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P22466

- GALA_HUMAN

UniProt

P22466 - GALA_HUMAN

Protein

Galanin peptides

Gene

GAL

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
  1. Functioni

    Contracts smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, regulates growth hormone release, modulates insulin release, and may be involved in the control of adrenal secretion.

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
    2. protein binding Source: IntAct
    3. type 1 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
    4. type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
    5. type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. cAMP-mediated signaling Source: UniProt
    2. feeding behavior Source: Ensembl
    3. inflammatory response Source: Ensembl
    4. insulin secretion Source: UniProtKB
    5. negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation Source: Ensembl
    6. negative regulation of root hair elongation Source: UniProt
    7. nervous system development Source: Ensembl
    8. neuropeptide signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW
    9. positive regulation of apoptotic process Source: Ensembl
    10. positive regulation of catagen Source: UniProt
    11. positive regulation of cortisol secretion Source: UniProt
    12. positive regulation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity Source: UniProt
    13. positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: UniProtKB
    14. protein kinase A signaling Source: UniProt
    15. regulation of glucocorticoid metabolic process Source: Ensembl
    16. response to drug Source: Ensembl
    17. response to estrogen Source: Ensembl
    18. response to insulin Source: Ensembl

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Hormone, Neuropeptide

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiREACT_14819. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
    REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Galanin peptides
    Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
    Gene namesi
    Name:GAL
    Synonyms:GAL1, GALN, GLNN
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 11

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:4114. GAL.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. extracellular region Source: Reactome
    2. extracellular space Source: UniProt
    3. Golgi apparatus Source: Ensembl
    4. neuronal cell body Source: UniProt
    5. secretory granule Source: Ensembl

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Secreted

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Organism-specific databases

    PharmGKBiPA28529.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 1919Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Propeptidei20 – 3011PRO_0000010448Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei33 – 6230GalaninPRO_0000010449Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei65 – 12359Galanin message-associated peptidePRO_0000010450Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei117 – 1171Phosphoserine2 Publications

    Keywords - PTMi

    Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBiP22466.
    PaxDbiP22466.
    PRIDEiP22466.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiP22466.

    Expressioni

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiP22466.
    CleanExiHS_GAL.
    GenevestigatoriP22466.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiCAB000462.
    HPA049864.

    Interactioni

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    GALR1P472112EBI-6624800,EBI-6624741
    GALR2O436032EBI-6624800,EBI-6624855

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi119273. 1 interaction.
    IntActiP22466. 3 interactions.
    MINTiMINT-7232142.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000265643.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP22466.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the galanin family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG44932.
    HOGENOMiHOG000112690.
    HOVERGENiHBG005799.
    InParanoidiP22466.
    KOiK05244.
    OMAiGICESAA.
    OrthoDBiEOG79SF01.
    PhylomeDBiP22466.
    TreeFamiTF335850.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR008174. Galanin.
    IPR008175. Galanin_pre.
    IPR013068. GMAP.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
    PF06540. GMAP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00273. GALANIN.
    ProDomiPD005962. Galanin. 1 hit.
    PD012185. GMAP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
    SMARTiSM00071. Galanin. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PROSITEiPS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P22466-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MARGSALLLA SLLLAAALSA SAGLWSPAKE KRGWTLNSAG YLLGPHAVGN    50
    HRSFSDKNGL TSKRELRPED DMKPGSFDRS IPENNIMRTI IEFLSFLHLK 100
    EAGALDRLLD LPAAASSEDI ERS 123
    Length:123
    Mass (Da):13,302
    Last modified:November 1, 1997 - v3
    Checksum:i48D2170AF1248E6D
    GO

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti16 – 161A → V.
    Corresponds to variant rs34725707 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_049121

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L11144 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA18248.1.
    M77140 mRNA. Translation: AAA60178.1.
    BC030241 mRNA. Translation: AAH30241.1.
    CCDSiCCDS8183.1.
    PIRiA49353. RHHUN.
    RefSeqiNP_057057.2. NM_015973.3.
    UniGeneiHs.278959.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000265643; ENSP00000265643; ENSG00000069482.
    GeneIDi51083.
    KEGGihsa:51083.
    UCSCiuc001oob.3. human.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi2506449.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Polymorphism

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L11144 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA18248.1 .
    M77140 mRNA. Translation: AAA60178.1 .
    BC030241 mRNA. Translation: AAH30241.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS8183.1.
    PIRi A49353. RHHUN.
    RefSeqi NP_057057.2. NM_015973.3.
    UniGenei Hs.278959.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali P22466.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 119273. 1 interaction.
    IntActi P22466. 3 interactions.
    MINTi MINT-7232142.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000265643.

    Chemistry

    BindingDBi P22466.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei P22466.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 2506449.

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBi P22466.
    PaxDbi P22466.
    PRIDEi P22466.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi 51083.
    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000265643 ; ENSP00000265643 ; ENSG00000069482 .
    GeneIDi 51083.
    KEGGi hsa:51083.
    UCSCi uc001oob.3. human.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 51083.
    GeneCardsi GC11P068451.
    HGNCi HGNC:4114. GAL.
    HPAi CAB000462.
    HPA049864.
    MIMi 137035. gene.
    neXtProti NX_P22466.
    PharmGKBi PA28529.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG44932.
    HOGENOMi HOG000112690.
    HOVERGENi HBG005799.
    InParanoidi P22466.
    KOi K05244.
    OMAi GICESAA.
    OrthoDBi EOG79SF01.
    PhylomeDBi P22466.
    TreeFami TF335850.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    Reactomei REACT_14819. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
    REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSi GAL. human.
    GeneWikii Galanin.
    GenomeRNAii 51083.
    NextBioi 53733.
    PROi P22466.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    Bgeei P22466.
    CleanExi HS_GAL.
    Genevestigatori P22466.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR008174. Galanin.
    IPR008175. Galanin_pre.
    IPR013068. GMAP.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
    PF06540. GMAP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR00273. GALANIN.
    ProDomi PD005962. Galanin. 1 hit.
    PD012185. GMAP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ] [Entries sharing at least one domain ]
    SMARTi SM00071. Galanin. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PROSITEi PS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Genomic organization and localization of the gene encoding human preprogalanin."
      Evans H., Baumgartner M., Shine J., Herzog H.
      Genomics 18:473-477(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-45.
      Tissue: Blood.
    2. "Sequence of human galanin and its inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from RIN cells."
      McKnight G.L., Karlsen A.E., Kowalyk S., Mathewes S.L., Sheppard P.O., O'Hara P.J., Taborsky G.L.
      Diabetes 41:82-87(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 16-123.
    3. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Tissue: Cervix.
    4. "Human galanin: primary structure and identification of two molecular forms."
      Bersani M., Johnsen A.H., Hoejrup P., Dunning B.E., Andreasen J.J., Holst J.J.
      FEBS Lett. 283:189-194(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-62.
    5. "Isolation and primary structure of pituitary human galanin, a 30-residue nonamidated neuropeptide."
      Schmidt W.E., Kratzin H., Eckart K., Drevs D., Mundkowski G., Clemens A., Katsoulis S., Schaefer H., Gallwitz B., Creutzfeldt W.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:11435-11439(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-62, SYNTHESIS.
      Tissue: Pituitary.
    6. "Identification and characterization of phosphorylated proteins in the human pituitary."
      Giorgianni F., Beranova-Giorgianni S., Desiderio D.M.
      Proteomics 4:587-598(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION AT SER-117.
      Tissue: Pituitary.
    7. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Pituitary.
    8. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
    9. "System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation."
      Rigbolt K.T., Prokhorova T.A., Akimov V., Henningsen J., Johansen P.T., Kratchmarova I., Kassem M., Mann M., Olsen J.V., Blagoev B.
      Sci. Signal. 4:RS3-RS3(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-117, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGALA_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P22466
    Secondary accession number(s): Q14413
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1991
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1997
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 137 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 11
      Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3