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P23945

- FSHR_HUMAN

UniProt

P23945 - FSHR_HUMAN

Protein

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor

Gene

FSHR

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 170 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 3 (02 Nov 2010)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Receptor for follicle-stimulating hormone. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase.

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. follicle-stimulating hormone receptor activity Source: ProtInc
    2. peptide hormone binding Source: Ensembl
    3. protein binding Source: IntAct

    GO - Biological processi

    1. adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: Ensembl
    2. adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: Ensembl
    3. basement membrane organization Source: Ensembl
    4. cellular water homeostasis Source: Ensembl
    5. female gamete generation Source: ProtInc
    6. female gonad development Source: ProtInc
    7. gonad development Source: ProtInc
    8. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: ProtInc
    9. locomotory behavior Source: Ensembl
    10. male gonad development Source: UniProtKB
    11. negative regulation of bone resorption Source: Ensembl
    12. neuron projection development Source: Ensembl
    13. phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: Ensembl
    14. positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Source: Ensembl
    15. primary ovarian follicle growth Source: Ensembl
    16. regulation of acetylcholine metabolic process Source: Ensembl
    17. regulation of chromosome organization Source: Ensembl
    18. regulation of hormone metabolic process Source: Ensembl
    19. regulation of MAPK cascade Source: Ensembl
    20. regulation of osteoclast differentiation Source: Ensembl
    21. regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway Source: Ensembl
    22. regulation of protein phosphorylation Source: Ensembl
    23. regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Source: Ensembl
    24. Sertoli cell development Source: Ensembl
    25. Sertoli cell proliferation Source: Ensembl
    26. spermatogenesis Source: ProtInc
    27. spermatogenesis, exchange of chromosomal proteins Source: Ensembl
    28. transcytosis Source: Ensembl
    29. uterus development Source: Ensembl

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    G-protein coupled receptor, Receptor, Transducer

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiREACT_16942. Hormone ligand-binding receptors.
    REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
    SignaLinkiP23945.

    Protein family/group databases

    TCDBi9.A.14.1.5. the g-protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) family.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor
    Short name:
    FSH-R
    Alternative name(s):
    Follitropin receptor
    Gene namesi
    Name:FSHR
    Synonyms:LGR1
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 2

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:3969. FSHR.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. cell surface Source: Ensembl
    2. endosome Source: Ensembl
    3. integral component of membrane Source: ProtInc
    4. plasma membrane Source: Reactome

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Membrane

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Involvement in diseasei

    Ovarian dysgenesis 1 (ODG1) [MIM:233300]: An autosomal recessive disease characterized by primary amenorrhea, variable development of secondary sex characteristics, poorly developed streak ovaries, and high serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).7 Publications
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti160 – 1601I → T in ODG1; impairs cell surface expression. 1 Publication
    VAR_018045
    Natural varianti189 – 1891A → V in ODG1; very frequent in the Finnish population. 2 Publications
    VAR_018046
    Natural varianti224 – 2241D → V in ODG1; FSH binding is barely detectable; impaired targeting to the cell membrane; adenylate cyclase stimulation by FSH is 4 +-2% residual activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039280
    Natural varianti348 – 3481P → R in ODG1. 1 Publication
    VAR_039281
    Natural varianti419 – 4191A → T in ODG1. 1 Publication
    VAR_018047
    Natural varianti519 – 5191P → T in ODG1; totally impairs adenylate cyclase stimulation in vitro; alters the cell surface targeting of the receptor which remains trapped intracellularly. 1 Publication
    VAR_039283
    Natural varianti573 – 5731R → C in ODG1; alters signal transduction of the receptor; adenylate cyclase stimulation by FSH is 24 +-4% residual activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_018048
    Natural varianti601 – 6011L → V in ODG1; binds FSH with a similar affinity than the wild-type receptor; adenylate cyclase stimulation by FSH is 12 +-3% residual activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039286
    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) [MIM:608115]: Disorder which occurs either spontaneously or most often as an iatrogenic complication of ovarian stimulation treatments for in vitro fertilization. The clinical manifestations vary from abdominal distention and discomfort to potentially life-threatening, massive ovarian enlargement and capillary leak with fluid sequestration. Pathologic features of this syndrome include the presence of multiple serous and hemorrhagic follicular cysts lined by luteinized cells, a condition called hyperreactio luteinalis.5 Publications
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti128 – 1281S → Y in OHSS; displays increase in affinity and sensitivity toward hCG and does not show any constitutive activity nor promiscuous activation by TSH. 1 Publication
    VAR_039279
    Natural varianti449 – 4491T → A in OHSS; increase of receptor sensitivity to both hCG and TSH together with an increase in basal activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039282
    Natural varianti449 – 4491T → I in OHSS. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs28928870 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_017244
    Natural varianti545 – 5451I → T in OHSS; displays promiscuous activation by both hCG and TSH together with detectable constitutive activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039284
    Natural varianti567 – 5671D → N in OHSS. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs28928871 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_017245

    Keywords - Diseasei

    Disease mutation

    Organism-specific databases

    MIMi233300. phenotype.
    608115. phenotype.
    Orphaneti243. 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis.
    64739. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
    619. Primary ovarian failure.
    PharmGKBiPA28386.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 1717Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini18 – 695678Follicle-stimulating hormone receptorPRO_0000012771Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Disulfide bondi18 ↔ 251 PublicationPROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Disulfide bondi23 ↔ 321 PublicationPROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Glycosylationi191 – 1911N-linked (GlcNAc...)1 Publication
    Glycosylationi199 – 1991N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi293 – 2931N-linked (GlcNAc...)By similarity
    Glycosylationi318 – 3181N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Disulfide bondi442 ↔ 517PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Post-translational modificationi

    N-glycosylated; indirectly required for FSH-binding, possibly via a conformational change that allows high affinity binding of hormone.By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP23945.
    PRIDEiP23945.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiP23945.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Sertoli cells and ovarian granulosa cells.

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiP23945.
    BgeeiP23945.
    CleanExiHS_FSHR.
    GenevestigatoriP23945.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Interacts with ARRB2.By similarity

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    YWHAQP273484EBI-848239,EBI-359854

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi108770. 15 interactions.
    DIPiDIP-35605N.
    IntActiP23945. 2 interactions.
    MINTiMINT-1177926.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000384708.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    695
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Beta strandi21 – 266
    Beta strandi29 – 346
    Beta strandi49 – 557
    Beta strandi59 – 613
    Turni63 – 686
    Beta strandi74 – 785
    Turni88 – 903
    Beta strandi99 – 1057
    Beta strandi115 – 1173
    Beta strandi124 – 1307
    Beta strandi143 – 1453
    Beta strandi147 – 1537
    Beta strandi168 – 1714
    Beta strandi173 – 1764
    Turni187 – 1926
    Beta strandi193 – 1997
    Turni211 – 2166
    Beta strandi221 – 2244
    Beta strandi235 – 2373
    Beta strandi243 – 2453
    Turni258 – 2603
    Beta strandi266 – 2683
    Helixi272 – 2809
    Beta strandi345 – 3484
    Beta strandi351 – 3533

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    1XUNmodel-A49-228[»]
    1XWDX-ray2.92C/F17-268[»]
    4AY9X-ray2.50X/Y/Z17-366[»]
    4MQWX-ray2.90X/Y/Z16-366[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP23945.
    SMRiP23945. Positions 18-359, 368-637.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiP23945.

    Topological domain

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Topological domaini18 – 366349ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini388 – 39811CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini422 – 44322ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini466 – 48520CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini509 – 52820ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini551 – 57323CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini598 – 60811ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini631 – 69565CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST

    Transmembrane

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Transmembranei367 – 38721Helical; Name=1Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Transmembranei399 – 42123Helical; Name=2Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Transmembranei444 – 46522Helical; Name=3Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Transmembranei486 – 50823Helical; Name=4Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Transmembranei529 – 55022Helical; Name=5Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Transmembranei574 – 59724Helical; Name=6Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Transmembranei609 – 63022Helical; Name=7Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Domaini18 – 4629LRRNTAdd
    BLAST
    Repeati49 – 7224LRR 1Add
    BLAST
    Repeati73 – 9725LRR 2Add
    BLAST
    Repeati98 – 11821LRR 3Add
    BLAST
    Repeati119 – 14325LRR 4Add
    BLAST
    Repeati144 – 16926LRR 5Add
    BLAST
    Repeati170 – 19223LRR 6Add
    BLAST
    Repeati193 – 21624LRR 7Add
    BLAST
    Repeati217 – 24024LRR 8Add
    BLAST
    Repeati241 – 25919LRR 9Add
    BLAST

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. FSH/LSH/TSH subfamily.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Contains 9 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats.Curated
    Contains 1 LRRNT domain.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Leucine-rich repeat, Repeat, Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG285844.
    HOGENOMiHOG000045902.
    HOVERGENiHBG003521.
    InParanoidiP23945.
    KOiK04247.
    PhylomeDBiP23945.
    TreeFamiTF316814.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.20.1070.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR002272. FSH_rcpt.
    IPR024635. GnHR_TM.
    IPR000276. GPCR_Rhodpsn.
    IPR017452. GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM.
    IPR002131. Gphrmn_rcpt_fam.
    IPR001611. Leu-rich_rpt.
    IPR000372. LRR-contain_N.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR24372. PTHR24372. 1 hit.
    PTHR24372:SF5. PTHR24372:SF5. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF00001. 7tm_1. 1 hit.
    PF12369. GnHR_trans. 1 hit.
    PF13855. LRR_8. 2 hits.
    PF01462. LRRNT. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR01143. FSHRECEPTOR.
    PR00373. GLYCHORMONER.
    PR00237. GPCRRHODOPSN.
    SMARTiSM00013. LRRNT. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PROSITEiPS00237. G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1. 1 hit.
    PS50262. G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequences (4)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 4 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform Long (identifier: P23945-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    Also known as: R1

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MALLLVSLLA FLSLGSGCHH RICHCSNRVF LCQESKVTEI PSDLPRNAIE    50
    LRFVLTKLRV IQKGAFSGFG DLEKIEISQN DVLEVIEADV FSNLPKLHEI 100
    RIEKANNLLY INPEAFQNLP NLQYLLISNT GIKHLPDVHK IHSLQKVLLD 150
    IQDNINIHTI ERNSFVGLSF ESVILWLNKN GIQEIHNCAF NGTQLDELNL 200
    SDNNNLEELP NDVFHGASGP VILDISRTRI HSLPSYGLEN LKKLRARSTY 250
    NLKKLPTLEK LVALMEASLT YPSHCCAFAN WRRQISELHP ICNKSILRQE 300
    VDYMTQARGQ RSSLAEDNES SYSRGFDMTY TEFDYDLCNE VVDVTCSPKP 350
    DAFNPCEDIM GYNILRVLIW FISILAITGN IIVLVILTTS QYKLTVPRFL 400
    MCNLAFADLC IGIYLLLIAS VDIHTKSQYH NYAIDWQTGA GCDAAGFFTV 450
    FASELSVYTL TAITLERWHT ITHAMQLDCK VQLRHAASVM VMGWIFAFAA 500
    ALFPIFGISS YMKVSICLPM DIDSPLSQLY VMSLLVLNVL AFVVICGCYI 550
    HIYLTVRNPN IVSSSSDTRI AKRMAMLIFT DFLCMAPISF FAISASLKVP 600
    LITVSKAKIL LVLFHPINSC ANPFLYAIFT KNFRRDFFIL LSKCGCYEMQ 650
    AQIYRTETSS TVHNTHPRNG HCSSAPRVTN GSTYILVPLS HLAQN 695
    Length:695
    Mass (Da):78,265
    Last modified:November 2, 2010 - v3
    Checksum:i766BC421014CD5A4
    GO
    Isoform Short (identifier: P23945-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    Also known as: E9Del

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         224-285: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:633
    Mass (Da):71,079
    Checksum:iAEB5E6DE7905AD41
    GO
    Isoform 3 (identifier: P23945-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    Also known as: E6Del

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         149-174: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:669
    Mass (Da):75,309
    Checksum:i13EBEE0CB4E1EEB9
    GO
    Isoform 4 (identifier: P23945-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    Also known as: E8'Inc

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         223-223: L → LNRRTRTPTEPNVLLAKYPSGQGVLEEPESLSSSI

    Show »
    Length:729
    Mass (Da):81,974
    Checksum:i4C3BE97328EE2E34
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti13 – 131S → R in CAA48179. (PubMed:1359889)Curated
    Sequence conflicti112 – 1121N → T in AAA52477. (PubMed:1709010)Curated
    Sequence conflicti197 – 1982EL → AV in AAA52477. (PubMed:1709010)Curated
    Sequence conflicti295 – 2951S → P in CAA48179. (PubMed:1359889)Curated

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti128 – 1281S → Y in OHSS; displays increase in affinity and sensitivity toward hCG and does not show any constitutive activity nor promiscuous activation by TSH. 1 Publication
    VAR_039279
    Natural varianti160 – 1601I → T in ODG1; impairs cell surface expression. 1 Publication
    VAR_018045
    Natural varianti189 – 1891A → V in ODG1; very frequent in the Finnish population. 2 Publications
    VAR_018046
    Natural varianti224 – 2241D → V in ODG1; FSH binding is barely detectable; impaired targeting to the cell membrane; adenylate cyclase stimulation by FSH is 4 +-2% residual activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039280
    Natural varianti307 – 3071A → T.9 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs6165 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_013903
    Natural varianti348 – 3481P → R in ODG1. 1 Publication
    VAR_039281
    Natural varianti419 – 4191A → T in ODG1. 1 Publication
    VAR_018047
    Natural varianti449 – 4491T → A in OHSS; increase of receptor sensitivity to both hCG and TSH together with an increase in basal activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039282
    Natural varianti449 – 4491T → I in OHSS. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs28928870 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_017244
    Natural varianti519 – 5191P → T in ODG1; totally impairs adenylate cyclase stimulation in vitro; alters the cell surface targeting of the receptor which remains trapped intracellularly. 1 Publication
    VAR_039283
    Natural varianti524 – 5241S → R.1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs6167 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_013904
    Natural varianti545 – 5451I → T in OHSS; displays promiscuous activation by both hCG and TSH together with detectable constitutive activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039284
    Natural varianti567 – 5671D → G in FSHR activation; 1.5-fold increase in basal cAMP production compared to the wild-type receptor indicating that this mutation leads to ligand-independent constitutive activation. 1 Publication
    VAR_039285
    Natural varianti567 – 5671D → N in OHSS. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs28928871 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_017245
    Natural varianti573 – 5731R → C in ODG1; alters signal transduction of the receptor; adenylate cyclase stimulation by FSH is 24 +-4% residual activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_018048
    Natural varianti591 – 5911F → S in ovarian sex cord tumor; loss of function. 1 Publication
    VAR_018049
    Natural varianti601 – 6011L → V in ODG1; binds FSH with a similar affinity than the wild-type receptor; adenylate cyclase stimulation by FSH is 12 +-3% residual activity. 1 Publication
    VAR_039286
    Natural varianti680 – 6801N → S Associated with longer menstrual cycles. 7 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs6166 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_013905

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei149 – 17426Missing in isoform 3. 1 PublicationVSP_043181Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei223 – 2231L → LNRRTRTPTEPNVLLAKYPS GQGVLEEPESLSSSI in isoform 4. CuratedVSP_053411
    Alternative sequencei224 – 28562Missing in isoform Short. 1 PublicationVSP_001953Add
    BLAST

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M65085 mRNA. Translation: AAA52477.1.
    M95489 mRNA. Translation: AAA52478.1.
    S59900 mRNA. Translation: AAB26480.1.
    JN003607 mRNA. Translation: AEI86722.1.
    AY429104 mRNA. Translation: AAR07899.1.
    AK292562 mRNA. Translation: BAF85251.1.
    AC007189 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    AC079394 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX93229.1.
    AC092533 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX88895.1.
    CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX00188.1.
    CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX00189.1.
    BC096831 mRNA. Translation: AAH96831.1.
    BC118548 mRNA. Translation: AAI18549.1.
    BC125270 mRNA. Translation: AAI25271.1.
    X68044 mRNA. Translation: CAA48179.1.
    S73199 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB32071.1.
    S73526 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB32225.1.
    CCDSiCCDS1843.1. [P23945-1]
    CCDS1844.2. [P23945-3]
    PIRiI57661. QRHUFT.
    RefSeqiNP_000136.2. NM_000145.3.
    NP_852111.2. NM_181446.2.
    UniGeneiHs.1428.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000304421; ENSP00000306780; ENSG00000170820.
    GeneIDi2492.
    KEGGihsa:2492.
    UCSCiuc002rww.3. human.
    uc002rwx.3. human.
    uc010fbn.3. human. [P23945-3]

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi311033420.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    Cross-referencesi

    Web resourcesi

    GRIS

    Glycoprotein-hormone Receptors Information System

    SHMPD

    The Singapore human mutation and polymorphism database

    Sequence-structure-function-analysis of glycoprotein hormone receptors

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M65085 mRNA. Translation: AAA52477.1 .
    M95489 mRNA. Translation: AAA52478.1 .
    S59900 mRNA. Translation: AAB26480.1 .
    JN003607 mRNA. Translation: AEI86722.1 .
    AY429104 mRNA. Translation: AAR07899.1 .
    AK292562 mRNA. Translation: BAF85251.1 .
    AC007189 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    AC079394 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX93229.1 .
    AC092533 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX88895.1 .
    CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX00188.1 .
    CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX00189.1 .
    BC096831 mRNA. Translation: AAH96831.1 .
    BC118548 mRNA. Translation: AAI18549.1 .
    BC125270 mRNA. Translation: AAI25271.1 .
    X68044 mRNA. Translation: CAA48179.1 .
    S73199 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB32071.1 .
    S73526 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB32225.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS1843.1. [P23945-1 ]
    CCDS1844.2. [P23945-3 ]
    PIRi I57661. QRHUFT.
    RefSeqi NP_000136.2. NM_000145.3.
    NP_852111.2. NM_181446.2.
    UniGenei Hs.1428.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    1XUN model - A 49-228 [» ]
    1XWD X-ray 2.92 C/F 17-268 [» ]
    4AY9 X-ray 2.50 X/Y/Z 17-366 [» ]
    4MQW X-ray 2.90 X/Y/Z 16-366 [» ]
    ProteinModelPortali P23945.
    SMRi P23945. Positions 18-359, 368-637.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 108770. 15 interactions.
    DIPi DIP-35605N.
    IntActi P23945. 2 interactions.
    MINTi MINT-1177926.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000384708.

    Chemistry

    BindingDBi P23945.
    ChEMBLi CHEMBL2024.
    DrugBanki DB00097. Choriogonadotropin alfa.
    DB00066. Follitropin beta.
    DB00032. Menotropins.
    DB00094. Urofollitropin.
    GuidetoPHARMACOLOGYi 253.

    Protein family/group databases

    TCDBi 9.A.14.1.5. the g-protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) family.
    GPCRDBi Search...

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei P23945.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 311033420.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbi P23945.
    PRIDEi P23945.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000304421 ; ENSP00000306780 ; ENSG00000170820 .
    GeneIDi 2492.
    KEGGi hsa:2492.
    UCSCi uc002rww.3. human.
    uc002rwx.3. human.
    uc010fbn.3. human. [P23945-3 ]

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 2492.
    GeneCardsi GC02M049189.
    H-InvDB HIX0029905.
    HGNCi HGNC:3969. FSHR.
    MIMi 136435. gene.
    233300. phenotype.
    608115. phenotype.
    neXtProti NX_P23945.
    Orphaneti 243. 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis.
    64739. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
    619. Primary ovarian failure.
    PharmGKBi PA28386.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG285844.
    HOGENOMi HOG000045902.
    HOVERGENi HBG003521.
    InParanoidi P23945.
    KOi K04247.
    PhylomeDBi P23945.
    TreeFami TF316814.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    Reactomei REACT_16942. Hormone ligand-binding receptors.
    REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
    SignaLinki P23945.

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTracei P23945.
    GeneWikii Follicle-stimulating_hormone_receptor.
    GenomeRNAii 2492.
    NextBioi 35518027.
    PROi P23945.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi P23945.
    Bgeei P23945.
    CleanExi HS_FSHR.
    Genevestigatori P23945.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 1.20.1070.10. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR002272. FSH_rcpt.
    IPR024635. GnHR_TM.
    IPR000276. GPCR_Rhodpsn.
    IPR017452. GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM.
    IPR002131. Gphrmn_rcpt_fam.
    IPR001611. Leu-rich_rpt.
    IPR000372. LRR-contain_N.
    [Graphical view ]
    PANTHERi PTHR24372. PTHR24372. 1 hit.
    PTHR24372:SF5. PTHR24372:SF5. 1 hit.
    Pfami PF00001. 7tm_1. 1 hit.
    PF12369. GnHR_trans. 1 hit.
    PF13855. LRR_8. 2 hits.
    PF01462. LRRNT. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR01143. FSHRECEPTOR.
    PR00373. GLYCHORMONER.
    PR00237. GPCRRHODOPSN.
    SMARTi SM00013. LRRNT. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PROSITEi PS00237. G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1. 1 hit.
    PS50262. G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG), VARIANT SER-680.
      Tissue: Ovary.
    2. "Expression of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor: species-specific ligand binding, signal transduction, and identification of multiple ovarian messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts."
      Tilly J.L., Aihara T., Nishimori K., Jia X.-C., Billig H., Kowalski K.I., Perlas E.A., Hsueh A.J.
      Endocrinology 131:799-806(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG), VARIANT THR-307.
    3. "The cloning of the human follicle stimulating hormone receptor and its expression in COS-7, CHO, and Y-1 cells."
      Kelton C.A., Cheng S.V., Nugent N.P., Schweickhardt R.L., Rosenthal J.L., Overton S.A., Wands G.D., Kuzeja J.B., Luchette C.A., Chappel S.C.
      Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 89:141-151(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG), VARIANT THR-307.
      Tissue: Testis.
    4. "FSHR expression in adipose tissue."
      Liu X., Huang H., Sheng J.
      Submitted (MAY-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG).
      Tissue: Adipose tissue.
    5. "cDNA clones of human proteins involved in signal transduction sequenced by the Guthrie cDNA resource center (www.cdna.org)."
      Kopatz S.A., Aronstam R.S., Sharma S.V.
      Submitted (OCT-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG), VARIANT THR-307.
      Tissue: Testis.
    6. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
      Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
      , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
      Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG), VARIANT THR-307.
      Tissue: Testis.
    7. "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4."
      Hillier L.W., Graves T.A., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Pepin K.H., Minx P., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L., Nash W.E., Kremitzki C., Oddy L., Du H.
      , Sun H., Bradshaw-Cordum H., Ali J., Carter J., Cordes M., Harris A., Isak A., van Brunt A., Nguyen C., Du F., Courtney L., Kalicki J., Ozersky P., Abbott S., Armstrong J., Belter E.A., Caruso L., Cedroni M., Cotton M., Davidson T., Desai A., Elliott G., Erb T., Fronick C., Gaige T., Haakenson W., Haglund K., Holmes A., Harkins R., Kim K., Kruchowski S.S., Strong C.M., Grewal N., Goyea E., Hou S., Levy A., Martinka S., Mead K., McLellan M.D., Meyer R., Randall-Maher J., Tomlinson C., Dauphin-Kohlberg S., Kozlowicz-Reilly A., Shah N., Swearengen-Shahid S., Snider J., Strong J.T., Thompson J., Yoakum M., Leonard S., Pearman C., Trani L., Radionenko M., Waligorski J.E., Wang C., Rock S.M., Tin-Wollam A.-M., Maupin R., Latreille P., Wendl M.C., Yang S.-P., Pohl C., Wallis J.W., Spieth J., Bieri T.A., Berkowicz N., Nelson J.O., Osborne J., Ding L., Meyer R., Sabo A., Shotland Y., Sinha P., Wohldmann P.E., Cook L.L., Hickenbotham M.T., Eldred J., Williams D., Jones T.A., She X., Ciccarelli F.D., Izaurralde E., Taylor J., Schmutz J., Myers R.M., Cox D.R., Huang X., McPherson J.D., Mardis E.R., Clifton S.W., Warren W.C., Chinwalla A.T., Eddy S.R., Marra M.A., Ovcharenko I., Furey T.S., Miller W., Eichler E.E., Bork P., Suyama M., Torrents D., Waterston R.H., Wilson R.K.
      Nature 434:724-731(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT SER-680.
    8. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT SER-680.
    9. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS LONG AND 3), VARIANTS THR-307 AND SER-680.
    10. "Molecular cloning of a truncated isoform of the human follicle stimulating hormone receptor."
      Gromoll J., Gudermann T., Nieschlag E.
      Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 188:1077-1083(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 1-342 (ISOFORM SHORT), VARIANT THR-307.
      Tissue: Testis.
    11. "Characterization of the 5' flanking region of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene."
      Gromoll J., Dankbar B., Gudermann T.
      Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 102:93-102(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-51.
    12. "Localization of the human FSH receptor to chromosome 2p21 using a genomic probe comprising exon 10."
      Gromoll J., Ried T., Holtgreve-Grez H., Nieschlag E., Gudermann T.
      J. Mol. Endocrinol. 12:265-271(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 286-695, VARIANTS THR-307 AND SER-680.
    13. "Alternatively spliced variants of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene in the testis of infertile men."
      Song G.J., Park Y.S., Lee Y.S., Lee C.C., Kang I.S.
      Fertil. Steril. 77:499-504(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING (ISOFORM 4).
    14. "Structural predictions for the ligand-binding region of glycoprotein hormone receptors and the nature of hormone-receptor interactions."
      Jiang X., Dreano M., Buckler D.R., Cheng S., Ythier A., Wu H., Hendrickson W.A., el Tayar N.
      Structure 3:1341-1353(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: 3D-STRUCTURE MODELING OF 49-228.
    15. "Structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone in complex with its receptor."
      Fan Q.R., Hendrickson W.A.
      Nature 433:269-277(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.92 ANGSTROMS) OF 17-268 IN COMPLEX WITH FSHA AND FSHB, DISULFIDE BONDS, GLYCOSYLATION AT ASN-191.
    16. "Mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene causes hereditary hypergonadotropic ovarian failure."
      Aittomaeki K., Lucena J.L.D., Pakarinen P., Sistonen P., Tapanainen J., Gromoll J., Kaskikari R., Sankila E.-M., Lehvaslaiho H., Engel A.R., Nieschlag E., Huhtaniemi I., de la Chapelle A.
      Cell 82:959-968(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT ODG1 VAL-189.
    17. "A mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor occurs frequently in human ovarian sex cord tumors."
      Kotlar T.J., Young R.H., Albanese C., Crowley W.F. Jr., Scully R.E., Jameson J.L.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1020-1026(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT OVARIAN SEX CORD TUMOR SER-591.
    18. "An activating mutation of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor autonomously sustains spermatogenesis in a hypophysectomized man."
      Gromoll J., Simoni M., Nieschlag E.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:1367-1370(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT FSHR ACTIVATION GLY-567, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT FSHR ACTIVATION GLY-567.
    19. "The frequency of an inactivating point mutation (566C-->T) of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene in four populations using allele-specific hybridization and time-resolved fluorometry."
      Jiang M., Aittomaeki K., Nilsson C., Pakarinen P., Iitia A., Torresani T., Simonsen H., Goh V., Pettersson K., de la Chapelle A., Huhtaniemi I.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83:4338-4343(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT ODG1 VAL-189.
    20. "A novel phenotype related to partial loss of function mutations of the follicle stimulating hormone receptor."
      Beau I., Touraine P., Meduri G., Gougeon A., Desroches A., Matuchansky C., Milgrom E., Kuttenn F., Misrahi M.
      J. Clin. Invest. 102:1352-1359(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS ODG1 THR-160 AND CYS-573.
    21. "New natural inactivating mutations of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor: correlations between receptor function and phenotype."
      Touraine P., Beau I., Gougeon A., Meduri G., Desroches A., Pichard C., Detoeuf M., Paniel B., Prieur M., Zorn J.-R., Milgrom E., Kuttenn F., Misrahi M.
      Mol. Endocrinol. 13:1844-1854(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS ODG1 VAL-224 AND VAL-601, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANTS ODG1 VAL-224; CYS-573 AND VAL-601.
    22. Cited for: VARIANTS THR-307; ARG-524 AND SER-680.
    23. "Distribution and function of FSH receptor genetic variants in normal men."
      Asatiani K., Gromoll J., Eckardstein S.V., Zitzmann M., Nieschlag E., Simoni M.
      Andrologia 34:172-176(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS THR-307 AND SER-680.
    24. "A novel mutation in the FSH receptor inhibiting signal transduction and causing primary ovarian failure."
      Doherty E., Pakarinen P., Tiitinen A., Kiilavuori A., Huhtaniemi I., Forrest S., Aittomaeki K.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87:1151-1155(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT ODG1 THR-419, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT ODG1 THR-419.
    25. "A novel loss of function mutation in exon 10 of the FSH receptor gene causing hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism: clinical and molecular characteristics."
      Allen L.A., Achermann J.C., Pakarinen P., Kotlar T.J., Huhtaniemi I.T., Jameson J.L., Cheetham T.D., Ball S.G.
      Hum. Reprod. 18:251-256(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT ODG1 ARG-348.
    26. "Delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea associated with a novel mutation of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor: clinical, histological, and molecular studies."
      Meduri G., Touraine P., Beau I., Lahuna O., Desroches A., Vacher-Lavenu M.C., Kuttenn F., Misrahi M.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88:3491-3498(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT ODG1 THR-519, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT ODG1 THR-519.
    27. "A chorionic gonadotropin-sensitive mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as a cause of familial gestational spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome."
      Vasseur C., Rodien P., Beau I., Desroches A., Gerard C., de Poncheville L., Chaplot S., Savagner F., Croue A., Mathieu E., Lahlou N., Descamps P., Misrahi M.
      N. Engl. J. Med. 349:753-759(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT OHSS ILE-449.
    28. "Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome due to a mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor."
      Smits G., Olatunbosun O., Delbaere A., Pierson R., Vassart G., Costagliola S.
      N. Engl. J. Med. 349:760-766(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT OHSS ASN-567.
    29. "A mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as a cause of familial spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome."
      Montanelli L., Delbaere A., Di Carlo C., Nappi C., Smits G., Vassart G., Costagliola S.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89:1255-1258(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT OHSS ALA-449, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT OHSS ALA-449.
    30. "Presence and absence of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mutations provide some insights into spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome physiopathology."
      De Leener A., Montanelli L., Van Durme J., Chae H., Smits G., Vassart G., Costagliola S.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91:555-562(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT OHSS THR-545, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT OHSS THR-545.
    31. "Identification of the first germline mutation in the extracellular domain of the follitropin receptor responsible for spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome."
      De Leener A., Caltabiano G., Erkan S., Idil M., Vassart G., Pardo L., Costagliola S.
      Hum. Mutat. 29:91-98(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT OHSS TYR-128, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT OHSS TYR-128.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiFSHR_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P23945
    Secondary accession number(s): A8K947
    , G5CBS7, G5E967, J3KQ00, Q05AH0, Q16225, Q4QRJ3, Q4ZFZ2, Q53RW2
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 1, 1992
    Last sequence update: November 2, 2010
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 170 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. 7-transmembrane G-linked receptors
      List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries
    2. Human chromosome 2
      Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    5. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    6. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    7. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3