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P20396 (TRH_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 130. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (5) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Web links·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Short name=Pro-TRH
Alternative name(s):
Prothyroliberin

Cleaved into the following chain:

  1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
    Short name=TRH
    Alternative name(s):
    Protirelin
    TSH-releasing factor
    Thyroliberin
    Thyrotropin-releasing factor
    Short name=TRF
Gene names
Name:TRH
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length242 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Functions as a regulator of the biosynthesis of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland and as a neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator in the central and peripheral nervous systems. May promote hair shaft elongation, prolonge the hair cycle growth phase (anagen) and antagonized its termination by TGFB2. May also increase proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes. Ref.5

Subcellular location

Secreted.

Tissue specificity

Hypothalamus. Expressed in the hair follicle epithelium (at protein level). Ref.5

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the TRH family.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Cellular componentSecreted
   Coding sequence diversityPolymorphism
   DomainRepeat
Signal
   Molecular functionHormone
   PTMAmidation
Cleavage on pair of basic residues
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processadult walking behavior

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

cell-cell signaling

Traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: ProtInc

eating behavior

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

histamine metabolic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

hormone-mediated signaling pathway

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

negative regulation of feeding behavior

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

negative regulation of glutamate secretion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of insulin secretion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to cold

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to corticosterone

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to ethanol

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to glucose

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to hypoxia

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

signal transduction

Traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: ProtInc

   Cellular_componentextracellular region

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

nucleus

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

plasma membrane

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

secretory granule

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

   Molecular_functionthyrotropin-releasing hormone activity

Traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: ProtInc

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2424 Potential
Chain25 – 242218Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone
PRO_0000022509
Peptide84 – 863Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
PRO_0000022510
Peptide114 – 1163Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
PRO_0000022511
Peptide135 – 1373Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
PRO_0000022512
Peptide152 – 1543Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
PRO_0000022513
Peptide186 – 1883Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
PRO_0000022514
Peptide227 – 2293Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
PRO_0000022515

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue861Proline amide By similarity
Modified residue1161Proline amide By similarity
Modified residue1351Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid By similarity
Modified residue1371Proline amide By similarity
Modified residue1521Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid By similarity
Modified residue1541Proline amide By similarity
Modified residue1881Proline amide By similarity
Modified residue2271Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid By similarity
Modified residue2291Proline amide By similarity

Natural variations

Natural variant81L → V.
Corresponds to variant rs5658 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_014787

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P20396 [UniParc].

Last modified February 1, 1991. Version 1.
Checksum: 8C0F9D915B32F29F

FASTA24227,404
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MPGPWLLLAL ALTLNLTGVP GGRAQPEAAQ QEAVTAAEHP GLDDFLRQVE RLLFLRENIQ 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
RLQGDQGEHS ASQIFQSDWL SKRQHPGKRE EEEEEGVEEE EEEEGGAVGP HKRQHPGRRE 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
DEASWSVDVT QHKRQHPGRR SPWLAYAVPK RQHPGRRLAD PKAQRSWEEE EEEEEREEDL 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
MPEKRQHPGK RALGGPCGPQ GAYGQAGLLL GLLDDLSRSQ GAEEKRQHPG RRAAWVREPL 


EE 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Cloning and structure of human genomic DNA and hypothalamic cDNA encoding human prepro thyrotropin-releasing hormone."
Yamada M., Radovick S., Wondisford F.E., Nakayama Y., Weintraub B.D., Wilber J.F.
Mol. Endocrinol. 4:551-556(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA].
[2]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Subthalamic nucleus.
[3]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (SEP-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[4]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Lung.
[5]"Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control."
Gaspar E., Hardenbicker C., Bodo E., Wenzel B., Ramot Y., Funk W., Kromminga A., Paus R.
FASEB J. 24:393-403(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Web resources

Wikipedia

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone entry

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
M63582, M63581 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA36480.1.
AK313473 mRNA. Translation: BAG36258.1.
CH471052 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW79229.1.
BC069375 mRNA. Translation: AAH69375.1.
BC074888 mRNA. Translation: AAH74888.1.
BC074889 mRNA. Translation: AAH74889.1.
BC110515 mRNA. Translation: AAI10516.1.
BC110516 mRNA. Translation: AAI10517.1.
CCDSCCDS3066.1.
PIRRHHUT. A34550.
RefSeqNP_009048.1. NM_007117.4.
UniGeneHs.182231.
Hs.732877.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP20396.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING9606.ENSP00000303452.

Chemistry

BindingDBP20396.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM135841.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP20396.
PRIDEP20396.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000302649; ENSP00000303452; ENSG00000170893.
GeneID7200.
KEGGhsa:7200.
UCSCuc003enc.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD7200.
GeneCardsGC03P129693.
HGNCHGNC:12298. TRH.
HPAHPA035595.
HPA035596.
MIM613879. gene.
neXtProtNX_P20396.
Orphanet238670. Isolated thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency.
PharmGKBPA36978.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG45849.
HOGENOMHOG000054194.
HOVERGENHBG083494.
InParanoidP20396.
KOK05253.
OMAAVGPHKR.
OrthoDBEOG70PBZR.
PhylomeDBP20396.
TreeFamTF332073.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_111102. Signal Transduction.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressP20396.
BgeeP20396.
CleanExHS_TRH.
GenevestigatorP20396.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR008857. TRH.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR17530. PTHR17530. 1 hit.
PfamPF05438. TRH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFPIRSF001795. TRH. 1 hit.
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

GenomeRNAi7200.
NextBio28216.
PROP20396.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameTRH_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P20396
Secondary accession number(s): B2R8R1, Q2TB83
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1991
Last sequence update: February 1, 1991
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 130 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 3

Human chromosome 3: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM