Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Galanin peptides

Gene

GAL

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.3 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • galanin receptor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • type 1 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone, Neuropeptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
SIGNORiP22466

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galanin peptides
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:GAL
Synonyms:GAL1, GALN, GLNN
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000069482.6
HGNCiHGNC:4114 GAL
MIMi137035 gene
neXtProtiNX_P22466

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 (ETL8)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA focal form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe. Seizures are usually accompanied by sensory symptoms, most often auditory in nature.
See also OMIM:616461
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_07467139A → E in ETL8; decreased affinity for GALR2; but no effect on affinity for GALR1 and GALR3; decreased activity in GALR2-mediated signaling; dominant-negative that inhibits GALR1-mediated signaling. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1057517661Ensembl.1

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Epilepsy

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi51083
MalaCardsiGAL
MIMi616461 phenotype
OpenTargetsiENSG00000069482
PharmGKBiPA28529

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGAL
DMDMi2506449

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 19Sequence analysisAdd BLAST19
PropeptideiPRO_000001044820 – 30Add BLAST11
PeptideiPRO_000001044933 – 62GalaninAdd BLAST30
PeptideiPRO_000001045065 – 123Galanin message-associated peptideAdd BLAST59

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei116PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei117PhosphoserineCombined sources1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP22466
MaxQBiP22466
PaxDbiP22466
PeptideAtlasiP22466
PRIDEiP22466
ProteomicsDBi53995

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP22466
PhosphoSitePlusiP22466

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000069482
CleanExiHS_GAL
GenevisibleiP22466 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA049864

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

Show more details

GO - Molecular functioni

  • neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • type 1 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119273, 12 interactors
IntActiP22466, 6 interactors
MINTiP22466
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000265643

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP22466

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP22466
SMRiP22466
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the galanin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZPR Eukaryota
ENOG410YNUP LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009663
HOGENOMiHOG000112690
HOVERGENiHBG005799
InParanoidiP22466
KOiK05244
OMAiWSPAKEK
OrthoDBiEOG091G109K
PhylomeDBiP22466
TreeFamiTF335850

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR008174 Galanin
IPR008175 Galanin_pre
IPR013068 GMAP
PANTHERiPTHR16839 PTHR16839, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01296 Galanin, 1 hit
PF06540 GMAP, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00273 GALANIN
ProDomiView protein in ProDom or Entries sharing at least one domain
PD005962 Galanin, 1 hit
PD012185 GMAP, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00071 Galanin, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00861 GALANIN, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P22466-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MARGSALLLA SLLLAAALSA SAGLWSPAKE KRGWTLNSAG YLLGPHAVGN
60 70 80 90 100
HRSFSDKNGL TSKRELRPED DMKPGSFDRS IPENNIMRTI IEFLSFLHLK
110 120
EAGALDRLLD LPAAASSEDI ERS
Length:123
Mass (Da):13,302
Last modified:November 1, 1997 - v3
Checksum:i48D2170AF1248E6D
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_04912116A → V. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs34725707EnsemblClinVar.1
Natural variantiVAR_07467139A → E in ETL8; decreased affinity for GALR2; but no effect on affinity for GALR1 and GALR3; decreased activity in GALR2-mediated signaling; dominant-negative that inhibits GALR1-mediated signaling. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1057517661Ensembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L11144 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA18248.1
M77140 mRNA Translation: AAA60178.1
BC030241 mRNA Translation: AAH30241.1
CCDSiCCDS8183.1
PIRiA49353 RHHUN
RefSeqiNP_057057.2, NM_015973.4
UniGeneiHs.278959

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000265643; ENSP00000265643; ENSG00000069482
GeneIDi51083
KEGGihsa:51083
UCSCiuc001oob.4 human

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGALA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P22466
Secondary accession number(s): Q14413
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1991
Last sequence update: November 1, 1997
Last modified: June 20, 2018
This is version 165 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

We'd like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice to comply with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018.

Do not show this banner again
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health