, chloroplastic (APT1), Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 4 (APT4), Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 5 (APT5), Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 2 (APT2)
This subpathway is part of the pathway AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway, which is itself part of Purine metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes AMP from adenine, the pathway AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway and in Purine metabolism.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • adenine salvage Source: InterPro
  • AMP salvage Source: UniProtKB
  • cytokinin metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Glycosyltransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Purine salvage

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:GQT-2837-MONOMER.
ARA:GQT-818-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G27450-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-ATH-74217. Purine salvage.
UniPathwayiUPA00588; UER00646.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, chloroplastic (EC:2.4.2.7)
Short name:
APRT 1
Short name:
AtAPT1
Gene namesi
Name:APT1
Synonyms:APT
Ordered Locus Names:At1g27450
ORF Names:F17L21.24
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G27450.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chloroplast Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Cytoplasm, Plastid

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Male sterility due to pollen abortion after meiosis. Accumulation of free bases of cytokinins and enhanced resistance to exogenous cytokinins.2 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi85 – 851P → T in apt1-5; loss of activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi99 – 991L → F in apt1-6; reduces activity 10-fold. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi149 – 1491R → K in apt1-7; loss of activity and male sterility. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi168 – 1681G → E in apt1-4; reduces activity 3-fold. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi195 – 1951G → D in apt1-8; loss of activity and male sterility. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi196 – 1961G → R in apt1-9; loss of activity and male sterility.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 5252ChloroplastSequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini53 – 243191Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, chloroplasticPRO_0000149514Add
BLAST
Isoform 2 (identifier: P31166-2)
Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Isoform 2 (identifier: P31166-2)
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylalanineCombined sources

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP31166.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP31166. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP31166. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi24871. 3 interactions.
IntActiP31166. 4 interactions.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP31166.
SMRiP31166. Positions 74-230.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

HOGENOMiHOG000036776.
InParanoidiP31166.
PhylomeDBiP31166.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.2020. 1 hit.
HAMAPiMF_00004. Aden_phosphoribosyltr.
InterProiIPR005764. Ade_phspho_trans.
IPR000836. PRibTrfase_dom.
IPR029057. PRTase-like.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00156. Pribosyltran. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53271. SSF53271. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01090. apt. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00103. PUR_PYR_PR_TRANSFER. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P31166-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MQTIIISPLV SHRLCLARAV PCNRLLNNHH RAPPSIRLSN HRSTTSLRLF
60 70 80 90 100
SSAAASRDSE MATEDVQDPR IAKIASSIRV IPDFPKPGIM FQDITTLLLD
110 120 130 140 150
TEAFKDTIAL FVDRYKDKGI SVVAGVEARG FIFGPPIALA IGAKFVPMRK
160 170 180 190 200
PKKLPGKVIS EEYSLEYGTD TIEMHVGAVE PGERAIIIDD LIATGGTLAA
210 220 230 240
AIRLLERVGV KIVECACVIE LPELKGKEKL GETSLFVLVK SAA
Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Length:243
Mass (Da):26,396
Last modified:November 21, 2003 - v2
Checksum:i92ABF089CA66C0FD
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P31166-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-60: Missing.

Show »
Length:183
Mass (Da):19,739
Checksum:iA9D5FDF7FD130254
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAF99737.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction. Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 6060Missing in isoform 2. 2 PublicationsVSP_009002Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X58640 mRNA. Translation: CAA41497.1.
L19637 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA20677.1.
AC004557 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF99737.1. Sequence problems.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE30831.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE30832.1.
AF325045 mRNA. Translation: AAG40397.1.
AY128377 mRNA. Translation: AAM91580.1.
BT000370 mRNA. Translation: AAN15689.1.
AY084300 mRNA. Translation: AAM60891.1.
PIRiG86399.
S20867.
RefSeqiNP_564284.1. NM_102509.3. [P31166-1]
NP_849714.1. NM_179383.2. [P31166-2]
UniGeneiAt.25013.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G27450.1; AT1G27450.1; AT1G27450. [P31166-1]
GeneIDi839636.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X58640 mRNA. Translation: CAA41497.1.
L19637 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA20677.1.
AC004557 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF99737.1. Sequence problems.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE30831.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE30832.1.
AF325045 mRNA. Translation: AAG40397.1.
AY128377 mRNA. Translation: AAM91580.1.
BT000370 mRNA. Translation: AAN15689.1.
AY084300 mRNA. Translation: AAM60891.1.
PIRiG86399.
S20867.
RefSeqiNP_564284.1. NM_102509.3. [P31166-1]
NP_849714.1. NM_179383.2. [P31166-2]
UniGeneiAt.25013.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP31166.
SMRiP31166. Positions 74-230.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi24871. 3 interactions.
IntActiP31166. 4 interactions.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP31166.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G27450.1; AT1G27450.1; AT1G27450. [P31166-1]
GeneIDi839636.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G27450.

Phylogenomic databases

HOGENOMiHOG000036776.
InParanoidiP31166.
PhylomeDBiP31166.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00588; UER00646.
BioCyciARA:GQT-2837-MONOMER.
ARA:GQT-818-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G27450-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-ATH-74217. Purine salvage.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP31166.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP31166. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP31166. AT.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.2020. 1 hit.
HAMAPiMF_00004. Aden_phosphoribosyltr.
InterProiIPR005764. Ade_phspho_trans.
IPR000836. PRibTrfase_dom.
IPR029057. PRTase-like.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00156. Pribosyltran. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53271. SSF53271. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01090. apt. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00103. PUR_PYR_PR_TRANSFER. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "A complete cDNA for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Moffatt B.A., McWhinnie E.A., Burkhart W.E., Pasternak J.J., Rothstein S.J.
    Plant Mol. Biol. 18:653-662(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  2. "The adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-encoding gene of Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Moffatt B.A., McWhinnie E.A., Agarwal S.K., Schaff D.A.
    Gene 143:211-216(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K.
    , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
    Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "Full-length cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Brover V.V., Troukhan M.E., Alexandrov N.A., Lu Y.-P., Flavell R.B., Feldmann K.A.
    Submitted (MAR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
  7. "Male sterility associated with APRT deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana results from a mutation in the gene APT1."
    Gaillard C., Moffatt B.A., Blacker M., Laloue M.
    Mol. Gen. Genet. 257:348-353(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  8. "Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase isoforms of Arabidopsis and their potential contributions to adenine and cytokinin metabolism."
    Allen M., Qin W., Moreau F., Moffatt B.
    Physiol. Plantarum 115:56-68(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  9. "Sorting signals, N-terminal modifications and abundance of the chloroplast proteome."
    Zybailov B., Rutschow H., Friso G., Rudella A., Emanuelsson O., Sun Q., van Wijk K.J.
    PLoS ONE 3:E1994-E1994(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  10. "Comparative large-scale characterisation of plant vs. mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-alpha acetylation features."
    Bienvenut W.V., Sumpton D., Martinez A., Lilla S., Espagne C., Meinnel T., Giglione C.
    Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11:M111.015131-M111.015131(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ACETYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ALA-2 (ISOFORM 2), CLEAVAGE OF INITIATOR METHIONINE [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] (ISOFORM 2), IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  11. "Improved growth and stress tolerance in the Arabidopsis oxt1 mutant triggered by altered adenine metabolism."
    Sukrong S., Yun K.Y., Stadler P., Kumar C., Facciuolo T., Moffatt B.A., Falcone D.L.
    Mol. Plant 5:1310-1332(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  12. "Adenine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 is a key enzyme catalyzing cytokinin conversion from nucleobases to nucleotides in Arabidopsis."
    Zhang X., Chen Y., Lin X., Hong X., Zhu Y., Li W., He W., An F., Guo H.
    Mol. Plant 6:1661-1672(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, MUTAGENESIS OF PRO-85; LEU-99; ARG-149; GLY-168; GLY-195 AND GLY-195.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPT1_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P31166
Secondary accession number(s): Q8LGF6, Q9FZJ0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1993
Last sequence update: November 21, 2003
Last modified: November 11, 2015
This is version 129 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Plants with reduced activity of APT1 and increased levels of cellular adenine show enhanced stress tolerance and improve growth, leading to increases in plant biomass.1 Publication

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.