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Protein

Galanin peptides

Gene

GAL

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Endocrine hormone of the central and peripheral nervous systems that binds and activates the G protein-coupled receptors GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3. This small neuropeptide may regulate diverse physiologic functions including contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, growth hormone and insulin release and adrenal secretion.3 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • galanin receptor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • type 1 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone, Neuropeptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-375276. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
R-HSA-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events.
SIGNORiP22466.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galanin peptides
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:GAL
Synonyms:GAL1, GALN, GLNN
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4114. GAL.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular region Source: Reactome
  • extracellular space Source: UniProtKB
  • Golgi apparatus Source: Ensembl
  • neuronal cell body Source: UniProtKB
  • secretory granule Source: GO_Central
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 8 (ETL8)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA focal form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe. Seizures are usually accompanied by sensory symptoms, most often auditory in nature.
See also OMIM:616461
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti39 – 391A → E in ETL8; decreased affinity for GALR2; but no effect on affinity for GALR1 and GALR3; decreased activity in GALR2-mediated signaling; dominant-negative that inhibits GALR1-mediated signaling. 1 Publication
VAR_074671

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Epilepsy

Organism-specific databases

MIMi616461. phenotype.
PharmGKBiPA28529.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGAL.
DMDMi2506449.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 1919Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Propeptidei20 – 3011PRO_0000010448Add
BLAST
Peptidei33 – 6230GalaninPRO_0000010449Add
BLAST
Peptidei65 – 12359Galanin message-associated peptidePRO_0000010450Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei117 – 1171PhosphoserineCombined sources1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP22466.
MaxQBiP22466.
PaxDbiP22466.
PRIDEiP22466.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP22466.
PhosphoSiteiP22466.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP22466.
CleanExiHS_GAL.
GenevisibleiP22466. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000462.
HPA049864.

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
GALR1P472112EBI-6624800,EBI-6624741
GALR2O436032EBI-6624800,EBI-6624855
SGTAO437653EBI-6624768,EBI-347996

GO - Molecular functioni

  • neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • type 1 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119273. 7 interactions.
IntActiP22466. 4 interactions.
MINTiMINT-7232142.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000265643.

Chemistry

BindingDBiP22466.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP22466.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the galanin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZPR. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YNUP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009663.
HOGENOMiHOG000112690.
HOVERGENiHBG005799.
InParanoidiP22466.
KOiK05244.
OMAiWSPAKEK.
OrthoDBiEOG79SF01.
PhylomeDBiP22466.
TreeFamiTF335850.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008174. Galanin.
IPR008175. Galanin_pre.
IPR013068. GMAP.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
PF06540. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00273. GALANIN.
ProDomiPD005962. Galanin. 1 hit.
PD012185. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SMARTiSM00071. Galanin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P22466-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MARGSALLLA SLLLAAALSA SAGLWSPAKE KRGWTLNSAG YLLGPHAVGN
60 70 80 90 100
HRSFSDKNGL TSKRELRPED DMKPGSFDRS IPENNIMRTI IEFLSFLHLK
110 120
EAGALDRLLD LPAAASSEDI ERS
Length:123
Mass (Da):13,302
Last modified:November 1, 1997 - v3
Checksum:i48D2170AF1248E6D
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti16 – 161A → V.
Corresponds to variant rs34725707 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_049121
Natural varianti39 – 391A → E in ETL8; decreased affinity for GALR2; but no effect on affinity for GALR1 and GALR3; decreased activity in GALR2-mediated signaling; dominant-negative that inhibits GALR1-mediated signaling. 1 Publication
VAR_074671

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L11144 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA18248.1.
M77140 mRNA. Translation: AAA60178.1.
BC030241 mRNA. Translation: AAH30241.1.
CCDSiCCDS8183.1.
PIRiA49353. RHHUN.
RefSeqiNP_057057.2. NM_015973.4.
UniGeneiHs.278959.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000265643; ENSP00000265643; ENSG00000069482.
GeneIDi51083.
KEGGihsa:51083.
UCSCiuc001oob.4. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L11144 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA18248.1.
M77140 mRNA. Translation: AAA60178.1.
BC030241 mRNA. Translation: AAH30241.1.
CCDSiCCDS8183.1.
PIRiA49353. RHHUN.
RefSeqiNP_057057.2. NM_015973.4.
UniGeneiHs.278959.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP22466.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119273. 7 interactions.
IntActiP22466. 4 interactions.
MINTiMINT-7232142.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000265643.

Chemistry

BindingDBiP22466.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP22466.
PhosphoSiteiP22466.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGAL.
DMDMi2506449.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP22466.
MaxQBiP22466.
PaxDbiP22466.
PRIDEiP22466.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi51083.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000265643; ENSP00000265643; ENSG00000069482.
GeneIDi51083.
KEGGihsa:51083.
UCSCiuc001oob.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi51083.
GeneCardsiGAL.
HGNCiHGNC:4114. GAL.
HPAiCAB000462.
HPA049864.
MIMi137035. gene.
616461. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P22466.
PharmGKBiPA28529.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZPR. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YNUP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009663.
HOGENOMiHOG000112690.
HOVERGENiHBG005799.
InParanoidiP22466.
KOiK05244.
OMAiWSPAKEK.
OrthoDBiEOG79SF01.
PhylomeDBiP22466.
TreeFamiTF335850.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-375276. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
R-HSA-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events.
SIGNORiP22466.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGAL. human.
GeneWikiiGalanin.
GenomeRNAii51083.
PROiP22466.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP22466.
CleanExiHS_GAL.
GenevisibleiP22466. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008174. Galanin.
IPR008175. Galanin_pre.
IPR013068. GMAP.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
PF06540. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00273. GALANIN.
ProDomiPD005962. Galanin. 1 hit.
PD012185. GMAP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SMARTiSM00071. Galanin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Genomic organization and localization of the gene encoding human preprogalanin."
    Evans H., Baumgartner M., Shine J., Herzog H.
    Genomics 18:473-477(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-45.
    Tissue: Blood.
  2. "Sequence of human galanin and its inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from RIN cells."
    McKnight G.L., Karlsen A.E., Kowalyk S., Mathewes S.L., Sheppard P.O., O'Hara P.J., Taborsky G.L.
    Diabetes 41:82-87(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 16-123, FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  3. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Cervix.
  4. "Human galanin: primary structure and identification of two molecular forms."
    Bersani M., Johnsen A.H., Hoejrup P., Dunning B.E., Andreasen J.J., Holst J.J.
    FEBS Lett. 283:189-194(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-62.
  5. "Isolation and primary structure of pituitary human galanin, a 30-residue nonamidated neuropeptide."
    Schmidt W.E., Kratzin H., Eckart K., Drevs D., Mundkowski G., Clemens A., Katsoulis S., Schaefer H., Gallwitz B., Creutzfeldt W.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:11435-11439(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-62, SYNTHESIS, FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    Tissue: Pituitary.
  6. "Identification and characterization of phosphorylated proteins in the human pituitary."
    Giorgianni F., Beranova-Giorgianni S., Desiderio D.M.
    Proteomics 4:587-598(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION AT SER-117.
    Tissue: Pituitary.
  7. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Pituitary.
  8. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
  9. "System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation."
    Rigbolt K.T., Prokhorova T.A., Akimov V., Henningsen J., Johansen P.T., Kratchmarova I., Kassem M., Mann M., Olsen J.V., Blagoev B.
    Sci. Signal. 4:RS3-RS3(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-117, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  10. "An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome."
    Bian Y., Song C., Cheng K., Dong M., Wang F., Huang J., Sun D., Wang L., Ye M., Zou H.
    J. Proteomics 96:253-262(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Liver.
  11. Cited for: FUNCTION, INVOLVEMENT IN ETL8, VARIANT ETL8 GLU-39, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT ETL8 GLU-39.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGALA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P22466
Secondary accession number(s): Q14413
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1991
Last sequence update: November 1, 1997
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 150 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 11
    Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.