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P30793

- GCH1_HUMAN

UniProt

P30793 - GCH1_HUMAN

Protein

GTP cyclohydrolase 1

Gene

GCH1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 160 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Jul 1993)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Positively regulates nitric oxide synthesis in umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). May be involved in dopamine synthesis. May modify pain sensitivity and persistence. Isoform GCH-1 is the functional enzyme, the potential function of the enzymatically inactive isoforms remains unknown.5 Publications

    Catalytic activityi

    GTP + H2O = formate + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphate.3 Publications

    Enzyme regulationi

    GTP shows a positive allosteric effect, and tetrahydrobiopterin inhibits the enzyme activity. Zinc is required for catalytic activity. Inhibited by Mg2+.3 Publications

    Kineticsi

    1. KM=116 µM for GTP1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 7.7 in phosphate buffer.1 Publication

    Temperature dependencei

    Relatively stable at high temperatures. Retains 50% of its activity after incubation at 70 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes.1 Publication

    Pathwayi

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Metal bindingi141 – 1411Zinc
    Metal bindingi144 – 1441Zinc
    Metal bindingi212 – 2121Zinc

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. calcium ion binding Source: Ensembl
    2. coenzyme binding Source: Ensembl
    3. GTP binding Source: UniProtKB
    4. GTP cyclohydrolase I activity Source: UniProtKB
    5. protein binding Source: UniProtKB
    6. protein homodimerization activity Source: UniProtKB
    7. zinc ion binding Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-triphosphate biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
    2. dopamine biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    3. GTP catabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    4. metabolic process Source: GOC
    5. negative regulation of blood pressure Source: Ensembl
    6. neuromuscular process controlling posture Source: MGI
    7. nitric oxide biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    8. nitric oxide metabolic process Source: Reactome
    9. positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity Source: UniProtKB
    10. protein heterooligomerization Source: Ensembl
    11. protein homooligomerization Source: UniProtKB
    12. pteridine-containing compound biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    13. regulation of blood pressure Source: UniProtKB
    14. regulation of lung blood pressure Source: Ensembl
    15. regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity Source: Reactome
    16. response to interferon-gamma Source: UniProtKB
    17. response to lipopolysaccharide Source: UniProtKB
    18. response to pain Source: UniProtKB
    19. response to tumor necrosis factor Source: UniProtKB
    20. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome
    21. tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    22. tetrahydrofolate biosynthetic process Source: InterPro
    23. vasodilation Source: Ensembl

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Hydrolase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis

    Keywords - Ligandi

    GTP-binding, Metal-binding, Nucleotide-binding, Zinc

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS05586-MONOMER.
    ReactomeiREACT_111176. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation.
    SABIO-RKP30793.
    UniPathwayiUPA00848; UER00151.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (EC:3.5.4.16)
    Alternative name(s):
    GTP cyclohydrolase I
    Short name:
    GTP-CH-I
    Gene namesi
    Name:GCH1
    Synonyms:DYT5, GCH
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 14

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:4193. GCH1.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
    2. cytoplasmic vesicle Source: UniProtKB
    3. cytosol Source: UniProtKB
    4. nuclear membrane Source: HPA
    5. nucleus Source: UniProtKB
    6. protein complex Source: UniProtKB

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm, Nucleus

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Involvement in diseasei

    GTP cyclohydrolase 1 deficiency (GCH1D) [MIM:233910]: A cause of malignant hyperphenylalaninemia due to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency. It is also responsible for defective neurotransmission due to depletion of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. The principal symptoms include: psychomotor retardation, tonicity disorders, convulsions, drowsiness, irritability, abnormal movements, hyperthermia, hypersalivation, and difficulty swallowing. Some patients may present a phenotype of intermediate severity between severe hyperphenylalaninemia and mild dystonia type 5 (dystonia-parkinsonism with diurnal fluctuation). In this intermediate phenotype, there is marked motor delay, but no mental retardation and only minimal, if any, hyperphenylalaninemia.2 Publications
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti108 – 1081G → D in GCH1D; phenotype presenting with dystonia and motor delay. 1 Publication
    VAR_016894
    Natural varianti184 – 1841R → H in GCH1D; severe hyperphenylalaninemia. 1 Publication
    VAR_002643
    Natural varianti211 – 2111M → I in GCH1D; severe hyperphenylalaninemia. 1 Publication
    VAR_002647
    Natural varianti221 – 2211M → T in GCH1D; a patient presenting with dystonia and motor delay; compound heterozygote for an additional deletion. 1 Publication
    VAR_016905
    Natural varianti224 – 2241K → R in GCH1D and DYT5; phenotype presenting with dystonia and myoclonus. 3 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs41298442 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_002648
    Dystonia 5 (DYT5) [MIM:128230]: A DOPA-responsive dystonia. Dystonia is defined by the presence of sustained involuntary muscle contractions, often leading to abnormal postures. DYT5 typically presents in childhood with walking problems due to dystonia of the lower limbs and worsening of the dystonia towards the evening. It is characterized by postural and motor disturbances showing marked diurnal fluctuation. Torsion of the trunk is unusual. Symptoms are alleviated after sleep and aggravated by fatigue and exercise. There is a favorable response to L-DOPA without side effects.15 Publications
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti23 – 231P → L in DYT5. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs41298432 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_002633
    Natural varianti71 – 711L → Q in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016888
    Natural varianti74 – 741A → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016889
    Natural varianti79 – 791L → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002634
    Natural varianti83 – 831G → A in DYT5. 2 Publications
    VAR_016890
    Natural varianti88 – 892Missing in DYT5.
    VAR_016891
    Natural varianti88 – 881R → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002635
    Natural varianti88 – 881R → W in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002636
    Natural varianti90 – 901G → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016892
    Natural varianti102 – 1021M → K in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002637
    Natural varianti102 – 1021M → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016893
    Natural varianti106 – 1061T → I in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_054112
    Natural varianti115 – 1151D → N in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016895
    Natural varianti134 – 1341D → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002638
    Natural varianti135 – 1351I → K in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016896
    Natural varianti141 – 1411C → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016897
    Natural varianti141 – 1411C → W in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002639
    Natural varianti144 – 1441H → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002640
    Natural varianti153 – 1531H → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002641
    Natural varianti163 – 1631L → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016898
    Natural varianti176 – 1761S → T in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016899
    Natural varianti178 – 1781R → S in DYT5. 3 Publications
    VAR_002642
    Natural varianti180 – 1801Q → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016900
    Natural varianti186 – 1861T → K in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002644
    Natural varianti191 – 1911V → I in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016901
    Natural varianti199 – 1991P → L in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016902
    Natural varianti201 – 2011G → E in DYT5. 2 Publications
    VAR_002645
    Natural varianti203 – 2031G → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002646
    Natural varianti211 – 2111M → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016903
    Natural varianti213 – 2131M → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016904
    Natural varianti224 – 2241K → R in GCH1D and DYT5; phenotype presenting with dystonia and myoclonus. 3 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs41298442 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_002648
    Natural varianti234 – 2341F → S in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002649
    Natural varianti241 – 2411R → W in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016906
    Natural varianti249 – 2491R → S in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016907

    Keywords - Diseasei

    Disease mutation, Dystonia, Parkinsonism, Phenylketonuria

    Organism-specific databases

    MIMi128230. phenotype.
    233910. phenotype.
    Orphaneti98808. Autosomal dominant dopa-responsive dystonia.
    2102. GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency.
    PharmGKBiPA28608.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 250250GTP cyclohydrolase 1PRO_0000119478Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei60 – 601Phosphoserine1 Publication
    Modified residuei81 – 811Phosphoserine1 Publication

    Post-translational modificationi

    Phosphorylated by casein kinase II at Ser-81 in HAECs during oscillatory shear stress; phosphorylation at Ser-81 results in increased enzyme activity.2 Publications

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBiP30793.
    PaxDbiP30793.
    PRIDEiP30793.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiP30793.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    In epidermis, expressed predominantly in basal undifferentiated keratinocytes and in some but not all melanocytes (at protein level).1 Publication

    Inductioni

    Up-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma, TNF, IL1B/interleukin-1 beta, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and phenylalanine, and down-regulated by dibutyryl-cAMP, iloprost and 8-bromo-cGMP in HUVEC cells. Up-regulation of GCH1 expression, in turn, stimulates production of tetrahydrobiopterin, with subsequent elevation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. Cytokine-induced GCH1 up-regulation in HUVECs in response to TNF and IFNG/IFN-gamma involves cooperative activation of both the NF-kappa-B and JAK2/STAT pathways. Also up-regulated by hydrogen peroxide in human aorta endothelial cells (HAECs).7 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiP30793.
    BgeeiP30793.
    CleanExiHS_GCH1.
    GenevestigatoriP30793.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiHPA028612.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Toroid-shaped homodecamer, composed of a dimer of pentamers. The inactive isoforms also form decamers and may possibly be incorporated into GCH1 heterodecamers, decreasing enzyme stability and activity. Interacts with AHSA1 and GCHFR/GFRP.3 Publications

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    AHSA1O954333EBI-958183,EBI-448610
    YWHAZP631044EBI-958183,EBI-347088

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi108913. 30 interactions.
    IntActiP30793. 12 interactions.
    MINTiMINT-3011998.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000378890.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    250
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Helixi61 – 8121
    Helixi91 – 933
    Helixi94 – 1029
    Turni103 – 1064
    Helixi108 – 1103
    Turni113 – 1153
    Beta strandi130 – 14112
    Turni142 – 1443
    Beta strandi147 – 15610
    Helixi165 – 17612
    Beta strandi177 – 1804
    Helixi182 – 19716
    Beta strandi202 – 2109
    Helixi211 – 2144
    Turni215 – 2173
    Beta strandi224 – 2307
    Helixi233 – 2364
    Helixi238 – 24811

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    1FB1X-ray3.10A/B/C/D/E55-250[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP30793.
    SMRiP30793. Positions 55-250.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiP30793.

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the GTP cyclohydrolase I family.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG0302.
    HOGENOMiHOG000221222.
    HOVERGENiHBG003136.
    InParanoidiP30793.
    KOiK01495.
    OMAiAHYKGEQ.
    OrthoDBiEOG77DJ6T.
    PhylomeDBiP30793.
    TreeFamiTF105616.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_00223. FolE.
    InterProiIPR001474. GTP_CycHdrlase_I.
    IPR018234. GTP_CycHdrlase_I_CS.
    IPR020602. GTP_CycHdrlase_I_dom.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR11109. PTHR11109. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF01227. GTP_cyclohydroI. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR00063. folE. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00859. GTP_CYCLOHYDROL_1_1. 1 hit.
    PS00860. GTP_CYCLOHYDROL_1_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequences (4)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    This entry describes 4 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform GCH-1 (identifier: P30793-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MEKGPVRAPA EKPRGARCSN GFPERDPPRP GPSRPAEKPP RPEAKSAQPA    50
    DGWKGERPRS EEDNELNLPN LAAAYSSILS SLGENPQRQG LLKTPWRAAS 100
    AMQFFTKGYQ ETISDVLNDA IFDEDHDEMV IVKDIDMFSM CEHHLVPFVG 150
    KVHIGYLPNK QVLGLSKLAR IVEIYSRRLQ VQERLTKQIA VAITEALRPA 200
    GVGVVVEATH MCMVMRGVQK MNSKTVTSTM LGVFREDPKT REEFLTLIRS 250
    Length:250
    Mass (Da):27,903
    Last modified:July 1, 1993 - v1
    Checksum:iB8A0CB344C598B9A
    GO
    Isoform GCH-2 (identifier: P30793-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         210-213: HMCM → SAEP
         214-250: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:213
    Mass (Da):23,516
    Checksum:i021D95DE6B33E02A
    GO
    Isoform GCH-3 (identifier: P30793-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         210-250: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:209
    Mass (Da):23,131
    Checksum:i8B33E02A53DF1259
    GO
    Isoform GCH-4 (identifier: P30793-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         210-233: HMCMVMRGVQKMNSKTVTSTMLGV → KSNKYNKGLSPLLSSCHLFVAILK
         234-250: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:233
    Mass (Da):25,775
    Checksum:i7100FBD83BFDB2C9
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti11 – 111E → G in AAD38866. (PubMed:11284739)Curated
    Sequence conflicti206 – 2061V → I in CAA78908. (PubMed:1482676)Curated

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti15 – 151G → D in HGCH-3.
    VAR_002632
    Natural varianti23 – 231P → L in DYT5. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs41298432 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_002633
    Natural varianti71 – 711L → Q in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016888
    Natural varianti74 – 741A → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016889
    Natural varianti79 – 791L → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002634
    Natural varianti83 – 831G → A in DYT5. 2 Publications
    VAR_016890
    Natural varianti88 – 892Missing in DYT5.
    VAR_016891
    Natural varianti88 – 881R → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002635
    Natural varianti88 – 881R → W in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002636
    Natural varianti90 – 901G → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016892
    Natural varianti102 – 1021M → K in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002637
    Natural varianti102 – 1021M → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016893
    Natural varianti106 – 1061T → I in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_054112
    Natural varianti108 – 1081G → D in GCH1D; phenotype presenting with dystonia and motor delay. 1 Publication
    VAR_016894
    Natural varianti115 – 1151D → N in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016895
    Natural varianti134 – 1341D → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002638
    Natural varianti135 – 1351I → K in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016896
    Natural varianti141 – 1411C → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016897
    Natural varianti141 – 1411C → W in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002639
    Natural varianti144 – 1441H → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002640
    Natural varianti153 – 1531H → P in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002641
    Natural varianti163 – 1631L → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016898
    Natural varianti176 – 1761S → T in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016899
    Natural varianti178 – 1781R → S in DYT5. 3 Publications
    VAR_002642
    Natural varianti180 – 1801Q → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016900
    Natural varianti184 – 1841R → H in GCH1D; severe hyperphenylalaninemia. 1 Publication
    VAR_002643
    Natural varianti186 – 1861T → K in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002644
    Natural varianti191 – 1911V → I in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016901
    Natural varianti199 – 1991P → L in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016902
    Natural varianti201 – 2011G → E in DYT5. 2 Publications
    VAR_002645
    Natural varianti203 – 2031G → R in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002646
    Natural varianti211 – 2111M → I in GCH1D; severe hyperphenylalaninemia. 1 Publication
    VAR_002647
    Natural varianti211 – 2111M → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016903
    Natural varianti213 – 2131M → V in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016904
    Natural varianti221 – 2211M → T in GCH1D; a patient presenting with dystonia and motor delay; compound heterozygote for an additional deletion. 1 Publication
    VAR_016905
    Natural varianti224 – 2241K → R in GCH1D and DYT5; phenotype presenting with dystonia and myoclonus. 3 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs41298442 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_002648
    Natural varianti234 – 2341F → S in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_002649
    Natural varianti241 – 2411R → W in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016906
    Natural varianti249 – 2491R → S in DYT5. 1 Publication
    VAR_016907

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei210 – 25041Missing in isoform GCH-3. 1 PublicationVSP_001610Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei210 – 23324HMCMV…TMLGV → KSNKYNKGLSPLLSSCHLFV AILK in isoform GCH-4. 1 PublicationVSP_001611Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei210 – 2134HMCM → SAEP in isoform GCH-2. 2 PublicationsVSP_001612
    Alternative sequencei214 – 25037Missing in isoform GCH-2. 2 PublicationsVSP_001613Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei234 – 25017Missing in isoform GCH-4. 1 PublicationVSP_001614Add
    BLAST

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    S44049 mRNA. Translation: AAB23164.1.
    S44053 mRNA. Translation: AAB23165.1.
    S43856 mRNA. Translation: AAB23166.1.
    Z29433 mRNA. Translation: CAB77391.1.
    Z29434 mRNA. Translation: CAB77392.1.
    U19523 mRNA. Translation: AAB16861.1.
    U66095 mRNA. Translation: AAD38866.1.
    U66097 mRNA. Translation: AAD38868.1.
    CR536551 mRNA. Translation: CAG38788.1.
    CH471061 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW80647.1.
    BC025415 mRNA. Translation: AAH25415.1.
    L29478 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB42186.1.
    Z30952 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA83213.1.
    Z16418 mRNA. Translation: CAA78908.1.
    U19259
    , U19256, U19257, U19258 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB60633.1.
    CCDSiCCDS41954.1. [P30793-4]
    CCDS45110.1. [P30793-2]
    CCDS9720.1. [P30793-1]
    PIRiG01630. PC1117.
    JC1225.
    RefSeqiNP_000152.1. NM_000161.2. [P30793-1]
    NP_001019195.1. NM_001024024.1. [P30793-1]
    NP_001019241.1. NM_001024070.1. [P30793-4]
    NP_001019242.1. NM_001024071.1. [P30793-2]
    XP_005267587.1. XM_005267530.1. [P30793-4]
    UniGeneiHs.86724.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000395514; ENSP00000378890; ENSG00000131979. [P30793-1]
    ENST00000491895; ENSP00000419045; ENSG00000131979. [P30793-1]
    ENST00000536224; ENSP00000445246; ENSG00000131979. [P30793-2]
    ENST00000543643; ENSP00000444011; ENSG00000131979. [P30793-4]
    GeneIDi2643.
    KEGGihsa:2643.
    UCSCiuc001xbh.1. human. [P30793-1]
    uc001xbj.1. human. [P30793-4]
    uc001xbk.1. human. [P30793-2]

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi399536.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    S44049 mRNA. Translation: AAB23164.1 .
    S44053 mRNA. Translation: AAB23165.1 .
    S43856 mRNA. Translation: AAB23166.1 .
    Z29433 mRNA. Translation: CAB77391.1 .
    Z29434 mRNA. Translation: CAB77392.1 .
    U19523 mRNA. Translation: AAB16861.1 .
    U66095 mRNA. Translation: AAD38866.1 .
    U66097 mRNA. Translation: AAD38868.1 .
    CR536551 mRNA. Translation: CAG38788.1 .
    CH471061 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW80647.1 .
    BC025415 mRNA. Translation: AAH25415.1 .
    L29478 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB42186.1 .
    Z30952 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA83213.1 .
    Z16418 mRNA. Translation: CAA78908.1 .
    U19259
    , U19256 , U19257 , U19258 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB60633.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS41954.1. [P30793-4 ]
    CCDS45110.1. [P30793-2 ]
    CCDS9720.1. [P30793-1 ]
    PIRi G01630. PC1117.
    JC1225.
    RefSeqi NP_000152.1. NM_000161.2. [P30793-1 ]
    NP_001019195.1. NM_001024024.1. [P30793-1 ]
    NP_001019241.1. NM_001024070.1. [P30793-4 ]
    NP_001019242.1. NM_001024071.1. [P30793-2 ]
    XP_005267587.1. XM_005267530.1. [P30793-4 ]
    UniGenei Hs.86724.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    1FB1 X-ray 3.10 A/B/C/D/E 55-250 [» ]
    ProteinModelPortali P30793.
    SMRi P30793. Positions 55-250.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 108913. 30 interactions.
    IntActi P30793. 12 interactions.
    MINTi MINT-3011998.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000378890.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei P30793.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 399536.

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBi P30793.
    PaxDbi P30793.
    PRIDEi P30793.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi 2643.
    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000395514 ; ENSP00000378890 ; ENSG00000131979 . [P30793-1 ]
    ENST00000491895 ; ENSP00000419045 ; ENSG00000131979 . [P30793-1 ]
    ENST00000536224 ; ENSP00000445246 ; ENSG00000131979 . [P30793-2 ]
    ENST00000543643 ; ENSP00000444011 ; ENSG00000131979 . [P30793-4 ]
    GeneIDi 2643.
    KEGGi hsa:2643.
    UCSCi uc001xbh.1. human. [P30793-1 ]
    uc001xbj.1. human. [P30793-4 ]
    uc001xbk.1. human. [P30793-2 ]

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 2643.
    GeneCardsi GC14M055308.
    GeneReviewsi GCH1.
    HGNCi HGNC:4193. GCH1.
    HPAi HPA028612.
    MIMi 128230. phenotype.
    233910. phenotype.
    600225. gene.
    neXtProti NX_P30793.
    Orphaneti 98808. Autosomal dominant dopa-responsive dystonia.
    2102. GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency.
    PharmGKBi PA28608.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG0302.
    HOGENOMi HOG000221222.
    HOVERGENi HBG003136.
    InParanoidi P30793.
    KOi K01495.
    OMAi AHYKGEQ.
    OrthoDBi EOG77DJ6T.
    PhylomeDBi P30793.
    TreeFami TF105616.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayi UPA00848 ; UER00151 .
    BioCyci MetaCyc:HS05586-MONOMER.
    Reactomei REACT_111176. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation.
    SABIO-RK P30793.

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTracei P30793.
    GeneWikii GTP_cyclohydrolase_I.
    GenomeRNAii 2643.
    NextBioi 10420.
    PROi P30793.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi P30793.
    Bgeei P30793.
    CleanExi HS_GCH1.
    Genevestigatori P30793.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPi MF_00223. FolE.
    InterProi IPR001474. GTP_CycHdrlase_I.
    IPR018234. GTP_CycHdrlase_I_CS.
    IPR020602. GTP_CycHdrlase_I_dom.
    [Graphical view ]
    PANTHERi PTHR11109. PTHR11109. 1 hit.
    Pfami PF01227. GTP_cyclohydroI. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    TIGRFAMsi TIGR00063. folE. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS00859. GTP_CYCLOHYDROL_1_1. 1 hit.
    PS00860. GTP_CYCLOHYDROL_1_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS GCH-1; GCH-2 AND GCH-3).
      Tissue: Liver.
    2. "Human GTP cyclohydrolase I: only one out of three cDNA isoforms gives rise to the active enzyme."
      Guetlich M., Jaeger E., Rucknaegel K.P., Werner T., Roedl W., Ziegler I., Bacher A.
      Biochem. J. 302:215-221(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS GCH-1 AND GCH-2), FUNCTION.
      Tissue: Liver.
    3. "Isolation of a full-length cDNA clone for human GTP cyclohydrolase I type 1 from pheochromocytoma."
      Nomura T., Ohtsuki M., Matsui S., Sumi-Ichinose C., Nomura H., Hagino Y., Iwase K., Ichinose H., Fujita K., Nagatsu T.
      J. Neural Transm. 101:237-242(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
      Tissue: Pheochromocytoma.
    4. "GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA: novel splice variants in the slime mould Physarum polycephalum and in human monocytes (THP-1) indicate conservation of mRNA processing."
      Golderer G., Werner E.R., Heufler C., Strohmaier W., Grobner P., Werner-Felmayer G.
      Biochem. J. 355:499-507(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS GCH-1 AND GCH-4).
      Tissue: Myelomonocyte.
    5. "Cloning of human full open reading frames in Gateway(TM) system entry vector (pDONR201)."
      Ebert L., Schick M., Neubert P., Schatten R., Henze S., Korn B.
      Submitted (JUN-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM GCH-1).
    6. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    7. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM GCH-1).
      Tissue: Brain.
    8. "Cloning, sequencing and functional studies of the gene encoding human GTP cyclohydrolase I."
      Witter K., Werner T., Blusch J.H., Schneider E.-M., Riess O., Ziegler I., Roedl W., Bacher A., Guetlich M.
      Gene 171:285-290(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-114.
      Tissue: Granulocyte.
    9. "Species and tissue specificity of mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I messenger RNA."
      Guetlich M., Schott K., Werner T., Bacher A., Ziegler I.
      Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1171:133-140(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 60-242.
    10. "Characterization of mouse and human GTP cyclohydrolase I genes. Mutations in patients with GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency."
      Ichinose H., Ohye T., Matsuda Y., Hori T.A., Blau N., Burlina A., Rouse B., Matalon R., Fujita K., Nagatsu T.
      J. Biol. Chem. 270:10062-10071(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 116-209.
    11. "The application of 8-aminoguanosine triphosphate, a new inhibitor of GTP cyclohydrolase I, to the purification of the enzyme from human liver."
      Blau N., Niederwieser A.
      Biochim. Biophys. Acta 880:26-31(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ENZYME ACTIVITY, ENZYME REGULATION.
    12. "Human liver GTP cyclohydrolase I: purification and some properties."
      Shen R.-S., Alam A., Zhang Y.X.
      Biochimie 71:343-349(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES.
    13. "Purification of GTP cyclohydrolase I from human liver and production of specific monoclonal antibodies."
      Schoedon G., Redweik U., Curtius H.-C.
      Eur. J. Biochem. 178:627-634(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ENZYME ACTIVITY, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    14. "Pteridine biosynthesis in human endothelial cells. Impact on nitric oxide-mediated formation of cyclic GMP."
      Werner-Felmayer G., Werner E.R., Fuchs D., Hausen A., Reibnegger G., Schmidt K., Weiss G., Wachter H.
      J. Biol. Chem. 268:1842-1846(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.
    15. "Mutations in the GTP cyclohydrolase I and 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase genes."
      Thoeny B., Blau N.
      Hum. Mutat. 10:11-20(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW ON VARIANTS.
    16. "Cytokines stimulate GTP cyclohydrolase I gene expression in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells."
      Katusic Z.S., Stelter A., Milstien S.
      Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 18:27-32(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, INDUCTION.
    17. "GTP cyclohydrolase I gene transfer augments intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin in human endothelial cells: effects on nitric oxide synthase activity, protein levels and dimerisation."
      Cai S., Alp N.J., McDonald D., Smith I., Kay J., Canevari L., Heales S., Channon K.M.
      Cardiovasc. Res. 55:838-849(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    18. "cAMP inhibits cytokine-induced biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells."
      Ohtsuki M., Shiraishi H., Kato T., Kuroda R., Tazawa M., Sumi-Ichinose C., Tada S., Udagawa Y., Itoh M., Hishida H., Ichinose H., Nagatsu T., Hagino Y., Nomura T.
      Life Sci. 70:2187-2198(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.
    19. "Role of human GTP cyclohydrolase I and its regulatory protein in tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism."
      Gesierich A., Niroomand F., Tiefenbacher C.P.
      Basic Res. Cardiol. 98:69-75(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.
    20. "cGMP inhibits GTP cyclohydrolase I activity and biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells."
      Shiraishi H., Kato T., Atsuta K., Sumi-Ichinose C., Ohtsuki M., Itoh M., Hishida H., Tada S., Udagawa Y., Nagatsu T., Hagino Y., Ichinose H., Nomura T.
      J. Pharmacol. Sci. 93:265-271(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.
    21. "GTP cyclohydrolase I utilizes metal-free GTP as its substrate."
      Suzuki T., Kurita H., Ichinose H.
      Eur. J. Biochem. 271:349-355(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ENZYME REGULATION.
    22. "The assays of activities and function of TH, AADC, and GCH1 and their potential use in ex vivo gene therapy of PD."
      Duan C.-L., Su Y., Zhao C.-L., Lu L.-L., Xu Q.-Y., Yang H.
      Brain Res. Brain Res. Protoc. 16:37-43(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    23. "Cytokine-stimulated GTP cyclohydrolase I expression in endothelial cells requires coordinated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and Stat1/Stat3."
      Huang A., Zhang Y.-Y., Chen K., Hatakeyama K., Keaney J.F. Jr.
      Circ. Res. 96:164-171(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.
    24. "Changes in tetrahydrobiopterin levels in endothelial cells and adult cardiomyocytes induced by LPS and hydrogen peroxide -- a role for GFRP?"
      Kalivendi S., Hatakeyama K., Whitsett J., Konorev E., Kalyanaraman B., Vasquez-Vivar J.
      Free Radic. Biol. Med. 38:481-491(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.
    25. "Interaction of human GTP cyclohydrolase I with its splice variants."
      Pandya M.J., Golderer G., Werner E.R., Werner-Felmayer G.
      Biochem. J. 400:75-80(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: SUBUNIT.
    26. "GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein controls cofactor 6-tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis in the cytosol and in the nucleus of epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes."
      Chavan B., Gillbro J.M., Rokos H., Schallreuter K.U.
      J. Invest. Dermatol. 126:2481-2489(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ENZYME ACTIVITY, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    27. "A yeast 2-hybrid analysis of human GTP cyclohydrolase I protein interactions."
      Swick L., Kapatos G.
      J. Neurochem. 97:1447-1455(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INTERACTION WITH AHSA1 AND GCHFR.
    28. Cited for: FUNCTION.
    29. "Regulation of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis by shear stress."
      Widder J.D., Chen W., Li L., Dikalov S., Thony B., Hatakeyama K., Harrison D.G.
      Circ. Res. 101:830-838(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION AT SER-81.
    30. "Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions."
      Mayya V., Lundgren D.H., Hwang S.-I., Rezaul K., Wu L., Eng J.K., Rodionov V., Han D.K.
      Sci. Signal. 2:RA46-RA46(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-60, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Leukemic T-cell.
    31. Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (3.1 ANGSTROMS) OF 55-250, SUBUNIT, ZINC-BINDING SITES.
    32. "Hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation caused by mutations in the GTP cyclohydrolase I gene."
      Ichinose H., Ohye T., Takahashi E., Seki N., Hori T., Segawa M., Nomura Y., Endo K., Tanaka H., Tsuji S., Fujita K., Nagatsu T.
      Nat. Genet. 8:236-242(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS DYT5 TRP-88; VAL-134 AND GLU-201.
    33. "GTP cyclohydrolase I gene in hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation."
      Ichinose H., Ohye T., Segawa M., Nomura Y., Endo K., Tanaka H., Tsuji S., Fujita K., Nagatsu T.
      Neurosci. Lett. 196:5-8(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 PRO-79, VARIANTS GCH1D HIS-184 AND ILE-211.
    34. "Mutant GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA levels contribute to dopa-responsive dystonia onset."
      Hirano M., Tamaru Y., Ito H., Matsumoto S., Imai T., Ueno S.
      Ann. Neurol. 40:796-798(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 PRO-144.
    35. "Dopa-responsive dystonia in British patients: new mutations of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I gene and evidence for genetic heterogeneity."
      Bandmann O., Nygaard T.G., Surtess R., Mardsen C.D., Wood N.W., Harding A.E.
      Hum. Mol. Genet. 5:403-406(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS DYT5 PRO-88; PRO-153; ARG-203; ARG-224 AND SER-234.
    36. "A novel point mutation in the GTP cyclohydrolase I gene in a Spanish family with hereditary progressive and dopa responsive dystonia."
      Beyer K., Lao-Villadoniga J.I., Vecino-Bilbao B., Cacabelos R., de la Fuent-Fernandez R.
      J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psych. 62:420-421(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 SER-178.
    37. "GTP cyclohydrolase I mutations in patients with dystonia responsive to anticholinergic drugs."
      Jarman P.R., Bandmann O., Marsden C.D., Wood N.W.
      J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psych. 63:304-308(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS DYT5 LEU-23 AND ASN-115.
    38. "Dystonia with motor delay in compound heterozygotes for GTP-cyclohydrolase I gene mutations."
      Furukawa Y., Kish S.J., Bebin E.M., Jacobson R.D., Fryburg J.S., Wilson W.G., Shimadzu M., Hyland K., Trugman J.M.
      Ann. Neurol. 44:10-16(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS GCH1D ASP-108; THR-221 AND ARG-224.
    39. Cited for: VARIANTS DYT5 GLN-71; VAL-74; ALA-83; ILE-191; VAL-211 AND TRP-241.
    40. "Dopa-responsive dystonia induced by a recessive GTP cyclohydrolase I mutation."
      Hwu W.-L., Wang P.-J., Hsiao K.-J., Wang T.-R., Chiou Y.-W., Lee Y.-M.
      Hum. Genet. 105:226-230(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 SER-249.
    41. "Characterization of wild-type and mutants of recombinant human GTP cyclohydrolase I: relationship to etiology of dopa-responsive dystonia."
      Suzuki T., Ohye T., Inagaki H., Nagatsu T., Ichinose H.
      J. Neurochem. 73:2510-2516(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS DYT5 ARG-102; LYS-102; ARG-141; TRP-141; THR-176; SER-178 AND LYS-186.
    42. "A new GTP-cyclohydrolase I mutation in an unusual dopa-responsive dystonia, familial form."
      Brique S., Destee A., Lambert J.-C., Mouroux V., Delacourte A., Amouyel P., Chartier-Harlin M.-C.
      NeuroReport 10:487-491(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 LYS-135.
    43. "A novel missense mutant inactivates GTP cyclohydrolase I in dopa-responsive dystonia."
      Hirano M., Komure O., Ueno S.
      Neurosci. Lett. 260:181-184(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 VAL-90.
    44. Cited for: VARIANTS DYT5 ALA-83; 88-ARG-GLN-89 DEL; SER-178; ARG-180; LEU-199 AND GLU-201.
    45. "Dopa-responsive dystonia: mutation analysis of GCH1 and analysis of therapeutic doses of L-dopa. German Dystonia Study Group."
      Steinberger D., Korinthenberg R., Topka H., Berghaeuser M., Wedde R., Mueller U.
      Neurology 55:1735-1737(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS DYT5 ARG-163 AND VAL-213.
    46. "Autosomal dominant GTP-CH deficiency presenting as a dopa-responsive myoclonus-dystonia syndrome."
      Leuzzi V., Carducci C., Carducci C., Cardona F., Artiola C., Antonozzi I.
      Neurology 59:1241-1243(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 ARG-224.
    47. "Novel mutations in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 gene associated with DYT5 dystonia."
      Ohta E., Funayama M., Ichinose H., Toyoshima I., Urano F., Matsuo M., Tomoko N., Yukihiko K., Yoshino S., Yokoyama H., Shimazu H., Maeda K., Hasegawa K., Obata F.
      Arch. Neurol. 63:1605-1610(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT DYT5 ILE-106.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGCH1_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P30793
    Secondary accession number(s): Q6FHY7, Q9Y4I8
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1993
    Last sequence update: July 1, 1993
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 160 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Allosteric enzyme, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 14
      Human chromosome 14: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    6. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    7. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3