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Protein

Squalene synthase

Gene

ERG9

Organism
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the condensation of 2 two farnesyl pyrophosphate moieties to form squalene. It is the first committed enzyme of the sterol biosynthesis pathway. Required for the biosynthesis of ergosterol. May also have a regulatory role regulating the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway. Squalene synthase is crucial for balancing the incorporation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into sterol and nonsterol isoprene synthesis. ERG9 is also essential for cell growth in yeast.3 Publications

Catalytic activityi

2 farnesyl diphosphate + NAD(P)H = squalene + 2 diphosphate + NAD(P)+.

Cofactori

Mg2+1 Publication

Pathway:ilanosterol biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes lanosterol from farnesyl diphosphate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 3 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Squalene synthase (ERG9)
  2. Squalene monooxygenase (ERG1)
  3. Lanosterol synthase (ERG7)
This subpathway is part of the pathway lanosterol biosynthesis, which is itself part of Terpene metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes lanosterol from farnesyl diphosphate, the pathway lanosterol biosynthesis and in Terpene metabolism.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase activity Source: SGD
  • oxidoreductase activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • squalene synthase activity Source: SGD

GO - Biological processi

  • ergosterol biosynthetic process Source: SGD
  • isoprenoid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Isoprene biosynthesis, Lipid biosynthesis, Lipid metabolism, Steroid biosynthesis, Steroid metabolism, Sterol biosynthesis, Sterol metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

Magnesium, NADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:YHR190W-MONOMER.
YEAST:YHR190W-MONOMER.
ReactomeiREACT_283157. Cholesterol biosynthesis.
UniPathwayiUPA00767; UER00751.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Squalene synthase (EC:2.5.1.21)
Short name:
SQS
Short name:
SS
Alternative name(s):
FPP:FPP farnesyltransferase
Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase
Gene namesi
Name:ERG9
Ordered Locus Names:YHR190W
OrganismiSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
Taxonomic identifieri559292 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaSaccharomycotinaSaccharomycetesSaccharomycetalesSaccharomycetaceaeSaccharomyces
ProteomesiUP000002311 Componenti: Chromosome VIII

Organism-specific databases

CYGDiYHR190w.
EuPathDBiFungiDB:YHR190W.
SGDiS000001233. ERG9.

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transmembranei291 – 31121HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei421 – 44121HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  • endoplasmic reticulum membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • integral component of membrane Source: SGD
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane, Microsome

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 444444Squalene synthasePRO_0000067454Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP29704.
PaxDbiP29704.
PeptideAtlasiP29704.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi36624. 32 interactions.
DIPiDIP-4576N.
IntActiP29704. 7 interactions.
MINTiMINT-491875.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP29704.
SMRiP29704. Positions 34-373.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the phytoene/squalene synthase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1562.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016034.
HOGENOMiHOG000186940.
InParanoidiP29704.
KOiK00801.
OMAiFHTYLYQ.
OrthoDBiEOG7GJ6P5.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008949. Isoprenoid_synthase_dom.
IPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
IPR006449. Squal_synth.
IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01559. squal_synth. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P29704-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGKLLQLALH PVEMKAALKL KFCRTPLFSI YDQSTSPYLL HCFELLNLTS
60 70 80 90 100
RSFAAVIREL HPELRNCVTL FYLILRALDT IEDDMSIEHD LKIDLLRHFH
110 120 130 140 150
EKLLLTKWSF DGNAPDVKDR AVLTDFESIL IEFHKLKPEY QEVIKEITEK
160 170 180 190 200
MGNGMADYIL DENYNLNGLQ TVHDYDVYCH YVAGLVGDGL TRLIVIAKFA
210 220 230 240 250
NESLYSNEQL YESMGLFLQK TNIIRDYNED LVDGRSFWPK EIWSQYAPQL
260 270 280 290 300
KDFMKPENEQ LGLDCINHLV LNALSHVIDV LTYLAGIHEQ STFQFCAIPQ
310 320 330 340 350
VMAIATLALV FNNREVLHGN VKIRKGTTCY LILKSRTLRG CVEIFDYYLR
360 370 380 390 400
DIKSKLAVQD PNFLKLNIQI SKIEQFMEEM YQDKLPPNVK PNETPIFLKV
410 420 430 440
KERSRYDDEL VPTQQEEEYK FNMVLSIILS VLLGFYYIYT LHRA
Length:444
Mass (Da):51,720
Last modified:February 1, 1995 - v2
Checksum:i3DA00295B8DFDB16
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti48 – 481L → F in CAA42583 (PubMed:1807826).Curated
Sequence conflicti286 – 2861G → S in AAA34597 (PubMed:2068081).Curated
Sequence conflicti320 – 3201N → D in CAA42583 (PubMed:1807826).Curated
Sequence conflicti330 – 3301Y → C in CAA42583 (PubMed:1807826).Curated
Sequence conflicti429 – 4291L → S in CAA42583 (PubMed:1807826).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M63979 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA34597.1.
X59959 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA42583.1.
U00030 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB68360.1.
BK006934 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA06882.1.
PIRiS46682.
RefSeqiNP_012060.1. NM_001179321.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiYHR190W; YHR190W; YHR190W.
GeneIDi856597.
KEGGisce:YHR190W.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M63979 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA34597.1.
X59959 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA42583.1.
U00030 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB68360.1.
BK006934 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA06882.1.
PIRiS46682.
RefSeqiNP_012060.1. NM_001179321.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP29704.
SMRiP29704. Positions 34-373.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi36624. 32 interactions.
DIPiDIP-4576N.
IntActiP29704. 7 interactions.
MINTiMINT-491875.

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3271930.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP29704.
PaxDbiP29704.
PeptideAtlasiP29704.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiYHR190W; YHR190W; YHR190W.
GeneIDi856597.
KEGGisce:YHR190W.

Organism-specific databases

CYGDiYHR190w.
EuPathDBiFungiDB:YHR190W.
SGDiS000001233. ERG9.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1562.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016034.
HOGENOMiHOG000186940.
InParanoidiP29704.
KOiK00801.
OMAiFHTYLYQ.
OrthoDBiEOG7GJ6P5.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00767; UER00751.
BioCyciMetaCyc:YHR190W-MONOMER.
YEAST:YHR190W-MONOMER.
ReactomeiREACT_283157. Cholesterol biosynthesis.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi982487.
PROiP29704.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.600.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008949. Isoprenoid_synthase_dom.
IPR002060. Squ/phyt_synthse.
IPR006449. Squal_synth.
IPR019845. Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00494. SQS_PSY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48576. SSF48576. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01559. squal_synth. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01044. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_1. 1 hit.
PS01045. SQUALEN_PHYTOEN_SYN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Isolation and primary structure of the ERG9 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding squalene synthetase."
    Fegueur M., Richard L., Charles A.D., Karst F.
    Curr. Genet. 20:365-372(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  2. "Molecular cloning and characterization of the yeast gene for squalene synthetase."
    Jennings S.M., Tsay Y.H., Fisch T.M., Robinson G.W.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:6038-6042(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
  4. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
  5. "Yeast squalene synthase: expression, purification, and characterization of soluble recombinant enzyme."
    Zhang D., Jennings S.M., Robinson G.W., Poulter C.D.
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 304:133-143(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, COFACTOR.
  6. Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  7. Cited for: LEVEL OF PROTEIN EXPRESSION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiFDFT_YEAST
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P29704
Secondary accession number(s): D3DLD8
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1993
Last sequence update: February 1, 1995
Last modified: July 22, 2015
This is version 142 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Present with 10800 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium.1 Publication

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Multifunctional enzyme, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. Yeast
    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): entries, gene names and cross-references to SGD
  4. Yeast chromosome VIII
    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosome VIII: entries and gene names

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.