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Protein

CD40 ligand

Gene

CD40LG

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Cytokine that binds to CD40/TNFRSF5 (PubMed:1280226). Costimulates T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Its cross-linking on T-cells generates a costimulatory signal which enhances the production of IL4 and IL10 in conjunction with the TCR/CD3 ligation and CD28 costimulation (PubMed:8617933). Induces the activation of NF-kappa-B and kinases MAPK8 and PAK2 in T-cells. Induces tyrosine phosphorylation of isoform 3 of CD28 (PubMed:15067037). Mediates B-cell proliferation in the absence of co-stimulus as well as IgE production in the presence of IL4. Involved in immunoglobulin class switching (By similarity).By similarity3 Publications
Release of soluble CD40L from platelets is partially regulated by GP IIb/IIIa, actin polymerization, and an matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitor-sensitive pathway.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • CD40 receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • activation of JUN kinase activity Source: UniProtKB
  • B cell differentiation Source: Ensembl
  • B cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  • immunoglobulin secretion Source: Ensembl
  • inflammatory response Source: UniProtKB
  • isotype switching Source: UniProtKB
  • leukocyte cell-cell adhesion Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB
  • platelet activation Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of interleukin-10 production Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of interleukin-12 production Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of interleukin-4 production Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of immune response Source: Reactome
  • regulation of immunoglobulin secretion Source: Ensembl
  • T cell costimulation Source: UniProtKB
  • tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Cytokine

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-198933. Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell.
R-HSA-5668541. TNFR2 non-canonical NF-kB pathway.
R-HSA-5676594. TNF receptor superfamily (TNFSF) members mediating non-canonical NF-kB pathway.
SIGNORiP29965.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
CD40 ligand
Short name:
CD40-L
Alternative name(s):
T-cell antigen Gp39
TNF-related activation protein
Short name:
TRAP
Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5
CD_antigen: CD154
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:CD40LG
Synonyms:CD40L, TNFSF5, TRAP
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:11935. CD40LG.

Subcellular locationi

CD40 ligand, soluble form :

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini1 – 2222CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei23 – 4624Helical; Signal-anchor for type II membrane proteinSequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini47 – 261215ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cell surface Source: UniProtKB
  • external side of plasma membrane Source: Ensembl
  • extracellular space Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB
  • integral component of plasma membrane Source: ProtInc
  • intracellular Source: GOC
  • plasma membrane Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

X-linked immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM 1 (HIGM1)10 Publications
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionImmunoglobulin isotype switch defect characterized by elevated concentrations of serum IgM and decreased amounts of all other isotypes. Affected males present at an early age (usually within the first year of life) recurrent bacterial and opportunistic infections, including Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and intractable diarrhea due to cryptosporidium infection. Despite substitution treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, the overall prognosis is rather poor, with a death rate of about 10% before adolescence.
See also OMIM:308230
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti36 – 361M → R in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894774 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007513
Natural varianti38 – 381G → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017925
Natural varianti116 – 1161G → R in HIGM1.
VAR_017929
Natural varianti116 – 1161G → S in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017930
Natural varianti123 – 1231A → E in HIGM1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs104894778 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007514
Natural varianti125 – 1251H → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017926
Natural varianti126 – 1261V → A in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007515
Natural varianti126 – 1261V → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017931
Natural varianti128 – 1292SE → RG in HIGM1.
VAR_007516
Natural varianti140 – 1401W → C in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007517
Natural varianti140 – 1401W → G in HIGM1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs104894777 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007518
Natural varianti140 – 1401W → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007519
Natural varianti143 – 1431K → T in HIGM1.
VAR_017932
Natural varianti144 – 1441G → E in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007520
Natural varianti147 – 1471T → N in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017922
Natural varianti155 – 1551L → P in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894769 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007521
Natural varianti170 – 1701Y → C in HIGM1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs756468554 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017923
Natural varianti173 – 1731A → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017933
Natural varianti174 – 1741Q → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017927
Natural varianti176 – 1761T → I in HIGM1.
VAR_017934
Natural varianti195 – 1951L → P in HIGM1.
VAR_017935
Natural varianti208 – 2081A → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017936
Natural varianti211 – 2111T → N in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007522
Natural varianti224 – 2241H → Y in HIGM1.
VAR_017937
Natural varianti226 – 2261G → A in HIGM1.
VAR_017938
Natural varianti227 – 2271G → V in HIGM1. 3 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894768 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007524
Natural varianti227 – 2271Missing in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007525
Natural varianti231 – 2311L → S in HIGM1. 2 Publications
VAR_007526
Natural varianti235 – 2351A → P in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894771 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007527
Natural varianti237 – 2371V → E in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017939
Natural varianti254 – 2541T → M in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs193922136 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007528
Natural varianti257 – 2571G → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017940
Natural varianti257 – 2571G → S in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017928
Natural varianti258 – 2581L → S in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017924

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation

Organism-specific databases

MalaCardsiCD40LG.
MIMi308230. phenotype.
Orphaneti101088. X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.
PharmGKBiPA36626.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCD40LG.
DMDMi231718.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 261261CD40 ligand, membrane formPRO_0000034484Add
BLAST
Chaini113 – 261149CD40 ligand, soluble form1 PublicationPRO_0000034485Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi178 ↔ 218Sequence analysis
Glycosylationi240 – 2401N-linked (GlcNAc...) (high mannose and complex)CAR_000229

Post-translational modificationi

The soluble form derives from the membrane form by proteolytic processing.1 Publication
N-linked glycan is a mixture of high mannose and complex type. Glycan structure does not influence binding affinity to CD40.
Not O-glycosylated.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei112 – 1132Cleavage

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP29965.
PaxDbiP29965.
PeptideAtlasiP29965.
PRIDEiP29965.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP29965.
PhosphoSiteiP29965.
UniCarbKBiP29965.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP29965.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Specifically expressed on activated CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000102245.
CleanExiHS_CD40LG.
ExpressionAtlasiP29965. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP29965. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA045827.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homotrimer (PubMed:8589998, PubMed:8626375, PubMed:11676606). Interacts with isoform 3 of CD28 (PubMed:15067037).4 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • CD40 receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107397. 9 interactions.
DIPiDIP-3013N.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000359663.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
261
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi123 – 1286Combined sources
Beta strandi132 – 1343Combined sources
Beta strandi140 – 1423Combined sources
Beta strandi153 – 1564Combined sources
Turni157 – 1593Combined sources
Beta strandi160 – 1656Combined sources
Beta strandi167 – 17913Combined sources
Turni181 – 1833Combined sources
Beta strandi186 – 19510Combined sources
Beta strandi203 – 2119Combined sources
Beta strandi218 – 23215Combined sources
Beta strandi237 – 2426Combined sources
Helixi244 – 2463Combined sources
Beta strandi251 – 26010Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1ALYX-ray2.00A116-261[»]
1I9RX-ray3.10A/B/C116-261[»]
3LKJX-ray2.50A/B/C121-261[»]
3QD6X-ray3.50A/B/C/D/E/F116-261[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP29965.
SMRiP29965. Positions 116-261.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP29965.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal-anchor, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IVYF. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111TET. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000048489.
HOGENOMiHOG000111291.
HOVERGENiHBG079629.
InParanoidiP29965.
KOiK03161.
OMAiSMKIFMY.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0I9G.
PhylomeDBiP29965.
TreeFamiTF332169.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.120.40. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR003263. CD40L.
IPR021184. TNF_CS.
IPR006052. TNF_dom.
IPR008983. Tumour_necrosis_fac-like_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00229. TNF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF016527. TNF_5. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR01702. CD40LIGAND.
SMARTiSM00207. TNF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49842. SSF49842. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00251. TNF_1. 1 hit.
PS50049. TNF_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P29965-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MIETYNQTSP RSAATGLPIS MKIFMYLLTV FLITQMIGSA LFAVYLHRRL
60 70 80 90 100
DKIEDERNLH EDFVFMKTIQ RCNTGERSLS LLNCEEIKSQ FEGFVKDIML
110 120 130 140 150
NKEETKKENS FEMQKGDQNP QIAAHVISEA SSKTTSVLQW AEKGYYTMSN
160 170 180 190 200
NLVTLENGKQ LTVKRQGLYY IYAQVTFCSN REASSQAPFI ASLCLKSPGR
210 220 230 240 250
FERILLRAAN THSSAKPCGQ QSIHLGGVFE LQPGASVFVN VTDPSQVSHG
260
TGFTSFGLLK L
Length:261
Mass (Da):29,274
Last modified:April 1, 1993 - v1
Checksum:i16F5CEB093BCC2BB
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti36 – 361M → R in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894774 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007513
Natural varianti38 – 381G → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017925
Natural varianti116 – 1161G → R in HIGM1.
VAR_017929
Natural varianti116 – 1161G → S in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017930
Natural varianti123 – 1231A → E in HIGM1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs104894778 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007514
Natural varianti125 – 1251H → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017926
Natural varianti126 – 1261V → A in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007515
Natural varianti126 – 1261V → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017931
Natural varianti128 – 1292SE → RG in HIGM1.
VAR_007516
Natural varianti140 – 1401W → C in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007517
Natural varianti140 – 1401W → G in HIGM1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs104894777 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007518
Natural varianti140 – 1401W → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007519
Natural varianti143 – 1431K → T in HIGM1.
VAR_017932
Natural varianti144 – 1441G → E in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007520
Natural varianti147 – 1471T → N in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017922
Natural varianti155 – 1551L → P in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894769 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007521
Natural varianti170 – 1701Y → C in HIGM1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs756468554 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017923
Natural varianti173 – 1731A → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017933
Natural varianti174 – 1741Q → R in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017927
Natural varianti176 – 1761T → I in HIGM1.
VAR_017934
Natural varianti195 – 1951L → P in HIGM1.
VAR_017935
Natural varianti208 – 2081A → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017936
Natural varianti211 – 2111T → N in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007522
Natural varianti219 – 2191G → R.1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs148594123 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007523
Natural varianti224 – 2241H → Y in HIGM1.
VAR_017937
Natural varianti226 – 2261G → A in HIGM1.
VAR_017938
Natural varianti227 – 2271G → V in HIGM1. 3 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894768 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007524
Natural varianti227 – 2271Missing in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_007525
Natural varianti231 – 2311L → S in HIGM1. 2 Publications
VAR_007526
Natural varianti235 – 2351A → P in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs104894771 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007527
Natural varianti237 – 2371V → E in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017939
Natural varianti254 – 2541T → M in HIGM1. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs193922136 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_007528
Natural varianti257 – 2571G → D in HIGM1.
VAR_017940
Natural varianti257 – 2571G → S in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017928
Natural varianti258 – 2581L → S in HIGM1. 1 Publication
VAR_017924

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X68550 mRNA. Translation: CAA48554.1.
Z15017 mRNA. Translation: CAA78737.1.
X67878 mRNA. Translation: CAA48077.1.
L07414 mRNA. Translation: AAA35662.1.
D31797 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA06599.1.
BC071754 mRNA. Translation: AAH71754.1.
BC074950 mRNA. Translation: AAH74950.1.
CCDSiCCDS14659.1.
PIRiS28017. I53476.
RefSeqiNP_000065.1. NM_000074.2.
UniGeneiHs.592244.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000370629; ENSP00000359663; ENSG00000102245.
GeneIDi959.
KEGGihsa:959.
UCSCiuc004faa.4. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

CD40Lbase

CD40L defect database

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X68550 mRNA. Translation: CAA48554.1.
Z15017 mRNA. Translation: CAA78737.1.
X67878 mRNA. Translation: CAA48077.1.
L07414 mRNA. Translation: AAA35662.1.
D31797 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA06599.1.
BC071754 mRNA. Translation: AAH71754.1.
BC074950 mRNA. Translation: AAH74950.1.
CCDSiCCDS14659.1.
PIRiS28017. I53476.
RefSeqiNP_000065.1. NM_000074.2.
UniGeneiHs.592244.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1ALYX-ray2.00A116-261[»]
1I9RX-ray3.10A/B/C116-261[»]
3LKJX-ray2.50A/B/C121-261[»]
3QD6X-ray3.50A/B/C/D/E/F116-261[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP29965.
SMRiP29965. Positions 116-261.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107397. 9 interactions.
DIPiDIP-3013N.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000359663.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP29965.
PhosphoSiteiP29965.
UniCarbKBiP29965.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCD40LG.
DMDMi231718.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP29965.
PaxDbiP29965.
PeptideAtlasiP29965.
PRIDEiP29965.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi959.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000370629; ENSP00000359663; ENSG00000102245.
GeneIDi959.
KEGGihsa:959.
UCSCiuc004faa.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi959.
GeneCardsiCD40LG.
GeneReviewsiCD40LG.
HGNCiHGNC:11935. CD40LG.
HPAiHPA045827.
MalaCardsiCD40LG.
MIMi300386. gene.
308230. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P29965.
Orphaneti101088. X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.
PharmGKBiPA36626.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IVYF. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111TET. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000048489.
HOGENOMiHOG000111291.
HOVERGENiHBG079629.
InParanoidiP29965.
KOiK03161.
OMAiSMKIFMY.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0I9G.
PhylomeDBiP29965.
TreeFamiTF332169.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-198933. Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell.
R-HSA-5668541. TNFR2 non-canonical NF-kB pathway.
R-HSA-5676594. TNF receptor superfamily (TNFSF) members mediating non-canonical NF-kB pathway.
SIGNORiP29965.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP29965.
GeneWikiiCD154.
GenomeRNAii959.
PMAP-CutDBP29965.
PROiP29965.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000102245.
CleanExiHS_CD40LG.
ExpressionAtlasiP29965. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP29965. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.120.40. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR003263. CD40L.
IPR021184. TNF_CS.
IPR006052. TNF_dom.
IPR008983. Tumour_necrosis_fac-like_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00229. TNF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF016527. TNF_5. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR01702. CD40LIGAND.
SMARTiSM00207. TNF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49842. SSF49842. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00251. TNF_1. 1 hit.
PS50049. TNF_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCD40L_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P29965
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1993
Last sequence update: April 1, 1993
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 188 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human cell differentiation molecules
    CD nomenclature of surface proteins of human leucocytes and list of entries
  2. Human chromosome X
    Human chromosome X: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  7. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.