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P24109

- TAT_HV2CA

UniProt

P24109 - TAT_HV2CA

Protein

Protein Tat

Gene

tat

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 3 out of 5- Protein inferred from homologyi
  1. Functioni

    Nuclear transcriptional activator of viral gene expression, that is essential for viral transcription from the LTR promoter and replication. Acts as a sequence-specific molecular adapter, directing components of the cellular transcription machinery to the viral RNA to promote processive transcription elongation by the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) complex, thereby increasing the level of full-length transcripts. In the absence of Tat, the RNA Pol II generates short or non-processive transcripts that terminate at approximately 60 bp from the initiation site. Tat associates with the CCNT1/cyclin-T1 component of the P-TEFb complex (CDK9 and CCNT1), which promotes RNA chain elongation. This binding increases Tat's affinity for a hairpin structure at the 5'-end of all nascent viral mRNAs referred to as the transactivation responsive RNA element (TAR RNA) and allows Tat/P-TEFb complex to bind cooperatively to TAR RNA. The CDK9 component of P-TEFb and other Tat-activated kinases hyperphosphorylate the C-terminus of RNA Pol II that becomes stabilized and much more processive By similarity.By similarity
    Extracellular circulating Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via the binding to several surface receptors. Endosomal low pH allows Tat to cross the endosome membrane to enter the cytosol and eventually further translocate into the nucleus, thereby inducing severe cell dysfunctions ranging from cell activation to cell death. Through By similarity.By similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. RNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: InterPro

    GO - Biological processi

    1. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. viral process Source: UniProtKB-KW

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Activator

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Host-virus interaction, Transcription, Transcription regulation

    Keywords - Ligandi

    RNA-binding

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Protein Tat
    Alternative name(s):
    Transactivating regulatory protein
    Gene namesi
    Name:tat
    OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
    Taxonomic identifieri11715 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
    Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
    ProteomesiUP000007421: Genome

    Subcellular locationi

    Host nucleushost nucleolus By similarity

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. host cell nucleolus Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Host nucleus

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Keywords - Diseasei

    AIDS

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 133133Protein TatPRO_0000085368Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei88 – 881Phosphothreonine; by host CDK9By similarity
    Modified residuei97 – 971Phosphoserine; by host CDK9By similarity

    Post-translational modificationi

    The phosphorylation by CDK9 does not seem to be important for transactivation function.By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Interacts with host CCNT1. Associates with the P-TEFb complex composed at least of Tat, P-TEFb (CDK9 and CCNT1), TAR RNA, RNA Pol II. Interacts with CCNT2; the resulting complex is unable to bind to TAR RNA By similarity.By similarity

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP24109.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Regioni53 – 6917Cysteine-richBy similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni70 – 8011CoreBy similarityAdd
    BLAST

    Motif

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Motifi81 – 9313Nuclear localization signal, and RNA-binding (TAR)By similarityAdd
    BLAST

    Domaini

    The Arg-rich RNA-binding region binds the TAR RNA. This region also mediates the nuclear localization By similarity.By similarity

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the lentiviruses Tat family.Curated

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di4.10.20.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR001831. IV_Tat.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00539. Tat. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00055. HIVTATDOMAIN.

    Sequences (2)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform Long (identifier: P24109-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MLDMETPLKE PESSLGSCNE PSSRTSGQDA TTQELAKLGE EILSQLYQPL    50
    EECDNSCYCK RCCYHCQLCF LKKGLGICYD RKGRRRRTPK KAKAHSSSAS 100
    DKSISTRTRN SQPAKKQKKT LEATVETDPG LGR 133
    Length:133
    Mass (Da):14,850
    Last modified:March 1, 1992 - v1
    Checksum:iCFAB978387B3C1FD
    GO
    Isoform Short (identifier: P24109-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         103-133: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available. Expressed in the late stage of the infection cycle, when unspliced viral RNAs are exported to the cytoplasm by the viral Rev protein.

    Show »
    Length:102
    Mass (Da):11,469
    Checksum:i6E58535C331C391A
    GO

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei103 – 13331Missing in isoform Short. CuratedVSP_022438Add
    BLAST

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    D00835 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA00714.1.
    PIRiI38475. TNLJCA.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    D00835 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA00714.1 .
    PIRi I38475. TNLJCA.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali P24109.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 4.10.20.10. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR001831. IV_Tat.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00539. Tat. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR00055. HIVTATDOMAIN.
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Nucleotide sequence of a Guinea-Bissau-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 2 proviral clone (HIV-2CAM2)."
      Tristem M., Hill F., Karpas A.
      J. Gen. Virol. 72:721-724(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    2. "Decoding Tat: the biology of HIV Tat posttranslational modifications."
      Hetzer C., Dormeyer W., Schnolzer M., Ott M.
      Microbes Infect. 7:1364-1369(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiTAT_HV2CA
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P24109
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 1, 1992
    Last sequence update: March 1, 1992
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 71 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3