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P19551

- ENV_HV1MF

UniProt

P19551 - ENV_HV1MF

Protein

Envelope glycoprotein gp160

Gene

env

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MFA) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 106 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Feb 1991)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    The surface protein gp120 (SU) attaches the virus to the host lymphoid cell by binding to the primary receptor CD4. This interaction induces a structural rearrangement creating a high affinity binding site for a chemokine coreceptor like CXCR4 and/or CCR5. This peculiar 2 stage receptor-interaction strategy allows gp120 to maintain the highly conserved coreceptor-binding site in a cryptic conformation, protected from neutralizing antibodies. Since CD4 also displays a binding site for the disulfide-isomerase P4HB/PDI, a P4HB/PDI-CD4-CXCR4-gp120 complex may form. In that complex, P4HB/PDI could reach and reduce gp120 disulfide bonds, causing major conformational changes in gp120. TXN, another PDI family member could also be involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion. These changes are transmitted to the transmembrane protein gp41 and are thought to activate its fusogenic potential by unmasking its fusion peptide.
    Surface protein gp120 (SU) may target the virus to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) by binding host ITGA4/ITGB7 (alpha-4/beta-7 integrins), a complex that mediates T-cell migration to the GALT. Interaction between gp120 and ITGA4/ITGB7 would allow the virus to enter GALT early in the infection, infecting and killing most of GALT's resting CD4+ T-cells. This T-cell depletion is believed to be the major insult to the host immune system leading to AIDS By similarity.By similarity
    The surface protein gp120 is a ligand for CD209/DC-SIGN and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR, which are respectively found on dendritic cells (DCs), and on endothelial cells of liver sinusoids and lymph node sinuses. These interactions allow capture of viral particles at mucosal surfaces by these cells and subsequent transmission to permissive cells. DCs are professional antigen presenting cells, critical for host immunity by inducing specific immune responses against a broad variety of pathogens. They act as sentinels in various tissues where they take up antigen, process it, and present it to T-cells following migration to lymphoid organs. HIV subverts the migration properties of dendritic cells to gain access to CD4+ T-cells in lymph nodes. Virus transmission to permissive T-cells occurs either in trans (without DCs infection, through viral capture and transmission), or in cis (following DCs productive infection, through the usual CD4-gp120 interaction), thereby inducing a robust infection. In trans infection, bound virions remain infectious over days and it is proposed that they are not degraded, but protected in non-lysosomal acidic organelles within the DCs close to the cell membrane thus contributing to the viral infectious potential during DCs' migration from the periphery to the lymphoid tissues. On arrival at lymphoid tissues, intact virions recycle back to DCs' cell surface allowing virus transmission to CD4+ T-cells. Virion capture also seems to lead to MHC-II-restricted viral antigen presentation, and probably to the activation of HIV-specific CD4+ cells By similarity.By similarity
    The transmembrane protein gp41 (TM) acts as a class I viral fusion protein. Under the current model, the protein has at least 3 conformational states: pre-fusion native state, pre-hairpin intermediate state, and post-fusion hairpin state. During fusion of viral and target intracellular membranes, the coiled coil regions (heptad repeats) assume a trimer-of-hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. The formation of this structure appears to drive apposition and subsequent fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Complete fusion occurs in host cell endosomes and is dynamin-dependent, however some lipid transfer might occur at the plasma membrane. The virus undergoes clathrin-dependent internalization long before endosomal fusion, thus minimizing the surface exposure of conserved viral epitopes during fusion and reducing the efficacy of inhibitors targeting these epitopes. Membranes fusion leads to delivery of the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm By similarity.By similarity
    The envelope glyprotein gp160 precursor down-modulates cell surface CD4 antigen by interacting with it in the endoplasmic reticulum and blocking its transport to the cell surface.By similarity
    The gp120-gp41 heterodimer seems to contribute to T-cell depletion during HIV-1 infection. The envelope glycoproteins expressed on the surface of infected cells induce apoptosis through an interaction with uninfected cells expressing the receptor (CD4) and the coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5. This type of bystander killing may be obtained by at least three distinct mechanisms. First, the interaction between the 2 cells can induce cellular fusion followed by nuclear fusion within the syncytium. Syncytia are condemned to die from apoptosis. Second, the 2 interacting cells may not fuse entirely and simply exchange plasma membrane lipids, after a sort of hemifusion process, followed by rapid death. Third, it is possible that virus-infected cells, on the point of undergoing apoptosis, fuse with CD4-expressing cells, in which case apoptosis is rapidly transmitted from one cell to the other and thus occurs in a sort of contagious fashion By similarity.By similarity
    The gp120-gp41 heterodimer allows rapid transcytosis of the virus through CD4 negative cells such as simple epithelial monolayers of the intestinal, rectal and endocervical epithelial barriers. Both gp120 and gp41 specifically recognize glycosphingolipids galactosyl-ceramide (GalCer) or 3' sulfo-galactosyl-ceramide (GalS) present in the lipid rafts structures of epithelial cells. Binding to these alternative receptors allows the rapid transcytosis of the virus through the epithelial cells. This transcytotic vesicle-mediated transport of virions from the apical side to the basolateral side of the epithelial cells does not involve infection of the cells themselves By similarity.By similarity

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sitei509 – 5102Cleavage; by host furinBy similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. structural molecule activity Source: InterPro

    GO - Biological processi

    1. apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus by host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW
    3. evasion or tolerance by virus of host immune response Source: UniProtKB-KW
    4. fusion of virus membrane with host endosome membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
    5. virion attachment to host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Apoptosis, Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus by host, Fusion of virus membrane with host endosomal membrane, Fusion of virus membrane with host membrane, Host-virus interaction, Viral attachment to host cell, Viral immunoevasion, Viral penetration into host cytoplasm, Virus endocytosis by host, Virus entry into host cell

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Envelope glycoprotein gp160
    Alternative name(s):
    Env polyprotein
    Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
    Surface protein gp120
    Short name:
    SU
    Alternative name(s):
    Glycoprotein 120
    Short name:
    gp120
    Alternative name(s):
    Glycoprotein 41
    Short name:
    gp41
    Gene namesi
    Name:env
    OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MFA) (HIV-1)
    Taxonomic identifieri11704 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
    Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]

    Subcellular locationi

    Chain Transmembrane protein gp41 : Virion membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Host cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Host endosome membrane Curated; Single-pass type I membrane protein Curated
    Note: It is probably concentrated at the site of budding and incorporated into the virions possibly by contacts between the cytoplasmic tail of Env and the N-terminus of Gag.
    Chain Surface protein gp120 : Virion membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Host cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Host endosome membrane Curated; Peripheral membrane protein Curated
    Note: The surface protein is not anchored to the viral envelope, but associates with the extravirion surface through its binding to TM. It is probably concentrated at the site of budding and incorporated into the virions possibly by contacts between the cytoplasmic tail of Env and the N-terminus of Gag.

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. host cell endosome membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    2. host cell plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    3. integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
    4. viral envelope Source: UniProtKB-KW
    5. virion membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Host cell membrane, Host endosome, Host membrane, Membrane, Viral envelope protein, Virion

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Keywords - Diseasei

    AIDS

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 3232By similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini33 – 853821Envelope glycoprotein gp160PRO_0000239490Add
    BLAST
    Chaini33 – 509477Surface protein gp120By similarityPRO_0000038421Add
    BLAST
    Chaini510 – 853344Transmembrane protein gp41By similarityPRO_0000038422Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Disulfide bondi54 ↔ 74By similarity
    Glycosylationi88 – 881N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Disulfide bondi119 ↔ 203By similarity
    Disulfide bondi126 ↔ 194By similarity
    Disulfide bondi131 ↔ 157By similarity
    Glycosylationi136 – 1361N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi141 – 1411N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi156 – 1561N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi160 – 1601N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi186 – 1861N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi195 – 1951N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Disulfide bondi216 ↔ 245By similarity
    Disulfide bondi226 ↔ 237By similarity
    Glycosylationi232 – 2321N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi239 – 2391N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi260 – 2601N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi274 – 2741N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi287 – 2871N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi293 – 2931N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Disulfide bondi294 ↔ 329By similarity
    Glycosylationi299 – 2991N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi330 – 3301N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi354 – 3541N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Disulfide bondi376 ↔ 443By similarity
    Disulfide bondi383 ↔ 416By similarity
    Glycosylationi384 – 3841N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi390 – 3901N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi395 – 3951N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi404 – 4041N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi446 – 4461N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi461 – 4611N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi609 – 6091N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi614 – 6141N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi623 – 6231N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi635 – 6351N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi672 – 6721N-linked (GlcNAc...); by hostSequence Analysis
    Lipidationi762 – 7621S-palmitoyl cysteine; by hostBy similarity

    Post-translational modificationi

    Specific enzymatic cleavages in vivo yield mature proteins. Envelope glycoproteins are synthesized as a inactive precursor that is heavily N-glycosylated and processed likely by host cell furin in the Golgi to yield the mature SU and TM proteins. The cleavage site between SU and TM requires the minimal sequence [KR]-X-[KR]-R. About 2 of the 9 disulfide bonds of gp41 are reduced by P4HB/PDI, following binding to CD4 receptor By similarity.By similarity
    Palmitoylation of the transmembrane protein and of Env polyprotein (prior to its proteolytic cleavage) is essential for their association with host cell membrane lipid rafts. Palmitoylation is therefore required for envelope trafficking to classical lipid rafts, but not for viral replication By similarity.By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Lipoprotein, Palmitate

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    The mature envelope protein (Env) consists of a homotrimer of non-covalently associated gp120-gp41 heterodimers. The resulting complex protrudes from the virus surface as a spike. There seems to be as few as 10 spikes on the average virion. Surface protein gp120 interacts with human CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4, to form a P4HB/PDI-CD4-CXCR4-gp120 complex. Gp120 also interacts with the C-type lectins CD209/DC-SIGN and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR (collectively referred to as DC-SIGN(R)). Gp120 and gp41 interact with GalCer. Gp120 interacts with human ITGA4/ITGB7 complex; on CD4+ T-cells, this interaction results in rapid activation of integrin ITGAL/LFA-1, which facilitate efficient cell-to-cell spreading of HIV-1. Gp120 interacts with cell-associated heparan sulfate; this interaction increases virus infectivity on permissive cells and may be involved in infection of CD4- cells By similarity.By similarity

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    853
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Beta strandi84 – 885
    Beta strandi91 – 944
    Helixi99 – 11517
    Beta strandi119 – 1257
    Beta strandi128 – 1303
    Beta strandi195 – 2006
    Beta strandi221 – 2266
    Beta strandi233 – 24513
    Beta strandi254 – 2607
    Beta strandi265 – 2673
    Beta strandi269 – 2713
    Beta strandi282 – 29514
    Turni296 – 2983
    Beta strandi328 – 3325
    Helixi333 – 35119
    Beta strandi356 – 3594
    Helixi367 – 3704
    Beta strandi371 – 3766
    Beta strandi379 – 3835
    Helixi386 – 3883
    Beta strandi391 – 3933
    Beta strandi410 – 42314
    Beta strandi425 – 4284
    Beta strandi430 – 4323
    Beta strandi442 – 45413
    Beta strandi461 – 4688
    Helixi473 – 4819
    Beta strandi484 – 4885

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2NXZX-ray2.04A83-490[»]
    2NY0X-ray2.20A83-490[»]
    2NY2X-ray2.00A86-490[»]
    2NY4X-ray2.00A83-490[»]
    2NY5X-ray2.50G83-490[»]
    2PJVNMR-A510-532[»]
    3ECBX-ray1.70P309-318[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP19551.
    SMRiP19551. Positions 84-133, 193-490, 510-663.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiP19551.

    Topological domain

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Topological domaini33 – 682650ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini704 – 853150CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST

    Transmembrane

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Transmembranei683 – 70321HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Regioni131 – 15626V1Add
    BLAST
    Regioni157 – 19438V2Add
    BLAST
    Regioni294 – 32835V3Add
    BLAST
    Regioni362 – 37211CD4-binding loopBy similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni383 – 41634V4Add
    BLAST
    Regioni459 – 46911V5Add
    BLAST
    Regioni510 – 53021Fusion peptideSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni574 – 59017ImmunosuppressionBy similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni660 – 68122MPER; binding to GalCerBy similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni660 – 6656Involved in GalCer bindingBy similarity

    Coiled coil

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Coiled coili642 – 66524Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST

    Motif

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Motifi710 – 7134YXXL motif; contains endocytosis signalBy similarity

    Domaini

    The YXXL motif is involved in determining the exact site of viral release at the surface of infected mononuclear cells and promotes endocytosis.By similarity
    The 17 amino acids long immunosuppressive region is present in many retroviral envelope proteins. Synthetic peptides derived from this relatively conserved sequence inhibit immune function in vitro and in vivo By similarity.By similarity
    Some of the most genetically diverse regions of the viral genome are present in Env. They are called variable regions 1 through 5 (V1 through V5). Coreceptor usage of gp120 is determined mainly by the primary structure of the third variable region (V3) in the outer domain of gp120. The sequence of V3 determines which coreceptor, CCR5 and/or CXCR4 (corresponding to R5/macrophage, X4/T cell and R5X4/T cell and macrophage tropism), is used to trigger the fusion potential of the Env complex, and hence which cells the virus can infect. Binding to CCR5 involves a region adjacent in addition to V3.

    Keywords - Domaini

    Coiled coil, Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.170.40.20. 2 hits.
    InterProiIPR000777. HIV1_GP160.
    IPR000328. Retroviral_envelope_protein.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00516. GP120. 1 hit.
    PF00517. GP41. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF56502. SSF56502. 3 hits.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P19551-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MRVKEKYQHL WRWGWKWGIM LLGILMICSA TENLWVTVYY GVPVWKEATT    50
    TLFCASDAKA YDTEVHNVCA THACVPTDPN PQEVILVNVT ENFDMWKNDM 100
    VEQMHEDIIS LWDQSLKPCV KLTPLCVNLK CTDLKNDTNT NSSNGRMIME 150
    KGEIKNCSFN ISTSIRNKVQ KEYAFFYKLD IRPIDNTTYR LISCNTSVIT 200
    QACPKVSFEP IPIHYCAPAG FAILKCNDKT FNGTGPCTNV STVQCTHGIR 250
    PVVSTQLLLN GSLAEEEGVI RSANFTDNAK TIIVQLNTSV EINCTRPNNN 300
    TRKSIRIQRG PGRAFVTIGK IGNMRQAHCN ISRAKWMSTL KQIASKLREQ 350
    FGNNKTVIFK QSSGGDPEIV THSFNCGGEF FYCNSTQLFN STWFNSTWST 400
    EGSNNTEGSD TITLPCRIKQ FINMWQEVGK AMYAPPISGQ IRCSSNITGL 450
    LLTRDGGKNT NESEVFRPGG GDMRDNWRSE LYKYKVVKIE TLGVAPTKAK 500
    RRVVQREKRA VGIGALFLGF LGAAGSTMGA ASMTLTVQAR QLLSGIVQQQ 550
    NNLLRAIEAQ QHLLQLTVWG IKQLQARILA VERYLKDQQL LGIWGCSGKL 600
    ICTTAVPWNA SWSNKSLEQF WNNMTWMEWD REINNYTSLI HSLIDESQNQ 650
    QEKNEQELLE LDKWASLWNW FNITNWLWYI KIFIMIVGGL VGLRIVFAVL 700
    SIVNRVRQGY SPLSFQTHLP NRGGPDRPEG IEEEGGERDR DRSVRLVNGS 750
    LALIWDDLRS LCLFSYHRLR DLLLIVTRIV ELLGRRGWEA LKYWWNLLQY 800
    WSQELKNSAV SLLNATAIAV AEGTDRVIEV VQGAYRAIRH IPRRIRQGLE 850
    RIL 853
    Length:853
    Mass (Da):96,912
    Last modified:February 1, 1991 - v1
    Checksum:i3377B993B6F22ABA
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M33943 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA44850.1.

    Cross-referencesi

    Web resourcesi

    hivdb

    HIV drug resistance database

    BioAfrica: HIV bioinformatics in Africa
    HIV drug resistance mutations

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M33943 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA44850.1 .

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    2NXZ X-ray 2.04 A 83-490 [» ]
    2NY0 X-ray 2.20 A 83-490 [» ]
    2NY2 X-ray 2.00 A 86-490 [» ]
    2NY4 X-ray 2.00 A 83-490 [» ]
    2NY5 X-ray 2.50 G 83-490 [» ]
    2PJV NMR - A 510-532 [» ]
    3ECB X-ray 1.70 P 309-318 [» ]
    ProteinModelPortali P19551.
    SMRi P19551. Positions 84-133, 193-490, 510-663.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTracei P19551.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 2.170.40.20. 2 hits.
    InterProi IPR000777. HIV1_GP160.
    IPR000328. Retroviral_envelope_protein.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00516. GP120. 1 hit.
    PF00517. GP41. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF56502. SSF56502. 3 hits.
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Cloning and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants diminished in the ability to induce syncytium-independent cytolysis."
      Stevenson M., Haggerty S., Lamonica C., Mann A.M., Meier C., Wasiak A.
      J. Virol. 64:3792-3803(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
    2. "Pathogens target DC-SIGN to influence their fate DC-SIGN functions as a pathogen receptor with broad specificity."
      Geijtenbeek T.B., van Kooyk Y.
      APMIS 111:698-714(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW.
    3. Cited for: REVIEW.
    4. Cited for: REVIEW.
    5. Cited for: REVIEW.
    6. "Emerging drug targets for antiretroviral therapy."
      Reeves J.D., Piefer A.J.
      Drugs 65:1747-1766(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW.
    7. "HIV and the chemokine system: 10 years later."
      Lusso P.
      EMBO J. 25:447-456(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiENV_HV1MF
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P19551
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1991
    Last sequence update: February 1, 1991
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 106 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Miscellaneous

    Inhibitors targeting HIV-1 viral envelope proteins are used as antiretroviral drugs. Attachment of virions to the cell surface via non-specific interactions and CD4 binding can be blocked by inhibitors that include cyanovirin-N, cyclotriazadisulfonamide analogs, PRO 2000, TNX 355 and PRO 542. In addition, BMS 806 can block CD4-induced conformational changes. Env interactions with the coreceptor molecules can be targeted by CCR5 antagonists including SCH-D, maraviroc (UK 427857) and aplaviroc (GW 873140), and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD 070. Fusion of viral and cellular membranes can be inhibited by peptides such as enfuvirtide and tifuvirtide (T 1249). Resistance to inhibitors associated with mutations in Env are observed. Most of the time, single mutations confer only a modest reduction in drug susceptibility. Combination of several mutations is usually required to develop a high-level drug resistance.
    HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure

    Documents

    1. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references

    External Data

    Dasty 3