Skip Header

You are using a version of Internet Explorer that may not display all features of this website. Please upgrade to a modern browser.
Contribute Send feedback
Read comments (?) or add your own

P30536 (TSPOA_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified March 19, 2014. Version 126. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (5) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Web links·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Translocator protein
Alternative name(s):
Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor
PKBS
Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor
Short name=PBR
Gene names
Name:TSPO
Synonyms:BZRP, MBR
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length169 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Responsible for the manifestation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites and is most likely to comprise binding domains for benzodiazepines and isoquinoline carboxamides. May play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme. Plays a role in the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes in steroidogenic cells By similarity.

Subunit structure

Interacts with BZRAP1 By similarity. May interact with STAR By similarity. Interacts with MOST-1. Ref.9 Ref.11

Subcellular location

Mitochondrion membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Tissue specificity

Found in many tissue types. Expressed at the highest levels under normal conditions in tissues that synthesize steroids. Ref.12

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the TspO/BZRP family.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Cellular componentMembrane
Mitochondrion
   Coding sequence diversityAlternative splicing
Polymorphism
   DomainTransmembrane
Transmembrane helix
   Molecular functionReceptor
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processadrenal gland development

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

aging

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

anion transport

Traceable author statement Ref.10. Source: HGNC

apoptotic process

Traceable author statement Ref.10. Source: HGNC

behavioral response to pain

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

cell proliferation

Traceable author statement Ref.10. Source: HGNC

cellular hypotonic response

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

cellular response to lipopolysaccharide

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

cellular response to zinc ion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

chloride transport

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

contact inhibition

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

glial cell migration

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

heme biosynthetic process

Traceable author statement Ref.10. Source: HGNC

negative regulation of glial cell proliferation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

peripheral nervous system axon regeneration

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of apoptotic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of calcium ion transport

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of glial cell proliferation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of mitochondrial depolarization

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of necrotic cell death

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

protein targeting to mitochondrion

Traceable author statement PubMed 1326278. Source: ProtInc

regulation of cholesterol transport

Traceable author statement Ref.10. Source: HGNC

regulation of steroid biosynthetic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to drug

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to manganese ion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to progesterone

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to testosterone

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to vitamin B1

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

steroid biosynthetic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

steroid metabolic process

Traceable author statement Ref.10. Source: HGNC

   Cellular_componentextracellular vesicular exosome

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 19056867. Source: UniProt

integral component of membrane

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

mitochondrial outer membrane

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 8307574. Source: ProtInc

   Molecular_functionandrogen binding

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

benzodiazepine receptor activity

Traceable author statement PubMed 1326278. Source: ProtInc

cholesterol binding

Traceable author statement Ref.10. Source: HGNC

Complete GO annotation...

Alternative products

This entry describes 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform 1 (identifier: P30536-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform 2 (identifier: B1AH88-1)

Also known as: PBR-S;

The sequence of this isoform can be found in the external entry B1AH88.
Isoforms of the same protein are often annotated in two different entries if their sequences differ significantly.
Note: No experimental confirmation available. The relatively low levels of the corresponding mRNA suggest that it might represent errors of the splicing machinery. In addition, isoform 2 is derived from a different reading frame, compared to isoform 1 and lacks homolog support.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 169169Translocator protein
PRO_0000190997

Regions

Transmembrane6 – 2621Helical; Name=1; Potential
Transmembrane47 – 6721Helical; Name=2; Potential
Transmembrane80 – 10021Helical; Name=3; Potential
Transmembrane106 – 12621Helical; Name=4; Potential
Transmembrane135 – 15521Helical; Name=5; Potential

Natural variations

Natural variant1471T → A. Ref.1 Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6 Ref.14 Ref.15
Corresponds to variant rs6971 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_013617
Natural variant1621R → H. Ref.1 Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.14 Ref.15
Corresponds to variant rs6972 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_013618
Natural variant1691E → Q. Ref.6
Corresponds to variant rs9333342 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_018868

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform 1 [UniParc].

Last modified November 30, 2010. Version 3.
Checksum: 6DD741BF99AB89D9

FASTA16918,828
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MAPPWVPAMG FTLAPSLGCF VGSRFVHGEG LRWYAGLQKP SWHPPHWVLG PVWGTLYSAM 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
GYGSYLVWKE LGGFTEKAVV PLGLYTGQLA LNWAWPPIFF GARQMGWALV DLLLVSGAAA 

       130        140        150        160 
ATTVAWYQVS PLAARLLYPY LAWLAFTTTL NYCVWRDNHG WRGGRRLPE 

« Hide

Isoform 2 (PBR-S) [UniParc].

See B1AH88.

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor."
Riond J., Mattei M.-G., Kaghad M., Dumont X., Guillemot J.-C., le Fur G., Caput D., Ferrara P.
Eur. J. Biochem. 195:305-311(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), VARIANTS ALA-147 AND HIS-162.
[2]"Comparison of repetitive elements in the third intron of human and rodent mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor-encoding genes."
Yakovlev A.G., Ruffo M., Jurka J., Krueger K.E.
Gene 155:201-205(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[3]"Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor: characterization in human T-lymphoma Jurkat cells."
Costa B., Salvetti A., Rossi L., Spinetti F., Lena A., Chelli B., Rechichi M., Da Pozzo E., Gremigni V., Martini C.
Mol. Pharmacol. 69:37-44(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
[4]"Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
Submitted (MAY-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), VARIANTS ALA-147 AND HIS-162.
[5]"A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome."
Collins J.E., Wright C.L., Edwards C.A., Davis M.P., Grinham J.A., Cole C.G., Goward M.E., Aguado B., Mallya M., Mokrab Y., Huckle E.J., Beare D.M., Dunham I.
Genome Biol. 5:R84.1-R84.11(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), VARIANTS ALA-147 AND HIS-162.
[6]NIEHS SNPs program
Submitted (SEP-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANTS ALA-147 AND GLN-169.
[7]"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22."
Dunham I., Hunt A.R., Collins J.E., Bruskiewich R., Beare D.M., Clamp M., Smink L.J., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C., Bailey J., Barlow K.F., Bates K.N., Beasley O.P., Bird C.P., Blakey S.E., Bridgeman A.M. expand/collapse author list , Buck D., Burgess J., Burrill W.D., Burton J., Carder C., Carter N.P., Chen Y., Clark G., Clegg S.M., Cobley V.E., Cole C.G., Collier R.E., Connor R., Conroy D., Corby N.R., Coville G.J., Cox A.V., Davis J., Dawson E., Dhami P.D., Dockree C., Dodsworth S.J., Durbin R.M., Ellington A.G., Evans K.L., Fey J.M., Fleming K., French L., Garner A.A., Gilbert J.G.R., Goward M.E., Grafham D.V., Griffiths M.N.D., Hall C., Hall R.E., Hall-Tamlyn G., Heathcott R.W., Ho S., Holmes S., Hunt S.E., Jones M.C., Kershaw J., Kimberley A.M., King A., Laird G.K., Langford C.F., Leversha M.A., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Martyn I.D., Mashreghi-Mohammadi M., Matthews L.H., Mccann O.T., Mcclay J., Mclaren S., McMurray A.A., Milne S.A., Mortimore B.J., Odell C.N., Pavitt R., Pearce A.V., Pearson D., Phillimore B.J.C.T., Phillips S.H., Plumb R.W., Ramsay H., Ramsey Y., Rogers L., Ross M.T., Scott C.E., Sehra H.K., Skuce C.D., Smalley S., Smith M.L., Soderlund C., Spragon L., Steward C.A., Sulston J.E., Swann R.M., Vaudin M., Wall M., Wallis J.M., Whiteley M.N., Willey D.L., Williams L., Williams S.A., Williamson H., Wilmer T.E., Wilming L., Wright C.L., Hubbard T., Bentley D.R., Beck S., Rogers J., Shimizu N., Minoshima S., Kawasaki K., Sasaki T., Asakawa S., Kudoh J., Shintani A., Shibuya K., Yoshizaki Y., Aoki N., Mitsuyama S., Roe B.A., Chen F., Chu L., Crabtree J., Deschamps S., Do A., Do T., Dorman A., Fang F., Fu Y., Hu P., Hua A., Kenton S., Lai H., Lao H.I., Lewis J., Lewis S., Lin S.-P., Loh P., Malaj E., Nguyen T., Pan H., Phan S., Qi S., Qian Y., Ray L., Ren Q., Shaull S., Sloan D., Song L., Wang Q., Wang Y., Wang Z., White J., Willingham D., Wu H., Yao Z., Zhan M., Zhang G., Chissoe S., Murray J., Miller N., Minx P., Fulton R., Johnson D., Bemis G., Bentley D., Bradshaw H., Bourne S., Cordes M., Du Z., Fulton L., Goela D., Graves T., Hawkins J., Hinds K., Kemp K., Latreille P., Layman D., Ozersky P., Rohlfing T., Scheet P., Walker C., Wamsley A., Wohldmann P., Pepin K., Nelson J., Korf I., Bedell J.A., Hillier L.W., Mardis E., Waterston R., Wilson R., Emanuel B.S., Shaikh T., Kurahashi H., Saitta S., Budarf M.L., McDermid H.E., Johnson A., Wong A.C.C., Morrow B.E., Edelmann L., Kim U.J., Shizuya H., Simon M.I., Dumanski J.P., Peyrard M., Kedra D., Seroussi E., Fransson I., Tapia I., Bruder C.E., O'Brien K.P., Wilkinson P., Bodenteich A., Hartman K., Hu X., Khan A.S., Lane L., Tilahun Y., Wright H.
Nature 402:489-495(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[8]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
Tissue: Lymph.
[9]"Cloning and characterization of PRAX-1. A new protein that specifically interacts with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor."
Galiegue S., Jbilo O., Combes T., Bribes E., Carayon P., Le Fur G., Casellas P.
J. Biol. Chem. 274:2938-2952(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH BZRAP1.
Tissue: Brain.
[10]"Translocator protein (18kDa): new nomenclature for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor based on its structure and molecular function."
Papadopoulos V., Baraldi M., Guilarte T.R., Knudsen T.B., Lacapere J.-J., Lindemann P., Norenberg M.D., Nutt D., Weizman A., Zhang M.-R., Gavish M.
Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 27:402-409(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NOMENCLATURE.
[11]"Cellular expression, localization and interactions of the product of the human MOST-1 gene associated with breast and prostate cancers."
Tan J.M.M., Chow V.T.K.
Int. J. Oncol. 30:81-89(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH MOST-1.
[12]"Regulation of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) expression in health and disease states."
Batarseh A., Papadopoulos V.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 327:1-12(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[13]"Initial characterization of the human central proteome."
Burkard T.R., Planyavsky M., Kaupe I., Breitwieser F.P., Buerckstuemmer T., Bennett K.L., Superti-Furga G., Colinge J.
BMC Syst. Biol. 5:17-17(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[14]"An association study between two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese sample."
Kurumaji A., Nomoto H., Yoshikawa T., Okubo Y., Toru M.
J. Neural Transm. 107:491-500(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: VARIANTS ALA-147 AND HIS-162.
[15]"No association of two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and mood disorders in a Japanese sample."
Kurumaji A., Nomoto H., Yamada K., Yoshikawa T., Toru M.
Am. J. Med. Genet. 105:172-175(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: VARIANTS ALA-147 AND HIS-162.

Web resources

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
M36035 mRNA. Translation: AAA03652.1.
U12421 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA83252.1.
AY998017 mRNA. Translation: AAY45787.1.
BT006949 mRNA. Translation: AAP35595.1.
CR456409 mRNA. Translation: CAG30295.1.
AY383615 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAQ75703.1.
Z82214 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB55884.1.
BC001110 mRNA. Translation: AAH01110.1.
PIRI38724.
JE0149.
S14257.
RefSeqNP_000705.2. NM_000714.5.
NP_001243459.1. NM_001256530.1.
NP_001243460.1. NM_001256531.1.
UniGeneHs.202.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP30536.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid107168. 3 interactions.

Chemistry

BindingDBP30536.
ChEMBLCHEMBL5742.
DrugBankDB00546. Adinazolam.
DB00404. Alprazolam.
DB01178. Chlormezanone.
DB01594. Cinolazepam.
DB01068. Clonazepam.
DB00628. Clorazepate.
DB01559. Clotiazepam.
DB00829. Diazepam.
DB00822. Disulfiram.
DB01215. Estazolam.
DB00402. Eszopiclone.
DB01544. Flunitrazepam.
DB00801. Halazepam.
DB00186. Lorazepam.
DB00231. Temazepam.
DB00897. Triazolam.
DB00962. Zaleplon.
DB00425. Zolpidem.
DB01198. Zopiclone.

Protein family/group databases

TCDB9.A.24.1.1. the mitochondrial outer membrane insertion pathway (mom-ip) family.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM464399.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP30536.
PRIDEP30536.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU706.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000329563; ENSP00000328973; ENSG00000100300. [P30536-1]
ENST00000337554; ENSP00000338004; ENSG00000100300. [P30536-1]
GeneID706.
KEGGhsa:706.
UCSCuc003bdn.4. human. [P30536-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTD706.
GeneCardsGC22P043547.
HGNCHGNC:1158. TSPO.
HPACAB011232.
HPA046260.
MIM109610. gene.
neXtProtNX_P30536.
PharmGKBPA25473.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG3476.
HOGENOMHOG000224659.
InParanoidP30536.
KOK05770.
OMAATTLNYC.
OrthoDBEOG7V7687.
PhylomeDBP30536.
TreeFamTF342852.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressP30536.
BgeeP30536.
CleanExHS_TSPO.
GenevestigatorP30536.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR004307. TspO_MBR.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR10057. PTHR10057. 1 hit.
PfamPF03073. TspO_MBR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFPIRSF005859. PBR. 1 hit.
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSTSPO. human.
GeneWikiTranslocator_protein.
GenomeRNAi706.
NextBio2874.
PROP30536.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameTSPOA_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P30536
Secondary accession number(s): Q53Y59, Q6ICF9, Q96TF6
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1993
Last sequence update: November 30, 2010
Last modified: March 19, 2014
This is version 126 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 22

Human chromosome 22: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM