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Protein

Galanin peptides

Gene

GAL

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.3 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • galanin receptor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • type 1 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone, Neuropeptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000069482-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-375276. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
R-HSA-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events.
SIGNORiP22466.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galanin peptides
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:GAL
Synonyms:GAL1, GALN, GLNN
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4114. GAL.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular region Source: Reactome
  • extracellular space Source: UniProtKB
  • Golgi apparatus Source: Ensembl
  • neuronal cell body Source: UniProtKB
  • secretory granule Source: GO_Central
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 (ETL8)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA focal form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe. Seizures are usually accompanied by sensory symptoms, most often auditory in nature.
See also OMIM:616461
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_07467139A → E in ETL8; decreased affinity for GALR2; but no effect on affinity for GALR1 and GALR3; decreased activity in GALR2-mediated signaling; dominant-negative that inhibits GALR1-mediated signaling. 1 Publication1

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Epilepsy

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi51083.
MIMi616461. phenotype.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000069482.
PharmGKBiPA28529.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGAL.
DMDMi2506449.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 19Sequence analysisAdd BLAST19
PropeptideiPRO_000001044820 – 30Add BLAST11
PeptideiPRO_000001044933 – 62GalaninAdd BLAST30
PeptideiPRO_000001045065 – 123Galanin message-associated peptideAdd BLAST59

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei116PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei117PhosphoserineCombined sources1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP22466.
MaxQBiP22466.
PaxDbiP22466.
PeptideAtlasiP22466.
PRIDEiP22466.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP22466.
PhosphoSitePlusiP22466.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000069482.
CleanExiHS_GAL.
GenevisibleiP22466. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000462.
HPA049864.

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
GALR1P472112EBI-6624800,EBI-6624741
GALR2O436032EBI-6624800,EBI-6624855
SGTAO437653EBI-6624768,EBI-347996

GO - Molecular functioni

  • neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • type 1 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119273. 7 interactors.
IntActiP22466. 5 interactors.
MINTiMINT-7232142.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000265643.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP22466.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP22466.
SMRiP22466.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the galanin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZPR. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YNUP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009663.
HOGENOMiHOG000112690.
HOVERGENiHBG005799.
InParanoidiP22466.
KOiK05244.
OMAiWSPAKEK.
OrthoDBiEOG091G109K.
PhylomeDBiP22466.
TreeFamiTF335850.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008174. Galanin.
IPR008175. Galanin_pre.
IPR013068. GMAP.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
PF06540. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00273. GALANIN.
ProDomiPD005962. Galanin. 1 hit.
PD012185. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SMARTiSM00071. Galanin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P22466-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MARGSALLLA SLLLAAALSA SAGLWSPAKE KRGWTLNSAG YLLGPHAVGN
60 70 80 90 100
HRSFSDKNGL TSKRELRPED DMKPGSFDRS IPENNIMRTI IEFLSFLHLK
110 120
EAGALDRLLD LPAAASSEDI ERS
Length:123
Mass (Da):13,302
Last modified:November 1, 1997 - v3
Checksum:i48D2170AF1248E6D
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_04912116A → V.Corresponds to variant rs34725707dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_07467139A → E in ETL8; decreased affinity for GALR2; but no effect on affinity for GALR1 and GALR3; decreased activity in GALR2-mediated signaling; dominant-negative that inhibits GALR1-mediated signaling. 1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L11144 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA18248.1.
M77140 mRNA. Translation: AAA60178.1.
BC030241 mRNA. Translation: AAH30241.1.
CCDSiCCDS8183.1.
PIRiA49353. RHHUN.
RefSeqiNP_057057.2. NM_015973.4.
UniGeneiHs.278959.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000265643; ENSP00000265643; ENSG00000069482.
GeneIDi51083.
KEGGihsa:51083.
UCSCiuc001oob.4. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L11144 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA18248.1.
M77140 mRNA. Translation: AAA60178.1.
BC030241 mRNA. Translation: AAH30241.1.
CCDSiCCDS8183.1.
PIRiA49353. RHHUN.
RefSeqiNP_057057.2. NM_015973.4.
UniGeneiHs.278959.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP22466.
SMRiP22466.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119273. 7 interactors.
IntActiP22466. 5 interactors.
MINTiMINT-7232142.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000265643.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP22466.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP22466.
PhosphoSitePlusiP22466.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGAL.
DMDMi2506449.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP22466.
MaxQBiP22466.
PaxDbiP22466.
PeptideAtlasiP22466.
PRIDEiP22466.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi51083.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000265643; ENSP00000265643; ENSG00000069482.
GeneIDi51083.
KEGGihsa:51083.
UCSCiuc001oob.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi51083.
DisGeNETi51083.
GeneCardsiGAL.
HGNCiHGNC:4114. GAL.
HPAiCAB000462.
HPA049864.
MIMi137035. gene.
616461. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P22466.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000069482.
PharmGKBiPA28529.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZPR. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YNUP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009663.
HOGENOMiHOG000112690.
HOVERGENiHBG005799.
InParanoidiP22466.
KOiK05244.
OMAiWSPAKEK.
OrthoDBiEOG091G109K.
PhylomeDBiP22466.
TreeFamiTF335850.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000069482-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-375276. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
R-HSA-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events.
SIGNORiP22466.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGAL. human.
GeneWikiiGalanin.
GenomeRNAii51083.
PROiP22466.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000069482.
CleanExiHS_GAL.
GenevisibleiP22466. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008174. Galanin.
IPR008175. Galanin_pre.
IPR013068. GMAP.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
PF06540. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00273. GALANIN.
ProDomiPD005962. Galanin. 1 hit.
PD012185. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SMARTiSM00071. Galanin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGALA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P22466
Secondary accession number(s): Q14413
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1991
Last sequence update: November 1, 1997
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 155 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 11
    Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.