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P21246 (PTN_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 138. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (3) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Web links·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Pleiotrophin

Short name=PTN
Alternative name(s):
Heparin-binding brain mitogen
Short name=HBBM
Heparin-binding growth factor 8
Short name=HBGF-8
Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule
Short name=HB-GAM
Heparin-binding neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 1
Short name=HBNF-1
Osteoblast-specific factor 1
Short name=OSF-1
Gene names
Name:PTN
Synonyms:HBNF1, NEGF1
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length168 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Secreted growth factor that induces neurite outgrowth and which is mitogenic for fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces MAPK pathway activation, an important step in the anti-apoptotic signaling of PTN and regulation of cell proliferation. Ref.3 Ref.17

Subunit structure

Interacts with ALK and NEK6. Ref.17 Ref.18

Subcellular location

Secreted.

Tissue specificity

Osteoblast and brain.

Induction

By heparin and retinoic acid. Ref.3 Ref.15

Post-translational modification

Phosphorylated by NEK6. Ref.18

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 3232 Ref.13 Ref.14 Ref.15
Chain33 – 168136Pleiotrophin
PRO_0000024659

Amino acid modifications

Disulfide bond47 ↔ 76 Ref.16
Disulfide bond55 ↔ 85 Ref.16
Disulfide bond62 ↔ 89 Ref.16
Disulfide bond99 ↔ 131 Ref.16
Disulfide bond109 ↔ 141 Ref.16

Experimental info

Sequence conflict421V → K AA sequence Ref.14
Sequence conflict471C → D AA sequence Ref.14
Sequence conflict751E → G in AAV38498. Ref.9

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P21246 [UniParc].

Last modified May 1, 1991. Version 1.
Checksum: 0359C08B6497B579

FASTA16818,942
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MQAQQYQQQR RKFAAAFLAF IFILAAVDTA EAGKKEKPEK KVKKSDCGEW QWSVCVPTSG 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
DCGLGTREGT RTGAECKQTM KTQRCKIPCN WKKQFGAECK YQFQAWGECD LNTALKTRTG 

       130        140        150        160 
SLKRALHNAE CQKTVTISKP CGKLTKPKPQ AESKKKKKEG KKQEKMLD 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Isolation of mouse and human cDNA clones encoding a protein expressed specifically in osteoblasts and brain tissues."
Tezuka K.I., Takeshita S., Hakeda Y., Kumegawa M., Kikuno R., Hashimoto-Gotoh T.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 173:246-251(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
[2]"Cloning and expression of a developmentally regulated protein that induces mitogenic and neurite outgrowth activity."
Li Y.-S., Milner P.G., Chauhan A.K., Watson M.A., Hoffman R.M., Kodner C.M., Milbrandt J., Deuel T.F.
Science 250:1690-1694(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Tissue: Placenta.
[3]"Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins."
Kretschmer P.J., Fairhurst J.L., Decker M.M., Chan C.P., Gluzman Y., Boehlen P., Kovesdi I.
Growth Factors 5:99-114(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, INDUCTION.
[4]"Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and chromosome localization of the human pleiotrophin gene."
Milner P.G., Shah D., Veile R., Donis-Keller H., Kumar B.V.
Biochemistry 31:12023-12028(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[5]"Genomic organization of the human HBNF gene and characterization of an HBNF variant protein as a splice mutant."
Kretschmer P.J., Fairhurst J.L., Hulmes J.D., Popjes M.L., Boehlen P., Kovesdi I.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 192:420-429(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[6]"Bone mass loss due to estrogen deficiency is compensated in transgenic mice overexpressing human osteoblast stimulating factor-1."
Masuda H., Tsujimura A., Yoshioka M., Arai Y., Kuboki Y., Mukai T., Nakamura T., Tsuji H., Nakagawa M., Hashimoto-Gotoh T.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 238:528-533(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[7]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Brain and Cerebellum.
[8]"Cloning of human full open reading frames in Gateway(TM) system entry vector (pDONR201)."
Ebert L., Schick M., Neubert P., Schatten R., Henze S., Korn B.
Submitted (JUN-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
[9]"Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
Submitted (OCT-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
[10]"Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology."
Scherer S.W., Cheung J., MacDonald J.R., Osborne L.R., Nakabayashi K., Herbrick J.-A., Carson A.R., Parker-Katiraee L., Skaug J., Khaja R., Zhang J., Hudek A.K., Li M., Haddad M., Duggan G.E., Fernandez B.A., Kanematsu E., Gentles S. expand/collapse author list , Christopoulos C.C., Choufani S., Kwasnicka D., Zheng X.H., Lai Z., Nusskern D.R., Zhang Q., Gu Z., Lu F., Zeesman S., Nowaczyk M.J., Teshima I., Chitayat D., Shuman C., Weksberg R., Zackai E.H., Grebe T.A., Cox S.R., Kirkpatrick S.J., Rahman N., Friedman J.M., Heng H.H.Q., Pelicci P.G., Lo-Coco F., Belloni E., Shaffer L.G., Pober B., Morton C.C., Gusella J.F., Bruns G.A.P., Korf B.R., Quade B.J., Ligon A.H., Ferguson H., Higgins A.W., Leach N.T., Herrick S.R., Lemyre E., Farra C.G., Kim H.-G., Summers A.M., Gripp K.W., Roberts W., Szatmari P., Winsor E.J.T., Grzeschik K.-H., Teebi A., Minassian B.A., Kere J., Armengol L., Pujana M.A., Estivill X., Wilson M.D., Koop B.F., Tosi S., Moore G.E., Boright A.P., Zlotorynski E., Kerem B., Kroisel P.M., Petek E., Oscier D.G., Mould S.J., Doehner H., Doehner K., Rommens J.M., Vincent J.B., Venter J.C., Li P.W., Mural R.J., Adams M.D., Tsui L.-C.
Science 300:767-772(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[11]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (JUL-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[12]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Prostate.
[13]"Amino-terminal sequences of a novel heparin-binding protein from human, bovine, rat, and chick brain: high interspecies homology."
Huber D., Gautschi-Sova P., Bohlen P.
Neurochem. Res. 15:435-439(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-58.
Tissue: Brain.
[14]"A heparin-binding growth factor secreted from breast cancer cells homologous to a developmentally regulated cytokine."
Wellsein A., Fang W., Khatri A., Lu Y., Swain S.S., Dickson R.B., Sasse J., Riegel A.T., Lippman M.E.
J. Biol. Chem. 267:2582-2587(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-52.
[15]"Identification of novel heparin-releasable proteins, as well as the cytokines midkine and pleiotrophin, in human postheparin plasma."
Novotny W.F., Maffi T., Mehta R.L., Milner P.G.
Arterioscler. Thromb. 13:1798-1805(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 33-49, INDUCTION.
Tissue: Plasma.
[16]"Comparison of the disulfide bond arrangements of human recombinant and bovine brain heparin binding neurite-promoting factors."
Hulmes J.D., Seddon A.P., Decker M.M., Bohlen P.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 192:738-746(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DISULFIDE BONDS.
[17]"Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase as a receptor for the growth factor pleiotrophin."
Stoica G.E., Kuo A., Aigner A., Sunitha I., Souttou B., Malerczyk C., Caughey D.J., Wen D., Karavanov A., Riegel A.T., Wellstein A.
J. Biol. Chem. 276:16772-16779(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH ALK, FUNCTION.
[18]"Characterization of hNek6 interactome reveals an important role for its short N-terminal domain and colocalization with proteins at the centrosome."
Vaz Meirelles G., Ferreira Lanza D.C., da Silva J.C., Santana Bernachi J., Paes Leme A.F., Kobarg J.
J. Proteome Res. 9:6298-6316(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH NEK6, PHOSPHORYLATION BY NEK6.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
D90226 mRNA. Translation: BAA14261.1.
X52946 mRNA. Translation: CAA37121.1.
M57399 mRNA. Translation: AAA35961.1.
S50409 expand/collapse EMBL AC list , S50405, S50408, S50394 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB24425.1.
S60110 expand/collapse EMBL AC list , S59641, S60111, S60736 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB26456.1.
AB004306 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA22944.1.
AK290488 mRNA. Translation: BAF83177.1.
AK313424 mRNA. Translation: BAG36216.1.
CR450338 mRNA. Translation: CAG29334.1.
BT019692 mRNA. Translation: AAV38498.1.
CH236950 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24052.1.
CH471070 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW83869.1.
BC005916 mRNA. Translation: AAH05916.1.
PIRC37780. JN0474.
RefSeqNP_002816.1. NM_002825.5.
XP_005250572.1. XM_005250515.1.
UniGeneHs.371249.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP21246.
SMRP21246. Positions 45-141.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid111731. 95 interactions.
DIPDIP-5953N.
IntActP21246. 91 interactions.
MINTMINT-1374580.
STRING9606.ENSP00000341170.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteP21246.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM131553.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP21246.
PRIDEP21246.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU5764.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000348225; ENSP00000341170; ENSG00000105894.
GeneID5764.
KEGGhsa:5764.
UCSCuc003vtq.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD5764.
GeneCardsGC07M136912.
HGNCHGNC:9630. PTN.
HPACAB017685.
HPA054601.
MIM162095. gene.
neXtProtNX_P21246.
PharmGKBPA33974.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG39583.
HOGENOMHOG000231473.
HOVERGENHBG008317.
InParanoidP21246.
KOK16642.
OMAQQRRMFT.
OrthoDBEOG7B05G6.
PhylomeDBP21246.
TreeFamTF332376.

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkP21246.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressP21246.
BgeeP21246.
CleanExHS_PTN.
GenevestigatorP21246.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D2.20.60.10. 1 hit.
2.30.90.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR000762. Midkine_heparin-bd_GF.
IPR020090. PTN/MK_C_dom.
IPR020091. PTN/MK_diS.
IPR020089. PTN/MK_N_dom.
IPR020092. PTN_MK_heparin-bd_GF_CS.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR13850. PTHR13850. 1 hit.
PfamPF01091. PTN_MK_C. 1 hit.
PF05196. PTN_MK_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR00269. PTNMIDKINE.
ProDomPD005592. PTN_MK_hepar_bd. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SMARTSM00193. PTN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF57288. SSF57288. 2 hits.
PROSITEPS00619. PTN_MK_1. 1 hit.
PS00620. PTN_MK_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSPTN. human.
GeneWikiPleiotrophin.
GenomeRNAi5764.
NextBio22426.
PMAP-CutDBP21246.
PROP21246.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry namePTN_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P21246
Secondary accession number(s): Q5U0B0, Q6ICQ5, Q9UCC6
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 1, 1991
Last sequence update: May 1, 1991
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 138 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human chromosome 7

Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM