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Protein

Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Gene

TRH

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Functions as a regulator of the biosynthesis of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland and as a neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator in the central and peripheral nervous systems. May promote hair shaft elongation, prolonge the hair cycle growth phase (anagen) and antagonized its termination by TGFB2. May also increase proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. thyrotropin-releasing hormone activity Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

  1. adult walking behavior Source: Ensembl
  2. cell-cell signaling Source: ProtInc
  3. eating behavior Source: Ensembl
  4. histamine metabolic process Source: Ensembl
  5. hormone-mediated signaling pathway Source: InterPro
  6. negative regulation of feeding behavior Source: Ensembl
  7. negative regulation of glutamate secretion Source: Ensembl
  8. positive regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion Source: Ensembl
  9. positive regulation of insulin secretion Source: Ensembl
  10. response to cold Source: Ensembl
  11. response to corticosterone Source: Ensembl
  12. response to ethanol Source: Ensembl
  13. response to glucose Source: Ensembl
  14. response to hypoxia Source: Ensembl
  15. signal transduction Source: ProtInc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_14819. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Short name:
Pro-TRH
Alternative name(s):
Prothyroliberin
Cleaved into the following chain:
Alternative name(s):
Protirelin
TSH-releasing factor
Thyroliberin
Thyrotropin-releasing factor
Short name:
TRF
Gene namesi
Name:TRH
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:12298. TRH.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. extracellular region Source: Reactome
  2. nucleus Source: Ensembl
  3. plasma membrane Source: Ensembl
  4. secretory granule Source: Ensembl
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

Orphaneti238670. Isolated thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA36978.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2424Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini25 – 242218Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormonePRO_0000022509Add
BLAST
Peptidei84 – 863Thyrotropin-releasing hormonePRO_0000022510
Peptidei114 – 1163Thyrotropin-releasing hormonePRO_0000022511
Peptidei135 – 1373Thyrotropin-releasing hormonePRO_0000022512
Peptidei152 – 1543Thyrotropin-releasing hormonePRO_0000022513
Peptidei186 – 1883Thyrotropin-releasing hormonePRO_0000022514
Peptidei227 – 2293Thyrotropin-releasing hormonePRO_0000022515

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei86 – 861Proline amideBy similarity
Modified residuei116 – 1161Proline amideBy similarity
Modified residuei135 – 1351Pyrrolidone carboxylic acidBy similarity
Modified residuei137 – 1371Proline amideBy similarity
Modified residuei152 – 1521Pyrrolidone carboxylic acidBy similarity
Modified residuei154 – 1541Proline amideBy similarity
Modified residuei188 – 1881Proline amideBy similarity
Modified residuei227 – 2271Pyrrolidone carboxylic acidBy similarity
Modified residuei229 – 2291Proline amideBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP20396.
PRIDEiP20396.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Hypothalamus. Expressed in the hair follicle epithelium (at protein level).1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP20396.
CleanExiHS_TRH.
ExpressionAtlasiP20396. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP20396.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA035595.
HPA035596.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000303452.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TRH family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG45849.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016951.
HOGENOMiHOG000054194.
HOVERGENiHBG083494.
InParanoidiP20396.
KOiK05253.
OMAiGPCGPQG.
OrthoDBiEOG70PBZR.
PhylomeDBiP20396.
TreeFamiTF332073.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008857. TRH.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR17530. PTHR17530. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05438. TRH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF001795. TRH. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P20396-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPGPWLLLAL ALTLNLTGVP GGRAQPEAAQ QEAVTAAEHP GLDDFLRQVE
60 70 80 90 100
RLLFLRENIQ RLQGDQGEHS ASQIFQSDWL SKRQHPGKRE EEEEEGVEEE
110 120 130 140 150
EEEEGGAVGP HKRQHPGRRE DEASWSVDVT QHKRQHPGRR SPWLAYAVPK
160 170 180 190 200
RQHPGRRLAD PKAQRSWEEE EEEEEREEDL MPEKRQHPGK RALGGPCGPQ
210 220 230 240
GAYGQAGLLL GLLDDLSRSQ GAEEKRQHPG RRAAWVREPL EE
Length:242
Mass (Da):27,404
Last modified:January 31, 1991 - v1
Checksum:i8C0F9D915B32F29F
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti8 – 81L → V.
Corresponds to variant rs5658 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_014787

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M63582, M63581 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA36480.1.
AK313473 mRNA. Translation: BAG36258.1.
CH471052 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW79229.1.
BC069375 mRNA. Translation: AAH69375.1.
BC074888 mRNA. Translation: AAH74888.1.
BC074889 mRNA. Translation: AAH74889.1.
BC110515 mRNA. Translation: AAI10516.1.
BC110516 mRNA. Translation: AAI10517.1.
CCDSiCCDS3066.1.
PIRiA34550. RHHUT.
RefSeqiNP_009048.1. NM_007117.4.
UniGeneiHs.182231.
Hs.732877.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000302649; ENSP00000303452; ENSG00000170893.
GeneIDi7200.
KEGGihsa:7200.
UCSCiuc003enc.4. human.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi135841.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M63582, M63581 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA36480.1.
AK313473 mRNA. Translation: BAG36258.1.
CH471052 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW79229.1.
BC069375 mRNA. Translation: AAH69375.1.
BC074888 mRNA. Translation: AAH74888.1.
BC074889 mRNA. Translation: AAH74889.1.
BC110515 mRNA. Translation: AAI10516.1.
BC110516 mRNA. Translation: AAI10517.1.
CCDSiCCDS3066.1.
PIRiA34550. RHHUT.
RefSeqiNP_009048.1. NM_007117.4.
UniGeneiHs.182231.
Hs.732877.

3D structure databases

ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000303452.

Chemistry

BindingDBiP20396.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi135841.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP20396.
PRIDEiP20396.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000302649; ENSP00000303452; ENSG00000170893.
GeneIDi7200.
KEGGihsa:7200.
UCSCiuc003enc.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi7200.
GeneCardsiGC03P129693.
HGNCiHGNC:12298. TRH.
HPAiHPA035595.
HPA035596.
MIMi613879. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P20396.
Orphaneti238670. Isolated thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA36978.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG45849.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016951.
HOGENOMiHOG000054194.
HOVERGENiHBG083494.
InParanoidiP20396.
KOiK05253.
OMAiGPCGPQG.
OrthoDBiEOG70PBZR.
PhylomeDBiP20396.
TreeFamiTF332073.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_14819. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii7200.
NextBioi28216.
PROiP20396.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP20396.
CleanExiHS_TRH.
ExpressionAtlasiP20396. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP20396.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008857. TRH.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR17530. PTHR17530. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05438. TRH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF001795. TRH. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Cloning and structure of human genomic DNA and hypothalamic cDNA encoding human prepro thyrotropin-releasing hormone."
    Yamada M., Radovick S., Wondisford F.E., Nakayama Y., Weintraub B.D., Wilber J.F.
    Mol. Endocrinol. 4:551-556(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA].
  2. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Subthalamic nucleus.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Lung.
  5. "Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control."
    Gaspar E., Hardenbicker C., Bodo E., Wenzel B., Ramot Y., Funk W., Kromminga A., Paus R.
    FASEB J. 24:393-403(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTRH_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P20396
Secondary accession number(s): B2R8R1, Q2TB83
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 31, 1991
Last sequence update: January 31, 1991
Last modified: March 31, 2015
This is version 136 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 3
    Human chromosome 3: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.