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P24109

- TAT_HV2CA

UniProt

P24109 - TAT_HV2CA

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Protein

Protein Tat

Gene

tat

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 3 out of 5- Protein inferred from homologyi

Functioni

Nuclear transcriptional activator of viral gene expression, that is essential for viral transcription from the LTR promoter and replication. Acts as a sequence-specific molecular adapter, directing components of the cellular transcription machinery to the viral RNA to promote processive transcription elongation by the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) complex, thereby increasing the level of full-length transcripts. In the absence of Tat, the RNA Pol II generates short or non-processive transcripts that terminate at approximately 60 bp from the initiation site. Tat associates with the CCNT1/cyclin-T1 component of the P-TEFb complex (CDK9 and CCNT1), which promotes RNA chain elongation. This binding increases Tat's affinity for a hairpin structure at the 5'-end of all nascent viral mRNAs referred to as the transactivation responsive RNA element (TAR RNA) and allows Tat/P-TEFb complex to bind cooperatively to TAR RNA. The CDK9 component of P-TEFb and other Tat-activated kinases hyperphosphorylate the C-terminus of RNA Pol II that becomes stabilized and much more processive (By similarity).By similarity
Extracellular circulating Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via the binding to several surface receptors. Endosomal low pH allows Tat to cross the endosome membrane to enter the cytosol and eventually further translocate into the nucleus, thereby inducing severe cell dysfunctions ranging from cell activation to cell death. Through (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. RNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  1. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. viral process Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator

Keywords - Biological processi

Host-virus interaction, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

RNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein Tat
Alternative name(s):
Transactivating regulatory protein
Gene namesi
Name:tat
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
Taxonomic identifieri11715 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
ProteomesiUP000007421: Genome

Subcellular locationi

Host nucleushost nucleolus By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. host cell nucleus Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

AIDS

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 133133Protein TatPRO_0000085368Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei88 – 881Phosphothreonine; by host CDK9By similarity
Modified residuei97 – 971Phosphoserine; by host CDK9By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

The phosphorylation by CDK9 does not seem to be important for transactivation function.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with host CCNT1. Associates with the P-TEFb complex composed at least of Tat, P-TEFb (CDK9 and CCNT1), TAR RNA, RNA Pol II. Interacts with CCNT2; the resulting complex is unable to bind to TAR RNA (By similarity).By similarity

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP24109.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni53 – 6917Cysteine-richBy similarityAdd
BLAST
Regioni70 – 8011CoreBy similarityAdd
BLAST

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi81 – 9313Nuclear localization signal, and RNA-binding (TAR)By similarityAdd
BLAST

Domaini

The Arg-rich RNA-binding region binds the TAR RNA. This region also mediates the nuclear localization (By similarity).By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the lentiviruses Tat family.Curated

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.20.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001831. IV_Tat.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00539. Tat. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00055. HIVTATDOMAIN.

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

Isoform Long (identifier: P24109-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLDMETPLKE PESSLGSCNE PSSRTSGQDA TTQELAKLGE EILSQLYQPL
60 70 80 90 100
EECDNSCYCK RCCYHCQLCF LKKGLGICYD RKGRRRRTPK KAKAHSSSAS
110 120 130
DKSISTRTRN SQPAKKQKKT LEATVETDPG LGR
Length:133
Mass (Da):14,850
Last modified:March 1, 1992 - v1
Checksum:iCFAB978387B3C1FD
GO
Isoform Short (identifier: P24109-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     103-133: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available. Expressed in the late stage of the infection cycle, when unspliced viral RNAs are exported to the cytoplasm by the viral Rev protein.

Show »
Length:102
Mass (Da):11,469
Checksum:i6E58535C331C391A
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei103 – 13331Missing in isoform Short. CuratedVSP_022438Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D00835 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA00714.1.
PIRiI38475. TNLJCA.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D00835 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA00714.1 .
PIRi I38475. TNLJCA.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali P24109.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di 4.10.20.10. 1 hit.
InterProi IPR001831. IV_Tat.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF00539. Tat. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
PRINTSi PR00055. HIVTATDOMAIN.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "Nucleotide sequence of a Guinea-Bissau-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 2 proviral clone (HIV-2CAM2)."
    Tristem M., Hill F., Karpas A.
    J. Gen. Virol. 72:721-724(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  2. "Decoding Tat: the biology of HIV Tat posttranslational modifications."
    Hetzer C., Dormeyer W., Schnolzer M., Ott M.
    Microbes Infect. 7:1364-1369(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTAT_HV2CA
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P24109
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 1, 1992
Last sequence update: March 1, 1992
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 72 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3