Skip Header

You are using a version of Internet Explorer that may not display all features of this website. Please upgrade to a modern browser.
Contribute Send feedback
Read comments (?) or add your own

P20160 (CAP7_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 150. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (6) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Azurocidin
Alternative name(s):
Cationic antimicrobial protein CAP37
Heparin-binding protein
Short name=HBP
Gene names
Name:AZU1
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length251 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

This is a neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte- and fibroblast-specific chemotactic glycoprotein. Binds heparin. The cytotoxic action is limited to many species of Gram-negative bacteria; this specificity may be explained by a strong affinity of the very basic N-terminal half for the negatively charged lipopolysaccharides that are unique to the Gram-negative bacterial outer envelope. It may play a role in mediating recruitment of monocytes in the second wave of inflammation. Has antibacterial activity against the Gram-nagative bacterium P.aeruginosa, this activity is inhibited by LPS from P.aeruginosa. Acting alone, it does not have antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria A.actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29532, A.actinomycetemcomitans NCTC 9709, A.actinomycetemcomitans FDC-Y4, H.aphrophilus ATCC 13252, E.corrodens ATCC 23834, C.sputigena ATCC 33123, Capnocytophaga sp ATCC 33124, Capnocytophaga sp ATCC 27872 or E.coli ML-35. Has antibacterial activity against C.sputigena ATCC 33123 when acting synergistically with either elastase or cathepsin G. Ref.10 Ref.14

Subunit structure

Monomer.

Subcellular location

Cytoplasmic granule. Note: Cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Elastase subfamily.

Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processChemotaxis
   Coding sequence diversityPolymorphism
   DomainSignal
   LigandHeparin-binding
   Molecular functionAntibiotic
Antimicrobial
Serine protease homolog
   PTMDisulfide bond
Glycoprotein
   Technical term3D-structure
Complete proteome
Direct protein sequencing
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processcellular extravasation

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 11861296. Source: UniProtKB

defense response to Gram-negative bacterium

Traceable author statement PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

glial cell migration

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

induction of positive chemotaxis

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

inflammatory response

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 12678126. Source: UniProtKB

macrophage chemotaxis

Non-traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: UniProtKB

microglial cell activation

Inferred from expression pattern PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

monocyte activation

Traceable author statement PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

negative regulation of apoptotic process

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 10510329. Source: UniProtKB

positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process

Inferred from expression pattern PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

positive regulation of cell adhesion

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 12826073. Source: UniProtKB

positive regulation of fractalkine biosynthetic process

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta biosynthetic process

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

positive regulation of phagocytosis

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway

Traceable author statement PubMed 12465046. Source: UniProtKB

proteolysis

Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. Source: RefGenome

regulation of vascular permeability

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 11861296. Source: UniProtKB

   Cellular_componentazurophil granule

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 11861296. Source: UniProtKB

extracellular region

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 11861296. Source: UniProtKB

extracellular vesicular exosome

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 19056867. Source: UniProt

   Molecular_functioncatalytic activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

heparin binding

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 11994286. Source: UniProtKB

toxic substance binding

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 10534120. Source: UniProtKB

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2626 Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.9 Ref.10 Ref.11 Ref.12 Ref.13 Ref.14
Chain27 – 248222Azurocidin
PRO_0000027705
Propeptide249 – 2513
PRO_0000027706

Regions

Domain27 – 244218Peptidase S1
Region46 – 7025Possesses antibiotic activity
Region52 – 8433Hydrophobic

Amino acid modifications

Glycosylation1261N-linked (GlcNAc...); partial Ref.6 Ref.17
Glycosylation1401N-linked (GlcNAc...) Ref.6 Ref.17
Glycosylation1711N-linked (GlcNAc...); partial Ref.6 Ref.17
Disulfide bond52 ↔ 68 Ref.8
Disulfide bond149 ↔ 207
Disulfide bond180 ↔ 186
Disulfide bond197 ↔ 222

Natural variations

Natural variant2481Missing in 50% of the molecules.
VAR_006496

Experimental info

Mutagenesis521C → S: Loss of antibiotic activity.
Mutagenesis681C → S: Loss of antibiotic activity.
Sequence conflict361R → H AA sequence Ref.13
Sequence conflict1301S → N AA sequence Ref.7

Secondary structure

....................................... 251
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P20160 [UniParc].

Last modified October 1, 1993. Version 3.
Checksum: 22F80D9EBE87DE60

FASTA25126,886
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MTRLTVLALL AGLLASSRAG SSPLLDIVGG RKARPRQFPF LASIQNQGRH FCGGALIHAR 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
FVMTAASCFQ SQNPGVSTVV LGAYDLRRRE RQSRQTFSIS SMSENGYDPQ QNLNDLMLLQ 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
LDREANLTSS VTILPLPLQN ATVEAGTRCQ VAGWGSQRSG GRLSRFPRFV NVTVTPEDQC 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
RPNNVCTGVL TRRGGICNGD GGTPLVCEGL AHGVASFSLG PCGRGPDFFT RVALFRDWID 

       250 
GVLNNPGPGP A 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Cloning of the cDNA for the serine protease homolog CAP37/azurocidin, a microbicidal and chemotactic protein from human granulocytes."
Morgan J.G., Sukiennicki T., Pereira H.A., Spitznagel J.K., Guerra M.E., Larrick J.L.
J. Immunol. 147:3210-3214(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
[2]"Three human elastase-like genes coordinately expressed in the myelomonocyte lineage are organized as a single genetic locus on 19pter."
Zimmer M., Medcalf R.L., Fink T.M., Mattmann C., Lichter P., Jenne D.E.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:8215-8219(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[3]"The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19."
Grimwood J., Gordon L.A., Olsen A.S., Terry A., Schmutz J., Lamerdin J.E., Hellsten U., Goodstein D., Couronne O., Tran-Gyamfi M., Aerts A., Altherr M., Ashworth L., Bajorek E., Black S., Branscomb E., Caenepeel S., Carrano A.V. expand/collapse author list , Caoile C., Chan Y.M., Christensen M., Cleland C.A., Copeland A., Dalin E., Dehal P., Denys M., Detter J.C., Escobar J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Garcia C., Georgescu A.M., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Ho I., Huang W., Israni S., Jett J., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Larionov V., Leem S.-H., Lopez F., Lou Y., Lowry S., Malfatti S., Martinez D., McCready P.M., Medina C., Morgan J., Nelson K., Nolan M., Ovcharenko I., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Popkie A.P., Predki P., Quan G., Ramirez L., Rash S., Retterer J., Rodriguez A., Rogers S., Salamov A., Salazar A., She X., Smith D., Slezak T., Solovyev V., Thayer N., Tice H., Tsai M., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., Wagner M., Wheeler J., Wu K., Xie G., Yang J., Dubchak I., Furey T.S., DeJong P., Dickson M., Gordon D., Eichler E.E., Pennacchio L.A., Richardson P., Stubbs L., Rokhsar D.S., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M., Lucas S.M.
Nature 428:529-535(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[4]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
[5]"Complementary DNA sequence of human neutrophil azurocidin, an antibiotic with extensive homology to serine proteases."
Almeida R.P., Melchior M., Campanelli D., Nathan C., Gabay J.E.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 177:688-695(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 3-251.
Tissue: Neutrophil.
[6]"Amino acid sequence of CAP37, a human neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte-specific chemotactic glycoprotein structurally similar to neutrophil elastase."
Pohl J., Pereira H.A., Martin N.M., Spitznagel J.K.
FEBS Lett. 272:200-204(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-248.
[7]"Covalent structure of two novel neutrophile leucocyte-derived proteins of porcine and human origin. Neutrophile elastase homologues with strong monocyte and fibroblast chemotactic activities."
Flodgaard H., Oestergaard E., Bayne S., Svendsen A., Thomsen J., Engels M., Wollmer A.
Eur. J. Biochem. 197:535-547(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-248.
Tissue: Neutrophil.
[8]"CAP37, a human neutrophil-derived chemotactic factor with monocyte specific activity."
Pereira H.A., Shafer W.M., Pohl J., Martin L.E., Spitznagel J.K.
J. Clin. Invest. 85:1468-1476(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-68.
Tissue: Neutrophil.
[9]"CAP 37, a 37 kD human neutrophil granule cationic protein shares homology with inflammatory proteinases."
Pereira H.A., Spitznagel J.K., Pohl J., Wilson D.E., Morgan J., Palings I., Larrick J.W.
Life Sci. 46:189-196(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-67.
Tissue: Neutrophil.
[10]"Comparison of granule proteins from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes which are bactericidal toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa."
Wasiluk K.R., Skubitz K.M., Gray B.H.
Infect. Immun. 59:4193-4200(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-48, FUNCTION.
Tissue: Leukocyte.
[11]"PMN elastases: a comparison of the specificity of human isozymes and the enzyme from other species toward substrates and inhibitors."
Green B.G., Weston H., Ashe B.M., Doherty J., Finke P., Hagmann W., Lark M., Mao J., Maycock A., Moore V., Mumford R., Shah S., Walakovits L., Knight W.B.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 286:284-292(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-47.
[12]"Antibiotic proteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes."
Gabay J.E., Scott R.W., Campanelli D., Griffith J., Wilde C., Marra M.N., Seeger M., Nathan C.F.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86:5610-5614(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-46.
[13]"Characterization of two azurphil granule proteases with active-site homology to neutrophil elastase."
Wilde C.G., Snable J.L., Griffith J.E., Scott R.W.
J. Biol. Chem. 265:2038-2041(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-46 AND 194-217.
[14]"Human neutrophil azurocidin synergizes with leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G in the killing of Capnocytophaga sputigena."
Miyasaki K.T., Bodeau A.L.
Infect. Immun. 60:4973-4975(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 27-46, FUNCTION.
[15]"Human neutrophil granule cationic protein CAP37 is a specific macrophage chemotaxin that shares homology with inflammatory proteinases."
Morgan J.G., Pereira H.A., Sukiennicki T., Spitznagel J.K., Larrick J.W.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 305:89-96(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[16]"Synthetic bactericidal peptide based on CAP37: a 37-kDa human neutrophil granule-associated cationic antimicrobial protein chemotactic for monocytes."
Pereira H.A., Erdem I., Pohl J., Spitznagel J.K.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:4733-4737(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SYNTHESIS OF 46-70.
[17]"Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry."
Chen R., Jiang X., Sun D., Han G., Wang F., Ye M., Wang L., Zou H.
J. Proteome Res. 8:651-661(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ASN-126; ASN-140 AND ASN-171.
Tissue: Liver.
[18]"Initial characterization of the human central proteome."
Burkard T.R., Planyavsky M., Kaupe I., Breitwieser F.P., Buerckstuemmer T., Bennett K.L., Superti-Furga G., Colinge J.
BMC Syst. Biol. 5:17-17(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[19]"Structure of HBP, a multifunctional protein with a serine proteinase fold."
Iversen L.F., Kastrup J.S., Bjoern S.E., Rasmussen P.B., Wiberg F.C., Flodgaard H.J., Larsen I.K.
Nat. Struct. Biol. 4:265-268(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.3 ANGSTROMS).
[20]"Atomic resolution structure of human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin."
Karlsen S., Iversen L.F., Larsen I.K., Flodgaard H.J., Kastrup J.S.
Acta Crystallogr. D 54:598-609(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.12 ANGSTROMS).
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
M96326 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59353.1.
AC004799 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC069495 mRNA. Translation: AAH69495.1.
BC093931 mRNA. Translation: AAH93931.1.
BC093933 mRNA. Translation: AAH93933.1.
X58794 mRNA. Translation: CAA41601.1.
CCDSCCDS12044.1.
PIRTRHUAZ. A46268.
RefSeqNP_001691.1. NM_001700.3.
UniGeneHs.72885.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB-PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1A7SX-ray1.12A27-251[»]
1AE5X-ray2.30A27-251[»]
1FY1X-ray2.50A27-251[»]
1FY3X-ray1.89A27-251[»]
ProteinModelPortalP20160.
SMRP20160. Positions 27-251.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid107043. 2 interactions.
IntActP20160. 2 interactions.
MINTMINT-4054423.
STRING9606.ENSP00000233997.

Protein family/group databases

MEROPSS01.971.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM416746.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP20160.
PRIDEP20160.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU566.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000233997; ENSP00000233997; ENSG00000172232.
GeneID566.
KEGGhsa:566.
UCSCuc002lpz.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD566.
GeneCardsGC19P000825.
HGNCHGNC:913. AZU1.
HPAHPA055851.
MIM162815. gene.
neXtProtNX_P20160.
PharmGKBPA25206.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG5640.
HOGENOMHOG000251820.
HOVERGENHBG013304.
InParanoidP20160.
OMAWIDSVIN.
OrthoDBEOG73FQNK.
PhylomeDBP20160.
TreeFamTF335284.

Gene expression databases

BgeeP20160.
CleanExHS_AZU1.
GenevestigatorP20160.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR001254. Peptidase_S1.
IPR001314. Peptidase_S1A.
IPR009003. Trypsin-like_Pept_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00089. Trypsin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR00722. CHYMOTRYPSIN.
SMARTSM00020. Tryp_SPc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF50494. SSF50494. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS50240. TRYPSIN_DOM. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

EvolutionaryTraceP20160.
GeneWikiAzurocidin_1.
GenomeRNAi566.
NextBio2309.
PROP20160.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameCAP7_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P20160
Secondary accession number(s): P80014 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q52LG4, Q9UCM1, Q9UCT5
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1991
Last sequence update: October 1, 1993
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 150 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

Peptidase families

Classification of peptidase families and list of entries

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 19

Human chromosome 19: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM