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P22803 (TRX2_YEAST) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 148. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (4) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Thioredoxin-2
Alternative name(s):
Thioredoxin II
Short name=TR-II
Thioredoxin-1
Gene names
Name:TRX2
Synonyms:TRX1
Ordered Locus Names:YGR209C
ORF Names:G7746
OrganismSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier559292 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaSaccharomycotinaSaccharomycetesSaccharomycetalesSaccharomycetaceaeSaccharomyces

Protein attributes

Sequence length104 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Participates as a hydrogen donor in redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide, accompanied by the transfer of 2 electrons and 2 protons. It is involved in many cellular processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, repair of oxidatively damaged proteins, protein folding, sulfur metabolism, and redox homeostasis. Thioredoxin-dependent enzymes include phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase MET16, alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase DOT5, thioredoxin peroxidases TSA1 and TSA2, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AHP1, and peroxiredoxin HYR1. Thioredoxin is also involved in protection against reducing stress. As part of the LMA1 complex, it is involved in the facilitation of vesicle fusion such as homotypic vacuole and ER-derived COPII vesicle fusion with the Golgi. This activity does not require the redox mechanism. Through its capacity to inactivate the stress response transcription factor YAP1 and its regulator the hydroperoxide stress sensor HYR1, it is involved in feedback regulation of stress response gene expression upon oxidative stress. Ref.10 Ref.11 Ref.12 Ref.13 Ref.14 Ref.15 Ref.16 Ref.17 Ref.20

Subunit structure

Monomer. Part of the heterodimeric LMA1 complex together with the proteinase inhibitor PBI2. LMA1 binds to the ATPase SEC18. Ref.11 Ref.26

Subcellular location

Cytoplasm. Golgi apparatus membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Nucleus Ref.21.

Induction

Strongly induced by hydrogen peroxide and diamide stress in a YAP1- and SKN7-dependent manner. Also induced by reducing stress by DTT. Ref.15 Ref.16

Post-translational modification

Reversible disulfide bond formation between Cys-31 and Cys-34, reverted by thioredoxin reductase TRR1 using NADPH as hydrogen donor.

Miscellaneous

Present with 17237 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium.

Yeast has two cytoplasmic thioredoxins, TRX1 and TRX2, and one mitochondrial, TRX3.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the thioredoxin family.

Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processDeoxyribonucleotide synthesis
Electron transport
Protein transport
Transport
   Cellular componentCytoplasm
Golgi apparatus
Membrane
Nucleus
   DomainRedox-active center
   PTMDisulfide bond
Phosphoprotein
   Technical term3D-structure
Complete proteome
Direct protein sequencing
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 9813082. Source: SGD

cell redox homeostasis

Traceable author statement Ref.19. Source: SGD

cellular response to oxidative stress

Inferred from sequence or structural similarity Ref.1. Source: SGD

deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

glycerol ether metabolic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

protein deglutathionylation

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 20074363. Source: SGD

protein transport

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 9813082. Source: SGD

sulfate assimilation

Inferred from genetic interaction Ref.2. Source: SGD

vacuole fusion, non-autophagic

Inferred from direct assay Ref.12. Source: SGD

vacuole inheritance

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 8603912Ref.11. Source: SGD

   Cellular_componentGolgi membrane

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

cytosol

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 8603912. Source: SGD

fungal-type vacuole

Inferred from physical interaction Ref.12. Source: SGD

nucleus

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

   Molecular_functiondisulfide oxidoreductase activity

Inferred from sequence or structural similarity Ref.1. Source: SGD

protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Initiator methionine11Removed Ref.8
Chain2 – 104103Thioredoxin-2
PRO_0000120045

Regions

Domain2 – 104103Thioredoxin

Sites

Active site311Nucleophile
Active site341Nucleophile
Site251Deprotonates C-terminal active site Cys
Site321Contributes to redox potential value
Site331Contributes to redox potential value

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue621Phosphoserine Ref.23 Ref.24
Disulfide bond31 ↔ 34Redox-active Ref.9 Ref.26

Secondary structure

.................... 104
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P22803 [UniParc].

Last modified January 23, 2007. Version 3.
Checksum: 071503762C90D451

FASTA10411,204
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MVTQLKSASE YDSALASGDK LVVVDFFATW CGPCKMIAPM IEKFAEQYSD AAFYKLDVDE 

        70         80         90        100 
VSDVAQKAEV SSMPTLIFYK GGKEVTRVVG ANPAAIKQAI ASNV 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Yeast thioredoxin genes."
Gan Z.-R.
J. Biol. Chem. 266:1692-1696(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[2]"Thioredoxin deficiency in yeast prolongs S phase and shortens the G1 interval of the cell cycle."
Muller E.G.D.
J. Biol. Chem. 266:9194-9202(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[3]"Analysis of the 15.6-kb fragment encompassing the ADE3 gene."
Song J.M., Cheung E., Rabinowitz J.C.
Submitted (JAN-1996) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: S288c / GRF88.
[4]"Sequencing of a 17.6 kb segment on the right arm of yeast chromosome VII reveals 12 ORFs, including CCT, ADE3 and TR-I genes, homologues of the yeast PMT and EF1G genes, of the human and bacterial electron-transferring flavoproteins (beta-chain) and of the Escherichia coli phosphoserine phosphohydrolase, and five new ORFs."
Guerreiro P., Barreiros T., Soares H., Cyrne L., Maia e Silva A., Rodrigues-Pousada C.
Yeast 12:273-280(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
[5]"The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VII."
Tettelin H., Agostoni-Carbone M.L., Albermann K., Albers M., Arroyo J., Backes U., Barreiros T., Bertani I., Bjourson A.J., Brueckner M., Bruschi C.V., Carignani G., Castagnoli L., Cerdan E., Clemente M.L., Coblenz A., Coglievina M., Coissac E. expand/collapse author list , Defoor E., Del Bino S., Delius H., Delneri D., de Wergifosse P., Dujon B., Durand P., Entian K.-D., Eraso P., Escribano V., Fabiani L., Fartmann B., Feroli F., Feuermann M., Frontali L., Garcia-Gonzalez M., Garcia-Saez M.I., Goffeau A., Guerreiro P., Hani J., Hansen M., Hebling U., Hernandez K., Heumann K., Hilger F., Hofmann B., Indge K.J., James C.M., Klima R., Koetter P., Kramer B., Kramer W., Lauquin G., Leuther H., Louis E.J., Maillier E., Marconi A., Martegani E., Mazon M.J., Mazzoni C., McReynolds A.D.K., Melchioretto P., Mewes H.-W., Minenkova O., Mueller-Auer S., Nawrocki A., Netter P., Neu R., Nombela C., Oliver S.G., Panzeri L., Paoluzi S., Plevani P., Portetelle D., Portillo F., Potier S., Purnelle B., Rieger M., Riles L., Rinaldi T., Robben J., Rodrigues-Pousada C., Rodriguez-Belmonte E., Rodriguez-Torres A.M., Rose M., Ruzzi M., Saliola M., Sanchez-Perez M., Schaefer B., Schaefer M., Scharfe M., Schmidheini T., Schreer A., Skala J., Souciet J.-L., Steensma H.Y., Talla E., Thierry A., Vandenbol M., van der Aart Q.J.M., Van Dyck L., Vanoni M., Verhasselt P., Voet M., Volckaert G., Wambutt R., Watson M.D., Weber N., Wedler E., Wedler H., Wipfli P., Wolf K., Wright L.F., Zaccaria P., Zimmermann M., Zollner A., Kleine K.
Nature 387:81-84(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
[6]Saccharomyces Genome Database
Submitted (DEC-2009) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
[7]"Approaching a complete repository of sequence-verified protein-encoding clones for Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Hu Y., Rolfs A., Bhullar B., Murthy T.V.S., Zhu C., Berger M.F., Camargo A.A., Kelley F., McCarron S., Jepson D., Richardson A., Raphael J., Moreira D., Taycher E., Zuo D., Mohr S., Kane M.F., Williamson J. expand/collapse author list , Simpson A.J.G., Bulyk M.L., Harlow E., Marsischky G., Kolodner R.D., LaBaer J.
Genome Res. 17:536-543(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
[8]"Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase from yeast."
Chae H.Z., Chung S.J., Rhee S.G.
J. Biol. Chem. 269:27670-27678(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 2-13, TSA1 DEPENDENCE ON THIOREDOXIN.
Strain: ATCC 200358 / YNN 295.
[9]"Yeast thioredoxin. Amino-acid sequence around the active-center disulfide of thioredoxin I and II."
Hall D.E., Baldesten A., Holmgren A., Reichard P.
Eur. J. Biochem. 23:328-335(1971) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-43, REDOX-ACTIVE DISULFIDE BOND.
[10]"Yeast PAPS reductase: properties and requirements of the purified enzyme."
Schwenn J.D., Krone F.A., Husmann K.
Arch. Microbiol. 150:313-319(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, SULFATE ASSIMILATION AND METHIONINE METABOLISM.
[11]"A heterodimer of thioredoxin and I(B)2 cooperates with Sec18p (NSF) to promote yeast vacuole inheritance."
Xu Z., Mayer A., Muller E.G.D., Wickner W.
J. Cell Biol. 136:299-306(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, IDENTIFICATION IN THE LMA1 COMPLEX.
[12]"LMA1 binds to vacuoles at Sec18p (NSF), transfers upon ATP hydrolysis to a t-SNARE (Vam3p) complex, and is released during fusion."
Xu Z., Sato K., Wickner W.
Cell 93:1125-1134(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION OF THE LMA1 COMPLEX WITH SEC18.
[13]"Distinct physiological functions of thiol peroxidase isoenzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Park S.G., Cha M.-K., Jeong W., Kim I.-H.
J. Biol. Chem. 275:5723-5732(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, DOT5 AND TSA2 DEPENDENCE ON THIOREDOXIN.
[14]"A new antioxidant with alkyl hydroperoxide defense properties in yeast."
Lee J., Spector D., Godon C., Labarre J., Toledano M.B.
J. Biol. Chem. 274:4537-4544(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, REDUCTION OF AHP1.
[15]"H2O2 sensing through oxidation of the Yap1 transcription factor."
Delaunay A., Isnard A.D., Toledano M.B.
EMBO J. 19:5157-5166(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, REGULATION OF YAP1.
[16]"A thiol peroxidase is an H2O2 receptor and redox-transducer in gene activation."
Delaunay A., Pflieger D., Barrault M.-B., Vinh J., Toledano M.B.
Cell 111:471-481(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, REGULATION OF HYR1/GPX3.
[17]"Thioredoxins are required for protection against a reductive stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Trotter E.W., Grant C.M.
Mol. Microbiol. 46:869-878(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, PROTECTION AGAINST REDUCING STRESS.
[18]"Roles of the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent reduction systems in the Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae responses to oxidative stress."
Carmel-Harel O., Storz G.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54:439-461(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW, OXIDATIVE STRESS.
[19]"Role of the glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems in yeast growth and response to stress conditions."
Grant C.M.
Mol. Microbiol. 39:533-541(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[20]"Involvement of LMA1 and GATE-16 family members in intracellular membrane dynamics."
Elazar Z., Scherz-Shouval R., Shorer H.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1641:145-156(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW, FUNCTION OF THE LMA1 COMPLEX IN VESICLE FUSION.
[21]"Global analysis of protein localization in budding yeast."
Huh W.-K., Falvo J.V., Gerke L.C., Carroll A.S., Howson R.W., Weissman J.S., O'Shea E.K.
Nature 425:686-691(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[22]"Global analysis of protein expression in yeast."
Ghaemmaghami S., Huh W.-K., Bower K., Howson R.W., Belle A., Dephoure N., O'Shea E.K., Weissman J.S.
Nature 425:737-741(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: LEVEL OF PROTEIN EXPRESSION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[23]"A multidimensional chromatography technology for in-depth phosphoproteome analysis."
Albuquerque C.P., Smolka M.B., Payne S.H., Bafna V., Eng J., Zhou H.
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 7:1389-1396(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-62, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[24]"Global analysis of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation sites provides insights into evolution."
Holt L.J., Tuch B.B., Villen J., Johnson A.D., Gygi S.P., Morgan D.O.
Science 325:1682-1686(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-62, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[25]"Sites of ubiquitin attachment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
Starita L.M., Lo R.S., Eng J.K., von Haller P.D., Fields S.
Proteomics 12:236-240(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[26]"Crystal structure of the yeast cytoplasmic thioredoxin Trx2."
Bao R., Chen Y., Tang Y.-J., Janin J., Zhou C.-Z.
Proteins 66:246-249(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.38 ANGSTROMS), DISULFIDE BOND, SUBUNIT.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
M59168 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA35170.1.
M62648 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA35178.1.
U40843 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA85584.1.
Z49133 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA89002.1.
Z72994 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA97236.1.
AY557817 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAS56143.1.
BK006941 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA08303.1.
PIRTXBY1. S15049.
RefSeqNP_011725.3. NM_001181338.3.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2FA4X-ray2.38A/B1-104[»]
2HSYNMR-A1-104[»]
3PINX-ray2.70A1-104[»]
4DSSX-ray2.10B1-104[»]
ProteinModelPortalP22803.
SMRP22803. Positions 1-104.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid33462. 43 interactions.
DIPDIP-5552N.
IntActP22803. 9 interactions.
MINTMINT-474704.
STRING4932.YGR209C.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP22803.
PeptideAtlasP22803.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiYGR209C; YGR209C; YGR209C.
GeneID853123.
KEGGsce:YGR209C.

Organism-specific databases

SGDS000003441. TRX2.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG0526.
GeneTreeENSGT00530000063008.
HOGENOMHOG000292977.
KOK03671.
OMAASKYGIH.
OrthoDBEOG71CFZN.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCycYEAST:G3O-30891-MONOMER.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorP22803.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D3.40.30.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR005746. Thioredoxin.
IPR012336. Thioredoxin-like_fold.
IPR017937. Thioredoxin_CS.
IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR10438. PTHR10438. 1 hit.
PfamPF00085. Thioredoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFPIRSF000077. Thioredoxin. 1 hit.
PRINTSPR00421. THIOREDOXIN.
SUPFAMSSF52833. SSF52833. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsTIGR01068. thioredoxin. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS00194. THIOREDOXIN_1. 1 hit.
PS51352. THIOREDOXIN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

EvolutionaryTraceP22803.
NextBio973163.

Entry information

Entry nameTRX2_YEAST
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P22803
Secondary accession number(s): D6VUZ2
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1991
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 148 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

Yeast chromosome VII

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosome VII: entries and gene names

Yeast

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): entries, gene names and cross-references to SGD

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references