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Protein

Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase

Gene

gppA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the conversion of pppGpp to ppGpp. Guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) is a cytoplasmic signaling molecule which together with ppGpp controls the "stringent response", an adaptive process that allows bacteria to respond to amino acid starvation, resulting in the coordinated regulation of numerous cellular activities (PubMed:6130093, PubMed:8394006). In vitro, can hydrolyze pppGp (PubMed:6130093). Also has exopolyphosphatase activity, catalyzing the release of orthophosphate by processive hydrolysis of the phosphoanyhydride bonds of polyphosphate chains (1000 residues) (PubMed:8394006).2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Guanosine 5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate + H2O = guanosine 3',5'-bis(diphosphate) + phosphate.UniRule annotation2 Publications

Enzyme regulationi

Requires Mg2+ and a monovalent cation, with NH4 preferred over K+ (PubMed:6130093). KCl, NaCl and NaF salts inhibit the exopolyphosphatase activity (PubMed:8394006).2 Publications

Kineticsi

kcat is 0.023 sec(-1) for pppGpp hydrolase activity. kcat is 1.1 s(-1) for the exopolyphosphatase activity.1 Publication
  1. KM=0.11 mM for pppGpp1 Publication
  2. KM=0.13 mM for pppGpp1 Publication
  3. KM=0.13 mM for pppGp1 Publication
  4. KM=0.5 nM for long-chain poly(P)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 9.1 Publication

    Pathwayi: ppGpp biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes ppGpp from GTP.UniRule annotation1 Publication
    Proteins known to be involved in the 2 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. GTP pyrophosphokinase (relA), Bifunctional (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT (spoT)
    2. Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase (gppA)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway ppGpp biosynthesis, which is itself part of Purine metabolism.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes ppGpp from GTP, the pathway ppGpp biosynthesis and in Purine metabolism.

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate diphosphatase activity Source: EcoCyc

    GO - Biological processi

    • guanosine pentaphosphate catabolic process Source: InterPro
    • guanosine tetraphosphate biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
    • nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion Source: EcoCyc
    • phosphorus metabolic process Source: EcoCyc
    • response to starvation Source: EcoCyc

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionHydrolase

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:PPPGPPHYDRO-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:PPPGPPHYDRO-MONOMER.
    UniPathwayiUPA00908; UER00885.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphataseUniRule annotationCurated (EC:3.6.1.40UniRule annotation2 Publications)
    Alternative name(s):
    Guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase1 PublicationUniRule annotation
    pppGpp-5'-phosphohydrolaseUniRule annotation
    Gene namesi
    Name:gppAUniRule annotation
    Synonyms:gpp1 Publication
    Ordered Locus Names:b3779, JW5603
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    Proteomesi
    • UP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome
    • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG10413. gpp.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00001942801 – 494Guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphataseAdd BLAST494

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP25552.
    PRIDEiP25552.

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi4263319. 6 interactors.
    STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_3968.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP25552.
    SMRiP25552.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the GppA/Ppx family. GppA subfamily.UniRule annotationCurated

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4105C9X. Bacteria.
    COG0248. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000258672.
    InParanoidiP25552.
    KOiK01524.
    PhylomeDBiP25552.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_01550. GppA. 1 hit.
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR023709. Guo-5TP_3DP_PyrP.
    IPR003695. Ppx_GppA.
    IPR030673. PyroPPase_GppA_Ppx.
    PANTHERiPTHR30005:SF8. PTHR30005:SF8. 1 hit.
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF02541. Ppx-GppA. 1 hit.
    PIRSFiPIRSF001267. Pyrophosphatase_GppA_Ppx. 1 hit.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P25552-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MGSTSSLYAA IDLGSNSFHM LVVREVAGSI QTLTRIKRKV RLAAGLNSEN
    60 70 80 90 100
    ALSNEAMERG WQCLRLFAER LQDIPPSQIR VVATATLRLA VNAGDFIAKA
    110 120 130 140 150
    QEILGCPVQV ISGEEEARLI YQGVAHTTGG ADQRLVVDIG GASTELVTGT
    160 170 180 190 200
    GAQTTSLFSL SMGCVTWLER YFADRNLGQE NFDAAEKAAR EVLRPVADEL
    210 220 230 240 250
    RYHGWKVCVG ASGTVQALQE IMMAQGMDER ITLEKLQQLK QRAIHCGRLE
    260 270 280 290 300
    ELEIDGLTLE RALVFPSGLA ILIAIFTELN IQCMTLAGGA LREGLVYGML
    310 320 330 340 350
    HLAVEQDIRS RTLRNIQRRF MIDIDQAQRV AKVAANFFDQ VENEWHLEAI
    360 370 380 390 400
    SRDLLISACQ LHEIGLSVDF KQAPQHAAYL VRNLDLPGFT PAQKKLLATL
    410 420 430 440 450
    LLNQTNPVDL SSLHQQNAVP PRVAEQLCRL LRLAIIFASR RRDDLVPEMT
    460 470 480 490
    LQANHELLTL TLPQGWLTQH PLGKEIIAQE SQWQSYVHWP LEVH
    Length:494
    Mass (Da):54,871
    Last modified:October 11, 2004 - v3
    Checksum:iC4DD8DC59432A5F9
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Sequence conflicti86T → R in AAA67580 (PubMed:1379743).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti423V → L in AAA67580 (PubMed:1379743).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti437 – 494FASRR…PLEVH → VGQPSP in AAB59049 (PubMed:1931833).CuratedAdd BLAST58

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    M83316 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59049.1.
    M87049 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA67580.1.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAT48210.1.
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE77519.1.
    PIRiA48285.
    RefSeqiWP_001295254.1. NZ_LN832404.1.
    YP_026252.1. NC_000913.3.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAT48210; AAT48210; b3779.
    BAE77519; BAE77519; BAE77519.
    GeneIDi948291.
    KEGGiecj:JW5603.
    eco:b3779.
    PATRICifig|511145.12.peg.3894.

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGPPA_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P25552
    Secondary accession number(s): Q2M887, Q6BF04
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 1992
    Last sequence update: October 11, 2004
    Last modified: July 5, 2017
    This is version 120 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families