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Protein

Alanine aminotransferase 1

Gene

GPT

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.

Cofactori

Pathway: L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from L-alanine.
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Alanine aminotransferase 2 (GPT2), Alanine aminotransferase 1 (GPT)
This subpathway is part of the pathway L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway, which is itself part of Amino-acid degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from L-alanine, the pathway L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway and in Amino-acid degradation.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
  • pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Aminotransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Ligandi

Pyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS09610-MONOMER.
ReactomeiREACT_238. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
UniPathwayiUPA00528; UER00586.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alanine aminotransferase 1 (EC:2.6.1.2)
Short name:
ALT1
Alternative name(s):
Glutamate pyruvate transaminase 1
Short name:
GPT 1
Glutamic--alanine transaminase 1
Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 1
Gene namesi
Name:GPT
Synonyms:AAT1, GPT1
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 8

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4552. GPT.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytosol Source: Reactome
  • extracellular exosome Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA28947.

Chemistry

DrugBankiDB00160. L-Alanine.
DB00780. Phenelzine.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGPT.
DMDMi46577683.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methioninei1 – 11Removed1 Publication
Chaini2 – 496495Alanine aminotransferase 1PRO_0000123933Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylalanine1 Publication
Modified residuei22 – 221Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei314 – 3141N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP24298.
PaxDbiP24298.
PRIDEiP24298.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP24298.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Liver, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscles. Expressed at moderate levels in the adipose tissue.1 Publication

Inductioni

By glucocorticoids.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP24298.
CleanExiHS_GPT.
GenevisibleiP24298. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB032997.
CAB032999.
HPA031059.
HPA031060.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109133. 2 interactions.
IntActiP24298. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000378408.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP24298.
SMRiP24298. Positions 21-495.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0436.
GeneTreeiENSGT00650000093331.
HOGENOMiHOG000215020.
HOVERGENiHBG026148.
InParanoidiP24298.
KOiK00814.
OMAiFHAKFTL.
OrthoDBiEOG76HQ18.
PhylomeDBiP24298.
TreeFamiTF300839.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P24298-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MASSTGDRSQ AVRHGLRAKV LTLDGMNPRV RRVEYAVRGP IVQRALELEQ
60 70 80 90 100
ELRQGVKKPF TEVIRANIGD AQAMGQRPIT FLRQVLALCV NPDLLSSPNF
110 120 130 140 150
PDDAKKRAER ILQACGGHSL GAYSVSSGIQ LIREDVARYI ERRDGGIPAD
160 170 180 190 200
PNNVFLSTGA SDAIVTVLKL LVAGEGHTRT GVLIPIPQYP LYSATLAELG
210 220 230 240 250
AVQVDYYLDE ERAWALDVAE LHRALGQARD HCRPRALCVI NPGNPTGQVQ
260 270 280 290 300
TRECIEAVIR FAFEERLFLL ADEVYQDNVY AAGSQFHSFK KVLMEMGPPY
310 320 330 340 350
AGQQELASFH STSKGYMGEC GFRGGYVEVV NMDAAVQQQM LKLMSVRLCP
360 370 380 390 400
PVPGQALLDL VVSPPAPTDP SFAQFQAEKQ AVLAELAAKA KLTEQVFNEA
410 420 430 440 450
PGISCNPVQG AMYSFPRVQL PPRAVERAQE LGLAPDMFFC LRLLEETGIC
460 470 480 490
VVPGSGFGQR EGTYHFRMTI LPPLEKLRLL LEKLSRFHAK FTLEYS
Length:496
Mass (Da):54,637
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:i23705E7A3A4283B6
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti4 – 74STGD → RRGN in BAA01186 (Ref. 7) Curated
Sequence conflicti39 – 391G → S in BAA01186 (Ref. 7) Curated
Sequence conflicti222 – 2221H → A AA sequence (PubMed:1931970).Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti14 – 141H → N in allele GPT*2. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs1063739 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_000561

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U70732 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC51155.1.
BT006992 mRNA. Translation: AAP35638.1.
EF444981 Genomic DNA. Translation: ACA05996.1.
CH471162 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW82077.1.
CH471162 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW82078.1.
BC018207 mRNA. Translation: AAH18207.1.
D10355 mRNA. Translation: BAA01186.1.
CCDSiCCDS6430.1.
PIRiA40465.
RefSeqiNP_005300.1. NM_005309.2.
UniGeneiHs.103502.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000394955; ENSP00000378408; ENSG00000167701.
ENST00000528431; ENSP00000433586; ENSG00000167701.
GeneIDi2875.
KEGGihsa:2875.
UCSCiuc003zdh.4. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

SHMPD

The Singapore human mutation and polymorphism database

Wikipedia

Alanine transaminase entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U70732 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC51155.1.
BT006992 mRNA. Translation: AAP35638.1.
EF444981 Genomic DNA. Translation: ACA05996.1.
CH471162 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW82077.1.
CH471162 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW82078.1.
BC018207 mRNA. Translation: AAH18207.1.
D10355 mRNA. Translation: BAA01186.1.
CCDSiCCDS6430.1.
PIRiA40465.
RefSeqiNP_005300.1. NM_005309.2.
UniGeneiHs.103502.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP24298.
SMRiP24298. Positions 21-495.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109133. 2 interactions.
IntActiP24298. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000378408.

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL5929.
DrugBankiDB00160. L-Alanine.
DB00780. Phenelzine.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP24298.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGPT.
DMDMi46577683.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP24298.
PaxDbiP24298.
PRIDEiP24298.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000394955; ENSP00000378408; ENSG00000167701.
ENST00000528431; ENSP00000433586; ENSG00000167701.
GeneIDi2875.
KEGGihsa:2875.
UCSCiuc003zdh.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2875.
GeneCardsiGC08P145728.
HGNCiHGNC:4552. GPT.
HPAiCAB032997.
CAB032999.
HPA031059.
HPA031060.
MIMi138200. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P24298.
PharmGKBiPA28947.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0436.
GeneTreeiENSGT00650000093331.
HOGENOMiHOG000215020.
HOVERGENiHBG026148.
InParanoidiP24298.
KOiK00814.
OMAiFHAKFTL.
OrthoDBiEOG76HQ18.
PhylomeDBiP24298.
TreeFamiTF300839.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00528; UER00586.
BioCyciMetaCyc:HS09610-MONOMER.
ReactomeiREACT_238. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii2875.
NextBioi11349.
PROiP24298.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP24298.
CleanExiHS_GPT.
GenevisibleiP24298. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites."
    Sohocki M.M., Sullivan L.S., Harrison W.R., Sodergren E.J., Elder F.F.B., Weinstock G., Tanase S., Daiger S.P.
    Genomics 40:247-252(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT ASN-14.
  2. "Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
    Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
    Submitted (MAY-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  3. NHLBI resequencing and genotyping service (RS&G)
    Submitted (FEB-2007) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT ASN-14.
  5. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain.
  6. "Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods."
    Ishiguro M., Takio K., Suzuki M., Oyama R., Matsuzawa T., Titani K.
    Biochemistry 30:10451-10457(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 2-496, CLEAVAGE OF INITIATOR METHIONINE, ACETYLATION AT ALA-2.
    Tissue: Liver.
  7. "Human mRNA for alanine aminotransferase."
    Funatsu M., Tanase S., Nakao J., Hamada F., Oka T., Morino Y.
    Submitted (AUG-1996) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 4-496.
    Tissue: Liver.
  8. "cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase."
    Yang R.-Z., Blaileanu G., Hansen B.C., Shuldiner A.R., Gong D.-W.
    Genomics 79:445-450(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  9. "An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome."
    Bian Y., Song C., Cheng K., Dong M., Wang F., Huang J., Sun D., Wang L., Ye M., Zou H.
    J. Proteomics 96:253-262(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT THR-22, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Liver.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiALAT1_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P24298
Secondary accession number(s): B0YJ18
, D3DWM7, P78398, Q93076
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 1, 1992
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: June 24, 2015
This is version 160 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 8
    Human chromosome 8: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.