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Protein

Diamine acetyltransferase 1

Gene

SAT1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine = CoA + an N-acetyldiamine.2 Publications

Kineticsi

  1. KM=3.8 µM for acetyl-coenzyme A1 Publication
  2. KM=5.7 µM for spermine1 Publication
  3. KM=22 µM for spermidine1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 8.0.1 Publication

    Pathwayi: putrescine degradation

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes N-acetylputrescine from putrescine.
    Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Diamine acetyltransferase 2 (SAT2), Diamine acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway putrescine degradation, which is itself part of Amine and polyamine degradation.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes N-acetylputrescine from putrescine, the pathway putrescine degradation and in Amine and polyamine degradation.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Binding sitei92Substrate; via carbonyl oxygen1 Publication1
    Binding sitei152Substrate1 Publication1

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Acyltransferase, Transferase

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS05339-MONOMER.
    ZFISH:HS05339-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.3.1.57. 2681.
    ReactomeiR-HSA-351200. Interconversion of polyamines.
    SIGNORiP21673.
    UniPathwayiUPA00188; UER00363.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Diamine acetyltransferase 1 (EC:2.3.1.572 Publications)
    Alternative name(s):
    Polyamine N-acetyltransferase 1
    Putrescine acetyltransferase
    Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1
    Short name:
    SSAT
    Short name:
    SSAT-1
    Gene namesi
    Name:SAT1
    Synonyms:SAT
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    Proteomesi
    • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome X

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:10540. SAT1.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Involvement in diseasei

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans X-linked (KFSDX)2 Publications
    The disease may be caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Disease descriptionA rare disorder affecting the skin and the eye. Affected men show thickening of the skin of the neck, ears, and extremities, especially the palms and soles, loss of eyebrows, eyelashes and beard, thickening of the eyelids with blepharitis and ectropion, and corneal degeneration.
    See also OMIM:308800

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Mutagenesisi140Y → F: Reduces activity by 95%. 1 Publication1

    Organism-specific databases

    DisGeNETi6303.
    MalaCardsiSAT1.
    MIMi308800. phenotype.
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000130066.
    Orphaneti2340. Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans.
    PharmGKBiPA162402389.

    Chemistry databases

    ChEMBLiCHEMBL4286.
    DrugBankiDB00127. Spermine.

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiSAT1.
    DMDMi114322.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00000745911 – 171Diamine acetyltransferase 1Add BLAST171

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP21673.
    PeptideAtlasiP21673.
    PRIDEiP21673.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiP21673.
    PhosphoSitePlusiP21673.

    Expressioni

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000130066.
    CleanExiHS_SAT1.
    ExpressionAtlasiP21673. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiP21673. HS.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiCAB047343.
    HPA055312.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.3 Publications

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    CCHCR1Q8TD31-34EBI-711613,EBI-10175300
    HOXB9P174823EBI-711613,EBI-745290
    KCNA4P224593EBI-711613,EBI-631235
    LNX1Q8TBB15EBI-711613,EBI-739832
    NIF3L1Q9GZT84EBI-711613,EBI-740897
    RBM17Q96I256EBI-711613,EBI-740272
    SAT2Q96F103EBI-711613,EBI-748746
    TACO1Q9BSH43EBI-711613,EBI-747797
    TCF25Q9BQ706EBI-711613,EBI-745182

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi112210. 73 interactors.
    DIPiDIP-36801N.
    IntActiP21673. 72 interactors.
    MINTiMINT-1369180.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000368572.

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDBiP21673.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1171
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Beta strandi5 – 8Combined sources4
    Helixi11 – 13Combined sources3
    Helixi14 – 25Combined sources12
    Beta strandi28 – 30Combined sources3
    Helixi31 – 33Combined sources3
    Helixi38 – 45Combined sources8
    Beta strandi46 – 49Combined sources4
    Beta strandi53 – 58Combined sources6
    Helixi61 – 63Combined sources3
    Beta strandi71 – 82Combined sources12
    Turni83 – 85Combined sources3
    Beta strandi86 – 96Combined sources11
    Helixi98 – 100Combined sources3
    Beta strandi102 – 104Combined sources3
    Helixi105 – 120Combined sources16
    Beta strandi123 – 130Combined sources8
    Helixi134 – 141Combined sources8
    Turni142 – 144Combined sources3
    Helixi148 – 152Combined sources5
    Beta strandi154 – 160Combined sources7
    Helixi161 – 168Combined sources8

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2B3UX-ray1.85A/B1-171[»]
    2B3VX-ray1.95A1-171[»]
    2B4BX-ray2.00A/B1-171[»]
    2B4DX-ray2.00A/B1-171[»]
    2B58X-ray1.95A1-171[»]
    2B5GX-ray1.70A/B1-171[»]
    2F5IX-ray2.30A/B1-171[»]
    2FXFX-ray2.00A/B2-171[»]
    2G3TX-ray1.80A/B1-171[»]
    2JEVX-ray2.30A/B1-171[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP21673.
    SMRiP21673.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiP21673.

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Domaini4 – 171N-acetyltransferasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST168

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Regioni27 – 28Substrate binding1 Publication2
    Regioni94 – 96Acetyl-CoA binding1 Publication3
    Regioni102 – 107Acetyl-CoA binding1 Publication6
    Regioni126 – 128Substrate binding1 Publication3
    Regioni133 – 136Acetyl-CoA binding1 Publication4
    Regioni140 – 143Acetyl-CoA binding1 Publication4

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the acetyltransferase family.Curated
    Contains 1 N-acetyltransferase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG3216. Eukaryota.
    COG0454. LUCA.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00440000039972.
    HOGENOMiHOG000078521.
    HOVERGENiHBG063175.
    InParanoidiP21673.
    KOiK00657.
    OMAiFYESVGA.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G0UNU.
    PhylomeDBiP21673.
    TreeFamiTF319736.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.630.30. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR016181. Acyl_CoA_acyltransferase.
    IPR000182. GNAT_dom.
    IPR032957. SAT1.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR10545:SF36. PTHR10545:SF36. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF00583. Acetyltransf_1. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF55729. SSF55729. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS51186. GNAT. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P21673-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MAKFVIRPAT AADCSDILRL IKELAKYEYM EEQVILTEKD LLEDGFGEHP
    60 70 80 90 100
    FYHCLVAEVP KEHWTPEGHS IVGFAMYYFT YDPWIGKLLY LEDFFVMSDY
    110 120 130 140 150
    RGFGIGSEIL KNLSQVAMRC RCSSMHFLVA EWNEPSINFY KRRGASDLSS
    160 170
    EEGWRLFKID KEYLLKMATE E
    Length:171
    Mass (Da):20,024
    Last modified:May 1, 1991 - v1
    Checksum:i6A0578B88CD72F09
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Sequence conflicti26K → E in CAA78509 (PubMed:1417826).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti26K → E in AAA98854 (PubMed:8573111).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti69H → G AA sequence (PubMed:2241897).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti84W → P AA sequence (PubMed:2241897).Curated1

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    M77693 mRNA. Translation: AAA60573.1.
    M55580 mRNA. Translation: AAA63260.1.
    Z14136 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA78509.1.
    U40369 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA98854.1.
    BT006825 mRNA. Translation: AAP35471.1.
    BC002503 mRNA. Translation: AAH02503.1.
    BC008424 mRNA. Translation: AAH08424.1.
    CCDSiCCDS14207.1.
    PIRiJH0783.
    RefSeqiNP_002961.1. NM_002970.3.
    UniGeneiHs.28491.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000379270; ENSP00000368572; ENSG00000130066.
    GeneIDi6303.
    KEGGihsa:6303.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    M77693 mRNA. Translation: AAA60573.1.
    M55580 mRNA. Translation: AAA63260.1.
    Z14136 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA78509.1.
    U40369 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA98854.1.
    BT006825 mRNA. Translation: AAP35471.1.
    BC002503 mRNA. Translation: AAH02503.1.
    BC008424 mRNA. Translation: AAH08424.1.
    CCDSiCCDS14207.1.
    PIRiJH0783.
    RefSeqiNP_002961.1. NM_002970.3.
    UniGeneiHs.28491.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2B3UX-ray1.85A/B1-171[»]
    2B3VX-ray1.95A1-171[»]
    2B4BX-ray2.00A/B1-171[»]
    2B4DX-ray2.00A/B1-171[»]
    2B58X-ray1.95A1-171[»]
    2B5GX-ray1.70A/B1-171[»]
    2F5IX-ray2.30A/B1-171[»]
    2FXFX-ray2.00A/B2-171[»]
    2G3TX-ray1.80A/B1-171[»]
    2JEVX-ray2.30A/B1-171[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP21673.
    SMRiP21673.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi112210. 73 interactors.
    DIPiDIP-36801N.
    IntActiP21673. 72 interactors.
    MINTiMINT-1369180.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000368572.

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDBiP21673.
    ChEMBLiCHEMBL4286.
    DrugBankiDB00127. Spermine.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiP21673.
    PhosphoSitePlusiP21673.

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiSAT1.
    DMDMi114322.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP21673.
    PeptideAtlasiP21673.
    PRIDEiP21673.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi6303.
    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000379270; ENSP00000368572; ENSG00000130066.
    GeneIDi6303.
    KEGGihsa:6303.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi6303.
    DisGeNETi6303.
    GeneCardsiSAT1.
    H-InvDBHIX0176797.
    HGNCiHGNC:10540. SAT1.
    HPAiCAB047343.
    HPA055312.
    MalaCardsiSAT1.
    MIMi308800. phenotype.
    313020. gene.
    neXtProtiNX_P21673.
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000130066.
    Orphaneti2340. Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans.
    PharmGKBiPA162402389.
    GenAtlasiSearch...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG3216. Eukaryota.
    COG0454. LUCA.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00440000039972.
    HOGENOMiHOG000078521.
    HOVERGENiHBG063175.
    InParanoidiP21673.
    KOiK00657.
    OMAiFYESVGA.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G0UNU.
    PhylomeDBiP21673.
    TreeFamiTF319736.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00188; UER00363.
    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS05339-MONOMER.
    ZFISH:HS05339-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.3.1.57. 2681.
    ReactomeiR-HSA-351200. Interconversion of polyamines.
    SIGNORiP21673.

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSiSAT1. human.
    EvolutionaryTraceiP21673.
    GeneWikiiSAT1_(gene).
    GenomeRNAii6303.
    PROiP21673.
    SOURCEiSearch...

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000130066.
    CleanExiHS_SAT1.
    ExpressionAtlasiP21673. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiP21673. HS.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.630.30. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR016181. Acyl_CoA_acyltransferase.
    IPR000182. GNAT_dom.
    IPR032957. SAT1.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR10545:SF36. PTHR10545:SF36. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF00583. Acetyltransf_1. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF55729. SSF55729. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS51186. GNAT. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiSAT1_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P21673
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 1991
    Last sequence update: May 1, 1991
    Last modified: November 30, 2016
    This is version 168 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome X
      Human chromosome X: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    3. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    4. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    5. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.