P19551 (ENV_HV1MF) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified April 3, 2013. Version 98. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Envelope glycoprotein gp160
|Organism||Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MFA) (HIV-1)|
|Taxonomic identifier||11704 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Viruses › Retro-transcribing viruses › Retroviridae › Orthoretrovirinae › Lentivirus › Primate lentivirus group ›|
|Virus host||Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]|
|Sequence length||853 AA.|
|Sequence processing||The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at protein level|
General annotation (Comments)
The surface protein gp120 (SU) attaches the virus to the host lymphoid cell by binding to the primary receptor CD4. This interaction induces a structural rearrangement creating a high affinity binding site for a chemokine coreceptor like CXCR4 and/or CCR5. This peculiar 2 stage receptor-interaction strategy allows gp120 to maintain the highly conserved coreceptor-binding site in a cryptic conformation, protected from neutralizing antibodies. Since CD4 also displays a binding site for the disulfide-isomerase P4HB/PDI, a P4HB/PDI-CD4-CXCR4-gp120 complex may form. In that complex, P4HB/PDI could reach and reduce gp120 disulfide bonds, causing major conformational changes in gp120. TXN, another PDI family member could also be involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion. These changes are transmitted to the transmembrane protein gp41 and are thought to activate its fusogenic potential by unmasking its fusion peptide.
Surface protein gp120 (SU) may target the virus to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) by binding host ITGA4/ITGB7 (alpha-4/beta-7 integrins), a complex that mediates T-cell migration to the GALT. Interaction between gp120 and ITGA4/ITGB7 would allow the virus to enter GALT early in the infection, infecting and killing most of GALT's resting CD4+ T-cells. This T-cell depletion is believed to be the major insult to the host immune system leading to AIDS By similarity.
The surface protein gp120 is a ligand for CD209/DC-SIGN and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR, which are respectively found on dendritic cells (DCs), and on endothelial cells of liver sinusoids and lymph node sinuses. These interactions allow capture of viral particles at mucosal surfaces by these cells and subsequent transmission to permissive cells. DCs are professional antigen presenting cells, critical for host immunity by inducing specific immune responses against a broad variety of pathogens. They act as sentinels in various tissues where they take up antigen, process it, and present it to T-cells following migration to lymphoid organs. HIV subverts the migration properties of dendritic cells to gain access to CD4+ T-cells in lymph nodes. Virus transmission to permissive T-cells occurs either in trans (without DCs infection, through viral capture and transmission), or in cis (following DCs productive infection, through the usual CD4-gp120 interaction), thereby inducing a robust infection. In trans infection, bound virions remain infectious over days and it is proposed that they are not degraded, but protected in non-lysosomal acidic organelles within the DCs close to the cell membrane thus contributing to the viral infectious potential during DCs' migration from the periphery to the lymphoid tissues. On arrival at lymphoid tissues, intact virions recycle back to DCs' cell surface allowing virus transmission to CD4+ T-cells. Virion capture also seems to lead to MHC-II-restricted viral antigen presentation, and probably to the activation of HIV-specific CD4+ cells By similarity.
The transmembrane protein gp41 (TM) acts as a class I viral fusion protein. Under the current model, the protein has at least 3 conformational states: pre-fusion native state, pre-hairpin intermediate state, and post-fusion hairpin state. During fusion of viral and target intracellular membranes, the coiled coil regions (heptad repeats) assume a trimer-of-hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. The formation of this structure appears to drive apposition and subsequent fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Complete fusion occurs in host cell endosomes and is dynamin-dependent, however some lipid transfer might occur at the plasma membrane. The virus undergoes clathrin-dependent internalization long before endosomal fusion, thus minimizing the surface exposure of conserved viral epitopes during fusion and reducing the efficacy of inhibitors targeting these epitopes. Membranes fusion leads to delivery of the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm By similarity.
The envelope glyprotein gp160 precursor down-modulates cell surface CD4 antigen by interacting with it in the endoplasmic reticulum and blocking its transport to the cell surface By similarity.
The gp120-gp41 heterodimer seems to contribute to T-cell depletion during HIV-1 infection. The envelope glycoproteins expressed on the surface of infected cells induce apoptosis through an interaction with uninfected cells expressing the receptor (CD4) and the coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5. This type of bystander killing may be obtained by at least three distinct mechanisms. First, the interaction between the 2 cells can induce cellular fusion followed by nuclear fusion within the syncytium. Syncytia are condemned to die from apoptosis. Second, the 2 interacting cells may not fuse entirely and simply exchange plasma membrane lipids, after a sort of hemifusion process, followed by rapid death. Third, it is possible that virus-infected cells, on the point of undergoing apoptosis, fuse with CD4-expressing cells, in which case apoptosis is rapidly transmitted from one cell to the other and thus occurs in a sort of contagious fashion By similarity.
The gp120-gp41 heterodimer allows rapid transcytosis of the virus through CD4 negative cells such as simple epithelial monolayers of the intestinal, rectal and endocervical epithelial barriers. Both gp120 and gp41 specifically recognize glycosphingolipids galactosyl-ceramide (GalCer) or 3' sulfo-galactosyl-ceramide (GalS) present in the lipid rafts structures of epithelial cells. Binding to these alternative receptors allows the rapid transcytosis of the virus through the epithelial cells. This transcytotic vesicle-mediated transport of virions from the apical side to the basolateral side of the epithelial cells does not involve infection of the cells themselves By similarity.
The mature envelope protein (Env) consists of a homotrimer of non-covalently associated gp120-gp41 heterodimers. The resulting complex protrudes from the virus surface as a spike. There seems to be as few as 10 spikes on the average virion. Surface protein gp120 interacts with human CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4, to form a P4HB/PDI-CD4-CXCR4-gp120 complex. Gp120 also interacts with the C-type lectins CD209/DC-SIGN and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR (collectively referred to as DC-SIGN(R)). Gp120 and gp41 interact with GalCer. Gp120 interacts with human ITGA4/ITGB7 complex; on CD4+ T-cells, this interaction results in rapid activation of integrin ITGAL/LFA-1, which facilitate efficient cell-to-cell spreading of HIV-1. Gp120 interacts with cell-associated heparan sulfate; this interaction increases virus infectivity on permissive cells and may be involved in infection of CD4- cells By similarity.
Transmembrane protein gp41: Virion membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Host cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Host endosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein Potential. Note: It is probably concentrated at the site of budding and incorporated into the virions possibly by contacts between the cytoplasmic tail of Env and the N-terminus of Gag.
Surface protein gp120: Virion membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Host cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Host endosome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein Potential. Note: The surface protein is not anchored to the viral envelope, but associates with the extravirion surface through its binding to TM. It is probably concentrated at the site of budding and incorporated into the virions possibly by contacts between the cytoplasmic tail of Env and the N-terminus of Gag.
The YXXL motif is involved in determining the exact site of viral release at the surface of infected mononuclear cells and promotes endocytosis By similarity.
The 17 amino acids long immunosuppressive region is present in many retroviral envelope proteins. Synthetic peptides derived from this relatively conserved sequence inhibit immune function in vitro and in vivo By similarity.
Some of the most genetically diverse regions of the viral genome are present in Env. They are called variable regions 1 through 5 (V1 through V5). Coreceptor usage of gp120 is determined mainly by the primary structure of the third variable region (V3) in the outer domain of gp120. The sequence of V3 determines which coreceptor, CCR5 and/or CXCR4 (corresponding to R5/macrophage, X4/T cell and R5X4/T cell and macrophage tropism), is used to trigger the fusion potential of the Env complex, and hence which cells the virus can infect. Binding to CCR5 involves a region adjacent in addition to V3.
Specific enzymatic cleavages in vivo yield mature proteins. Envelope glycoproteins are synthesized as a inactive precursor that is heavily N-glycosylated and processed likely by host cell furin in the Golgi to yield the mature SU and TM proteins. The cleavage site between SU and TM requires the minimal sequence [KR]-X-[KR]-R. About 2 of the 9 disulfide bonds of gp41 are reduced by P4HB/PDI, following binding to CD4 receptor By similarity.
Palmitoylation of the transmembrane protein and of Env polyprotein (prior to its proteolytic cleavage) is essential for their association with host cell membrane lipid rafts. Palmitoylation is therefore required for envelope trafficking to classical lipid rafts, but not for viral replication By similarity.
Inhibitors targeting HIV-1 viral envelope proteins are used as antiretroviral drugs. Attachment of virions to the cell surface via non-specific interactions and CD4 binding can be blocked by inhibitors that include cyanovirin-N, cyclotriazadisulfonamide analogs, PRO 2000, TNX 355 and PRO 542. In addition, BMS 806 can block CD4-induced conformational changes. Env interactions with the coreceptor molecules can be targeted by CCR5 antagonists including SCH-D, maraviroc (UK 427857) and aplaviroc (GW 873140), and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD 070. Fusion of viral and cellular membranes can be inhibited by peptides such as enfuvirtide and tifuvirtide (T 1249). Resistance to inhibitors associated with mutations in Env are observed. Most of the time, single mutations confer only a modest reduction in drug susceptibility. Combination of several mutations is usually required to develop a high-level drug resistance.
HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Signal peptide||1 – 32||32||By similarity|
|Chain||33 – 853||821||Envelope glycoprotein gp160||PRO_0000239490|
|Chain||33 – 509||477||Surface protein gp120 By similarity||PRO_0000038421|
|Chain||510 – 853||344||Transmembrane protein gp41 By similarity||PRO_0000038422|
|Topological domain||33 – 682||650||Extracellular Potential|
|Transmembrane||683 – 703||21||Helical; Potential|
|Topological domain||704 – 853||150||Cytoplasmic Potential|
|Region||131 – 156||26||V1|
|Region||157 – 194||38||V2|
|Region||294 – 328||35||V3|
|Region||362 – 372||11||CD4-binding loop By similarity|
|Region||383 – 416||34||V4|
|Region||459 – 469||11||V5|
|Region||510 – 530||21||Fusion peptide Potential|
|Region||574 – 590||17||Immunosuppression By similarity|
|Region||660 – 681||22||MPER; binding to GalCer By similarity|
|Region||660 – 665||6||Involved in GalCer binding By similarity|
|Coiled coil||642 – 665||24||Potential|
|Motif||710 – 713||4||YXXL motif; contains endocytosis signal By similarity|
|Site||509 – 510||2||Cleavage; by host furin By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Lipidation||762||1||S-palmitoyl cysteine; by host By similarity|
|Glycosylation||88||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||136||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||141||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||156||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||160||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||186||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||195||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||232||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||239||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||260||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||274||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||287||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||293||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||299||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||330||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||354||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||384||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||390||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||395||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||404||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||446||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||461||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||609||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||614||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||623||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||635||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Glycosylation||672||1||N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Potential|
|Disulfide bond||54 ↔ 74||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||119 ↔ 203||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||126 ↔ 194||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||131 ↔ 157||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||216 ↔ 245||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||226 ↔ 237||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||294 ↔ 329||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||376 ↔ 443||By similarity|
|Disulfide bond||383 ↔ 416||By similarity|
Helix Strand Turn
|Beta strand||84 – 88||5|
|Beta strand||91 – 94||4|
|Helix||99 – 115||17|
|Beta strand||119 – 125||7|
|Beta strand||195 – 200||6|
|Beta strand||221 – 226||6|
|Beta strand||233 – 245||13|
|Beta strand||254 – 260||7|
|Beta strand||265 – 267||3|
|Beta strand||269 – 271||3|
|Beta strand||282 – 295||14|
|Turn||325 – 327||3|
|Beta strand||328 – 332||5|
|Helix||333 – 351||19|
|Beta strand||356 – 359||4|
|Helix||367 – 370||4|
|Beta strand||371 – 376||6|
|Beta strand||379 – 383||5|
|Helix||386 – 388||3|
|Beta strand||391 – 393||3|
|Beta strand||410 – 423||14|
|Beta strand||425 – 428||4|
|Beta strand||430 – 432||3|
|Beta strand||442 – 454||13|
|Beta strand||461 – 468||8|
|Helix||473 – 481||9|
|Beta strand||484 – 488||5|
|Helix||513 – 518||6|
|Helix||520 – 523||4|
|Beta strand||527 – 530||4|
|||"Cloning and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants diminished in the ability to induce syncytium-independent cytolysis."|
Stevenson M., Haggerty S., Lamonica C., Mann A.M., Meier C., Wasiak A.
J. Virol. 64:3792-3803(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
|||"Pathogens target DC-SIGN to influence their fate DC-SIGN functions as a pathogen receptor with broad specificity."|
Geijtenbeek T.B., van Kooyk Y.
APMIS 111:698-714(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|||"The HIV Env-mediated fusion reaction."|
Gallo S.A., Finnegan C.M., Viard M., Raviv Y., Dimitrov A., Rawat S.S., Puri A., Durell S., Blumenthal R.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1614:36-50(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|||"Mechanisms of apoptosis induction by the HIV-1 envelope."|
Perfettini J.-L., Castedo M., Roumier T., Andreau K., Nardacci R., Piacentini M., Kroemer G.
Cell Death Differ. 12:916-923(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|||"V3: HIV's switch-hitter."|
Hartley O., Klasse P.J., Sattentau Q.J., Moore J.P.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 21:171-189(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|||"Emerging drug targets for antiretroviral therapy."|
Reeves J.D., Piefer A.J.
Drugs 65:1747-1766(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|||"HIV and the chemokine system: 10 years later."|
EMBO J. 25:447-456(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|+||Additional computationally mapped references.|
|M33943 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA44850.1.|
3D structure databases
|SMR||P19551. Positions 84-133, 193-490, 510-663. |
Protocols and materials databases
Enzyme and pathway databases
|Reactome||REACT_116125. Disease. |
REACT_6900. Immune System.
Family and domain databases
|Gene3D||184.108.40.206. 2 hits. |
|InterPro||IPR000777. HIV1_GP160. |
|Pfam||PF00516. GP120. 1 hit. |
PF00517. GP41. 1 hit.
|SUPFAM||SSF56502. GP120. 1 hit. |
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P19551|
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Viral Protein Annotation Program|
Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references