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Protein

C-X-C motif chemokine 2

Gene

CXCL2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils and expressed at sites of inflammation. Hematoregulatory chemokine, which, in vitro, suppresses hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. GRO-beta(5-73) shows a highly enhanced hematopoietic activity.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • chemokine activity Source: ProtInc
  • CXCR chemokine receptor binding Source: GO_Central

GO - Biological processi

  • cell chemotaxis Source: GOC
  • chemokine-mediated signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  • chemotaxis Source: ProtInc
  • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  • immune response Source: GO_Central
  • inflammatory response Source: ProtInc
  • positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis Source: GO_Central
  • regulation of cell proliferation Source: GO_Central
  • response to lipopolysaccharide Source: GO_Central
  • response to molecule of bacterial origin Source: BHF-UCL
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Cytokine

Keywords - Biological processi

Chemotaxis, Inflammatory response

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15344. Chemokine receptors bind chemokines.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
C-X-C motif chemokine 2
Alternative name(s):
Growth-regulated protein beta
Short name:
Gro-beta
Macrophage inflammatory protein 2-alpha
Short name:
MIP2-alpha
Cleaved into the following chain:
Alternative name(s):
GRO-beta-T
Hematopoietic synergistic factor
Short name:
HSF
SB-251353
Gene namesi
Name:CXCL2
Synonyms:GRO2, GROB, MIP2A, SCYB2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4603. CXCL2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular region Source: Reactome
  • extracellular space Source: ProtInc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Pharmaceutical usei

GRO-beta(5-73) is available under the name Garnocestim as immunomodulator. It is used prior to hematopoietic transplantation for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization and reduction of incidence, duration, and/or severity of chemotherapy induced cytopenias.

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA35051.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCXCL2.
DMDMi127085.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 3434Add
BLAST
Chaini35 – 10773C-X-C motif chemokine 2PRO_0000005063Add
BLAST
Chaini39 – 10769GRO-beta(5-73)PRO_0000005064Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi43 ↔ 69
Disulfide bondi45 ↔ 85

Post-translational modificationi

The N-terminal processed form GRO-beta(5-73) is produced by proteolytic cleavage after secretion from bone marrow stromal cells.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP19875.
PRIDEiP19875.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP19875.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP19875.
CleanExiHS_CXCL2.
ExpressionAtlasiP19875. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP19875. HS.

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
DPP4P274872EBI-2114901,EBI-2871277

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109177. 3 interactions.
DIPiDIP-5908N.
IntActiP19875. 3 interactions.
MINTiMINT-6491498.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000427279.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
107
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi49 – 513Combined sources
Turni54 – 563Combined sources
Beta strandi57 – 637Combined sources
Beta strandi73 – 786Combined sources
Beta strandi83 – 864Combined sources
Turni93 – 953Combined sources
Turni98 – 1025Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1QNKNMR-A/B39-107[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP19875.
SMRiP19875. Positions 39-107.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP19875.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG83801.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000062901.
HOGENOMiHOG000220915.
HOVERGENiHBG107789.
InParanoidiP19875.
KOiK05505.
OMAiTMQGIHL.
OrthoDBiEOG7NSB57.
PhylomeDBiP19875.
TreeFamiTF333433.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001089. Chemokine_CXC.
IPR018048. Chemokine_CXC_CS.
IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10179. PTHR10179. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00048. IL8. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00437. SMALLCYTKCXC.
SMARTiSM00199. SCY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54117. SSF54117. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00471. SMALL_CYTOKINES_CXC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P19875-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MARATLSAAP SNPRLLRVAL LLLLLVAASR RAAGAPLATE LRCQCLQTLQ
60 70 80 90 100
GIHLKNIQSV KVKSPGPHCA QTEVIATLKN GQKACLNPAS PMVKKIIEKM

LKNGKSN
Length:107
Mass (Da):11,389
Last modified:February 1, 1991 - v1
Checksum:i740F277E928571BA
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X53799 mRNA. Translation: CAA37808.1.
M36820 mRNA. Translation: AAA63183.1.
M57731 mRNA. Translation: AAA63182.1.
CR542171 mRNA. Translation: CAG46968.1.
CH471057 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX05700.1.
BC015753 mRNA. Translation: AAH15753.1.
AF043340 mRNA. Translation: AAC03540.1.
CCDSiCCDS34008.1.
PIRiJH0281.
RefSeqiNP_002080.1. NM_002089.3.
UniGeneiHs.75765.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000508487; ENSP00000427279; ENSG00000081041.
GeneIDi2920.
KEGGihsa:2920.
UCSCiuc003hhm.4. human.

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

CXCL2 entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X53799 mRNA. Translation: CAA37808.1.
M36820 mRNA. Translation: AAA63183.1.
M57731 mRNA. Translation: AAA63182.1.
CR542171 mRNA. Translation: CAG46968.1.
CH471057 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX05700.1.
BC015753 mRNA. Translation: AAH15753.1.
AF043340 mRNA. Translation: AAC03540.1.
CCDSiCCDS34008.1.
PIRiJH0281.
RefSeqiNP_002080.1. NM_002089.3.
UniGeneiHs.75765.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1QNKNMR-A/B39-107[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP19875.
SMRiP19875. Positions 39-107.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109177. 3 interactions.
DIPiDIP-5908N.
IntActiP19875. 3 interactions.
MINTiMINT-6491498.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000427279.

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3286076.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCXCL2.
DMDMi127085.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP19875.
PRIDEiP19875.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi2920.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000508487; ENSP00000427279; ENSG00000081041.
GeneIDi2920.
KEGGihsa:2920.
UCSCiuc003hhm.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2920.
GeneCardsiGC04M074962.
HGNCiHGNC:4603. CXCL2.
MIMi139110. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P19875.
PharmGKBiPA35051.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG83801.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000062901.
HOGENOMiHOG000220915.
HOVERGENiHBG107789.
InParanoidiP19875.
KOiK05505.
OMAiTMQGIHL.
OrthoDBiEOG7NSB57.
PhylomeDBiP19875.
TreeFamiTF333433.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15344. Chemokine receptors bind chemokines.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP19875.
GenomeRNAii2920.
NextBioi11577.
PMAP-CutDBP19875.
PROiP19875.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP19875.
CleanExiHS_CXCL2.
ExpressionAtlasiP19875. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP19875. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001089. Chemokine_CXC.
IPR018048. Chemokine_CXC_CS.
IPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10179. PTHR10179. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00048. IL8. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00437. SMALLCYTKCXC.
SMARTiSM00199. SCY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54117. SSF54117. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00471. SMALL_CYTOKINES_CXC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for murine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and its human homologues."
    Tekamp-Olson P., Gallegos C., Bauer D., McClain J., Sherry B., Fabre M., van Deventer S., Cerami A.
    J. Exp. Med. 172:911-919(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Histiocytic lymphoma.
  2. "Cloning and sequencing of a new gro transcript from activated human monocytes: expression in leukocytes and wound tissue."
    Iida N., Grotendorst G.R.
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:5596-5599(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  4. "Cloning of human full open reading frames in Gateway(TM) system entry vector (pDONR201)."
    Ebert L., Schick M., Neubert P., Schatten R., Henze S., Korn B.
    Submitted (JUN-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  5. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  6. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Eye.
  7. Jang J.S., Kim B.E.
    Submitted (JAN-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 35-107.
  8. "Monocyte adherence results in selective induction of novel genes sharing homology with mediators of inflammation and tissue repair."
    Sporn S.A., Eierman D.F., Johnson C.E., Morris J., Martin G., Ladner M., Haskill S.
    J. Immunol. 144:4434-4441(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 56-107.
  9. "Identification of unique truncated KC/GRO beta chemokines with potent hematopoietic and anti-infective activities."
    King A.G., Johanson K., Frey C.L., DeMarsh P.L., White J.R., McDevitt P., McNulty D., Balcarek J., Jonak Z.L., Bhatnagar P.K., Pelus L.M.
    J. Immunol. 164:3774-3782(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 39-56, IDENTIFICATION OF GRO-BETA(5-73) BY MASS SPECTROMETRY, PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF N-TERMINUS, FUNCTION.
  10. "Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of truncated human GRObeta [5-73] and its structural comparison with CXC chemokine family members GROalpha and IL-8."
    Qian Y.Q., Johanson K.O., McDevitt P.
    J. Mol. Biol. 294:1065-1072(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF 39-107.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCXCL2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P19875
Secondary accession number(s): Q6FGD6, Q9UPB8
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1991
Last sequence update: February 1, 1991
Last modified: July 22, 2015
This is version 154 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Pharmaceutical, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 4
    Human chromosome 4: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.