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Protein

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1

Gene

PAL1

Organism
Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) (Petroselinum hortense)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

This is a key enzyme of plant metabolism catalyzing the first reaction in the biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine of a wide variety of natural products based on the phenylpropane skeleton.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

L-phenylalanine = trans-cinnamate + ammonia.2 Publications

Pathwayi: trans-cinnamate biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine.
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 3 (PAL3), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1)
This subpathway is part of the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis, which is itself part of Phenylpropanoid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine, the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis and in Phenylpropanoid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei110Proton donor/acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei354SubstrateBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • amino acid binding Source: AgBase
  • phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Lyase

Keywords - Biological processi

Phenylpropanoid metabolism

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi4.3.1.24. 4694.
SABIO-RKP24481.
UniPathwayiUPA00713; UER00725.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (EC:4.3.1.24)
Gene namesi
Name:PAL1
OrganismiPetroselinum crispum (Parsley) (Petroselinum hortense)
Taxonomic identifieri4043 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaeasteridscampanulidsApialesApiaceaeApioideaeapioid supercladeApieaePetroselinum

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • protein complex Source: AgBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi203S → A: Complete loss of activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi210S → A: No loss of activity. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002154061 – 716Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1Add BLAST716

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Cross-linki202 ↔ 2045-imidazolinone (Ala-Gly)
Modified residuei2032,3-didehydroalanine (Ser)1

Post-translational modificationi

Contains an active site 4-methylidene-imidazol-5-one (MIO), which is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of residues Ala-Ser-Gly.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP24481.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homotetramer.1 Publication

Structurei

Secondary structure

1716
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi30 – 35Combined sources6
Helixi41 – 52Combined sources12
Beta strandi55 – 59Combined sources5
Helixi66 – 73Combined sources8
Beta strandi81 – 84Combined sources4
Helixi86 – 88Combined sources3
Helixi89 – 103Combined sources15
Turni105 – 108Combined sources4
Beta strandi122 – 126Combined sources5
Helixi129 – 138Combined sources10
Beta strandi145 – 147Combined sources3
Helixi153 – 165Combined sources13
Turni166 – 169Combined sources4
Helixi176 – 187Combined sources12
Beta strandi195 – 197Combined sources3
Beta strandi201 – 204Combined sources4
Helixi206 – 216Combined sources11
Helixi234 – 241Combined sources8
Beta strandi244 – 246Combined sources3
Helixi254 – 259Combined sources6
Helixi263 – 294Combined sources32
Helixi298 – 301Combined sources4
Helixi303 – 307Combined sources5
Helixi312 – 326Combined sources15
Beta strandi345 – 347Combined sources3
Helixi351 – 354Combined sources4
Helixi356 – 377Combined sources22
Beta strandi384 – 388Combined sources5
Turni389 – 392Combined sources4
Beta strandi393 – 395Combined sources3
Helixi403 – 430Combined sources28
Turni433 – 435Combined sources3
Helixi441 – 443Combined sources3
Helixi449 – 451Combined sources3
Helixi456 – 472Combined sources17
Turni484 – 487Combined sources4
Beta strandi488 – 490Combined sources3
Helixi494 – 547Combined sources54
Turni551 – 553Combined sources3
Helixi560 – 572Combined sources13
Helixi575 – 577Combined sources3
Turni578 – 580Combined sources3
Helixi588 – 602Combined sources15
Helixi605 – 609Combined sources5
Helixi611 – 613Combined sources3
Helixi616 – 618Combined sources3
Helixi619 – 642Combined sources24
Helixi651 – 654Combined sources4
Helixi658 – 665Combined sources8
Helixi681 – 693Combined sources13
Turni694 – 697Combined sources4
Helixi698 – 703Combined sources6
Turni704 – 707Combined sources4

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1W27X-ray1.70A/B1-716[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP24481.
SMRiP24481.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP24481.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the PAL/histidase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

KOiK10775.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00332. PAL-HAL. 1 hit.
Gene3Di1.10.274.20. 1 hit.
1.10.275.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001106. Aromatic_Lyase.
IPR024083. Fumarase/histidase_N.
IPR008948. L-Aspartase-like.
IPR022313. Phe/His_NH3-lyase_AS.
IPR005922. Phe_NH3-lyase.
IPR023144. Phe_NH3-lyase_shielding_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00221. Lyase_aromatic. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48557. SSF48557. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01226. phe_am_lyase. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00488. PAL_HISTIDASE. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P24481-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MENGNGATTN GHVNGNGMDF CMKTEDPLYW GIAAEAMTGS HLDEVKKMVA
60 70 80 90 100
EYRKPVVKLG GETLTISQVA AISARDGSGV TVELSEAARA GVKASSDWVM
110 120 130 140 150
DSMNKGTDSY GVTTGFGATS HRRTKQGGAL QKELIRFLNA GIFGNGSDNT
160 170 180 190 200
LPHSATRAAM LVRINTLLQG YSGIRFEILE AITKFLNQNI TPCLPLRGTI
210 220 230 240 250
TASGDLVPLS YIAGLLTGRP NSKAVGPTGV ILSPEEAFKL AGVEGGFFEL
260 270 280 290 300
QPKEGLALVN GTAVGSGMAS MVLFEANILA VLAEVMSAIF AEVMQGKPEF
310 320 330 340 350
TDHLTHKLKH HPGQIEAAAI MEHILDGSAY VKAAQKLHEM DPLQKPKQDR
360 370 380 390 400
YALRTSPQWL GPQIEVIRSS TKMIEREINS VNDNPLIDVS RNKAIHGGNF
410 420 430 440 450
QGTPIGVSMD NTRLAIAAIG KLMFAQFSEL VNDFYNNGLP SNLSGGRNPS
460 470 480 490 500
LDYGFKGAEI AMASYCSELQ FLANPVTNHV QSAEQHNQDV NSLGLISSRK
510 520 530 540 550
TSEAVEILKL MSTTFLVGLC QAIDLRHLEE NLKSTVKNTV SSVAKRVLTM
560 570 580 590 600
GVNGELHPSR FCEKDLLRVV DREYIFAYID DPCSATYPLM QKLRQTLVEH
610 620 630 640 650
ALKNGDNERN LSTSIFQKIA TFEDELKALL PKEVESARAA LESGNPAIPN
660 670 680 690 700
RIEECRSYPL YKFVRKELGT EYLTGEKVTS PGEEFEKVFI AMSKGEIIDP
710
LLECLESWNG APLPIC
Length:716
Mass (Da):77,829
Last modified:March 1, 1992 - v1
Checksum:i23D82FA1AC6FBB4A
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X15473 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA33500.1.
X16772 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA34715.1.
Y07654 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA68938.1.
PIRiS04463.

Genome annotation databases

KEGGiag:CAA68938.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X15473 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA33500.1.
X16772 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA34715.1.
Y07654 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA68938.1.
PIRiS04463.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1W27X-ray1.70A/B1-716[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP24481.
SMRiP24481.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP24481.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

KEGGiag:CAA68938.

Phylogenomic databases

KOiK10775.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00713; UER00725.
BRENDAi4.3.1.24. 4694.
SABIO-RKP24481.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP24481.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00332. PAL-HAL. 1 hit.
Gene3Di1.10.274.20. 1 hit.
1.10.275.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001106. Aromatic_Lyase.
IPR024083. Fumarase/histidase_N.
IPR008948. L-Aspartase-like.
IPR022313. Phe/His_NH3-lyase_AS.
IPR005922. Phe_NH3-lyase.
IPR023144. Phe_NH3-lyase_shielding_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00221. Lyase_aromatic. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48557. SSF48557. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01226. phe_am_lyase. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00488. PAL_HISTIDASE. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPAL1_PETCR
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P24481
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 1, 1992
Last sequence update: March 1, 1992
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 113 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.