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Protein

Proenkephalin-A

Gene

Penk

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(238-259) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum.

GO - Biological processi

  1. aggressive behavior Source: MGI
  2. behavioral fear response Source: MGI
  3. locomotory behavior Source: MGI
  4. neuropeptide signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. sensory perception of pain Source: MGI
  6. startle response Source: MGI
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Endorphin, Neuropeptide, Opioid peptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_235286. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_250376. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Proenkephalin-A
Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:Penk
Synonyms:Penk1
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
ProteomesiUP000000589: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:104629. Penk.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. extracellular region Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2424Add
BLAST
Peptidei25 – 9773SynenkephalinPRO_0000008268Add
BLAST
Peptidei100 – 1045Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008269
Peptidei107 – 1115Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008270
Peptidei114 – 13320PENK(114-133)By similarityPRO_0000377694Add
BLAST
Peptidei136 – 1405Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008272
Peptidei143 – 18442PENK(143-184)By similarityPRO_0000377695Add
BLAST
Peptidei187 – 1948Met-enkephalin-Arg-Ser-LeuPRO_0000008274
Propeptidei197 – 20812PRO_0000008275Add
BLAST
Peptidei211 – 2155Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008276
Propeptidei218 – 22811PRO_0000008277Add
BLAST
Peptidei231 – 2355Leu-enkephalinPRO_0000008278
Peptidei238 – 25922PENK(238-259)By similarityPRO_0000377696Add
BLAST
Peptidei262 – 2687Met-enkephalin-Arg-PhePRO_0000008280

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi26 ↔ 48By similarity
Disulfide bondi30 ↔ 52By similarity
Disulfide bondi33 ↔ 65By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing.

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP22005.
PaxDbiP22005.
PRIDEiP22005.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP22005.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Spermatogenic and somatic cells.

Developmental stagei

Highest expression in late pachytene spermatocytes and postmeiotic round spermatids.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP22005.
CleanExiMM_PENK1.
ExpressionAtlasiP22005. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP22005.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi202109. 1 interaction.
IntActiP22005. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-4107012.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP22005.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG40630.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063761.
HOGENOMiHOG000013003.
HOVERGENiHBG000063.
InParanoidiP22005.
KOiK18832.
OMAiFMKKMDE.
OrthoDBiEOG75TMCR.
PhylomeDBiP22005.
TreeFamiTF332620.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR006024. Opioid_neupept.
IPR000703. Proenkphlin_A.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11438. PTHR11438. 1 hit.
PTHR11438:SF3. PTHR11438:SF3. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01160. Opiods_neuropep. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01028. OPIOIDPRCRSR.
PR01029. PENKAPRCRSR.
PROSITEiPS01252. OPIOIDS_PRECURSOR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P22005-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MARFLRLCTW LLALGSCLLA TVQAECSQDC AKCSYRLVRP GDINFLACTL
60 70 80 90 100
ECEGQLPSFK IWETCKDLLQ VSRPEFPWDN IDMYKDSSKQ DESHLLAKKY
110 120 130 140 150
GGFMKRYGGF MKKMDELYPM EPEEEANGGE ILAKRYGGFM KKDADEGDTL
160 170 180 190 200
ANSSDLLKEL LGTGDNRAKD SHQQESTNND EDMSKRYGGF MRSLKRSPQL
210 220 230 240 250
EDEAKELQKR YGGFMRRVGR PEWWMDYQKR YGGFLKRFAE SLPSDEEGEN
260
YSKEVPEIEK RYGGFMRF
Length:268
Mass (Da):31,004
Last modified:June 16, 2009 - v2
Checksum:i637F848B49F44013
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti34 – 341S → T in AAA40128 (PubMed:2355920).Curated
Sequence conflicti184 – 1841S → SS in AAA40128 (PubMed:2355920).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M55181 mRNA. Translation: AAA40128.1.
AK161272 mRNA. Translation: BAE36283.1.
BX004841 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM26883.1.
CH466538 Genomic DNA. Translation: EDL05699.1.
CH466538 Genomic DNA. Translation: EDL05700.1.
BC049766 mRNA. Translation: AAH49766.1.
M13227 mRNA. Translation: AAA37553.1.
CCDSiCCDS17946.1.
PIRiB35678.
RefSeqiNP_001002927.1. NM_001002927.2.
XP_006537738.1. XM_006537675.1.
UniGeneiMm.475097.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000070375; ENSMUSP00000066822; ENSMUSG00000045573.
GeneIDi18619.
KEGGimmu:18619.
UCSCiuc008rwz.1. mouse.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M55181 mRNA. Translation: AAA40128.1.
AK161272 mRNA. Translation: BAE36283.1.
BX004841 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM26883.1.
CH466538 Genomic DNA. Translation: EDL05699.1.
CH466538 Genomic DNA. Translation: EDL05700.1.
BC049766 mRNA. Translation: AAH49766.1.
M13227 mRNA. Translation: AAA37553.1.
CCDSiCCDS17946.1.
PIRiB35678.
RefSeqiNP_001002927.1. NM_001002927.2.
XP_006537738.1. XM_006537675.1.
UniGeneiMm.475097.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP22005.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi202109. 1 interaction.
IntActiP22005. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-4107012.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP22005.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP22005.
PaxDbiP22005.
PRIDEiP22005.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000070375; ENSMUSP00000066822; ENSMUSG00000045573.
GeneIDi18619.
KEGGimmu:18619.
UCSCiuc008rwz.1. mouse.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi5179.
MGIiMGI:104629. Penk.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG40630.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063761.
HOGENOMiHOG000013003.
HOVERGENiHBG000063.
InParanoidiP22005.
KOiK18832.
OMAiFMKKMDE.
OrthoDBiEOG75TMCR.
PhylomeDBiP22005.
TreeFamiTF332620.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_235286. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_250376. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi294568.
PROiP22005.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP22005.
CleanExiMM_PENK1.
ExpressionAtlasiP22005. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP22005.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR006024. Opioid_neupept.
IPR000703. Proenkphlin_A.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11438. PTHR11438. 1 hit.
PTHR11438:SF3. PTHR11438:SF3. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01160. Opiods_neuropep. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01028. OPIOIDPRCRSR.
PR01029. PENKAPRCRSR.
PROSITEiPS01252. OPIOIDS_PRECURSOR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Transcription of the rat and mouse proenkephalin genes is initiated at distinct sites in spermatogenic and somatic cells."
    Kilpatrick D.L., Zinn S.A., Fitzgerald M., Higuchi H., Sabol S.L., Meyerhardt J.
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:3717-3726(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Testis.
  2. "The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome."
    Carninci P., Kasukawa T., Katayama S., Gough J., Frith M.C., Maeda N., Oyama R., Ravasi T., Lenhard B., Wells C., Kodzius R., Shimokawa K., Bajic V.B., Brenner S.E., Batalov S., Forrest A.R., Zavolan M., Davis M.J.
    , Wilming L.G., Aidinis V., Allen J.E., Ambesi-Impiombato A., Apweiler R., Aturaliya R.N., Bailey T.L., Bansal M., Baxter L., Beisel K.W., Bersano T., Bono H., Chalk A.M., Chiu K.P., Choudhary V., Christoffels A., Clutterbuck D.R., Crowe M.L., Dalla E., Dalrymple B.P., de Bono B., Della Gatta G., di Bernardo D., Down T., Engstrom P., Fagiolini M., Faulkner G., Fletcher C.F., Fukushima T., Furuno M., Futaki S., Gariboldi M., Georgii-Hemming P., Gingeras T.R., Gojobori T., Green R.E., Gustincich S., Harbers M., Hayashi Y., Hensch T.K., Hirokawa N., Hill D., Huminiecki L., Iacono M., Ikeo K., Iwama A., Ishikawa T., Jakt M., Kanapin A., Katoh M., Kawasawa Y., Kelso J., Kitamura H., Kitano H., Kollias G., Krishnan S.P., Kruger A., Kummerfeld S.K., Kurochkin I.V., Lareau L.F., Lazarevic D., Lipovich L., Liu J., Liuni S., McWilliam S., Madan Babu M., Madera M., Marchionni L., Matsuda H., Matsuzawa S., Miki H., Mignone F., Miyake S., Morris K., Mottagui-Tabar S., Mulder N., Nakano N., Nakauchi H., Ng P., Nilsson R., Nishiguchi S., Nishikawa S., Nori F., Ohara O., Okazaki Y., Orlando V., Pang K.C., Pavan W.J., Pavesi G., Pesole G., Petrovsky N., Piazza S., Reed J., Reid J.F., Ring B.Z., Ringwald M., Rost B., Ruan Y., Salzberg S.L., Sandelin A., Schneider C., Schoenbach C., Sekiguchi K., Semple C.A., Seno S., Sessa L., Sheng Y., Shibata Y., Shimada H., Shimada K., Silva D., Sinclair B., Sperling S., Stupka E., Sugiura K., Sultana R., Takenaka Y., Taki K., Tammoja K., Tan S.L., Tang S., Taylor M.S., Tegner J., Teichmann S.A., Ueda H.R., van Nimwegen E., Verardo R., Wei C.L., Yagi K., Yamanishi H., Zabarovsky E., Zhu S., Zimmer A., Hide W., Bult C., Grimmond S.M., Teasdale R.D., Liu E.T., Brusic V., Quackenbush J., Wahlestedt C., Mattick J.S., Hume D.A., Kai C., Sasaki D., Tomaru Y., Fukuda S., Kanamori-Katayama M., Suzuki M., Aoki J., Arakawa T., Iida J., Imamura K., Itoh M., Kato T., Kawaji H., Kawagashira N., Kawashima T., Kojima M., Kondo S., Konno H., Nakano K., Ninomiya N., Nishio T., Okada M., Plessy C., Shibata K., Shiraki T., Suzuki S., Tagami M., Waki K., Watahiki A., Okamura-Oho Y., Suzuki H., Kawai J., Hayashizaki Y.
    Science 309:1559-1563(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: C57BL/6J.
    Tissue: Testis.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: C57BL/6J.
  4. Mural R.J., Adams M.D., Myers E.W., Smith H.O., Venter J.C.
    Submitted (SEP-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  5. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Testis.
  6. "Activation of mouse T-helper cells induces abundant preproenkephalin mRNA synthesis."
    Zurawski G., Benedik M., Kamb B.J., Abrams J.S., Zurawski S.M., Lee F.D.
    Science 232:772-775(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 29-268.
    Tissue: T-cell.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPENK_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P22005
Secondary accession number(s): Q68G73
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1991
Last sequence update: June 16, 2009
Last modified: March 4, 2015
This is version 108 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.