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Protein

Prothrombin

Gene

F2

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.

Miscellaneous

Prothrombin is activated on the surface of a phospholipid membrane that binds the amino end of prothrombin and factors Va and Xa in Ca-dependent interactions; factor Xa removes the activation peptide and cleaves the remaining part into light and heavy chains. The activation process starts slowly because factor V itself has to be activated by the initial, small amounts of thrombin.
Thrombin can itself cleave the N-terminal fragment (fragment 1) of the prothrombin, prior to its activation by factor Xa.
The peptide TP508 is able to accelerate repair of both soft and hard tissues.

Catalytic activityi

Selective cleavage of Arg-|-Gly bonds in fibrinogen to form fibrin and release fibrinopeptides A and B.

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by SERPINA5.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei402Charge relay systemBy similarity1
Active sitei458Charge relay systemBy similarity1
Active sitei564Charge relay systemBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • acute-phase response Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • blood coagulation Source: RGD
  • cellular response to mechanical stimulus Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of blood coagulation Source: RGD
  • response to inactivity Source: RGD
  • response to Thyroglobulin triiodothyronine Source: RGD
  • response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone Source: RGD
  • response to thyroxine Source: RGD

Keywordsi

Molecular functionHydrolase, Protease, Serine protease
Biological processAcute phase, Blood coagulation, Hemostasis
LigandCalcium

Protein family/group databases

MEROPSiS01.217

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Prothrombin (EC:3.4.21.5)
Alternative name(s):
Coagulation factor II
Cleaved into the following 4 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:F2
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

RGDi61996 F2

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Pathology & Biotechi

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3078

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 24Sequence analysisAdd BLAST24
PropeptideiPRO_000002817725 – 43Add BLAST19
ChainiPRO_000002817844 – 617ProthrombinAdd BLAST574
PeptideiPRO_000002817944 – 200Activation peptide fragment 1Add BLAST157
PeptideiPRO_0000028180201 – 323Activation peptide fragment 2Add BLAST123
ChainiPRO_0000028181324 – 359Thrombin light chainAdd BLAST36
ChainiPRO_0000028182360 – 617Thrombin heavy chainAdd BLAST258

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei504-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei514-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei584-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei604-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Disulfide bondi61 ↔ 66By similarity
Modified residuei634-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei644-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei694-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei704-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei734-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Modified residuei764-carboxyglutamatePROSITE-ProRule annotationBy similarity1
Disulfide bondi91 ↔ 104By similarity
Disulfide bondi109 ↔ 187By similarity
Glycosylationi120N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi130 ↔ 170By similarity
Glycosylationi144N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi158 ↔ 182By similarity
Disulfide bondi215 ↔ 292By similarity
Disulfide bondi236 ↔ 276By similarity
Disulfide bondi264 ↔ 287By similarity
Disulfide bondi332 ↔ 478Interchain (between light and heavy chains)PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi387 ↔ 403By similarity
Glycosylationi412N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi532 ↔ 546By similarity
Glycosylationi552N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi560 ↔ 590By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

The gamma-carboxyglutamyl residues, which bind calcium ions, result from the carboxylation of glutamyl residues by a microsomal enzyme, the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The modified residues are necessary for the calcium-dependent interaction with a negatively charged phospholipid surface, which is essential for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei200 – 201Cleavage; by thrombin2
Sitei323 – 324Cleavage; by factor Xa2
Sitei359 – 360Cleavage; by factor Xa2

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, Glycoprotein, Zymogen

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP18292
PRIDEiP18292

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP18292
PhosphoSitePlusiP18292

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP18292

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Heterodimer (named alpha-thrombin) of a light and a heavy chain; disulfide-linked. Forms a heterodimer with SERPINA5 (By similarity).By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000022233

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP18292

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP18292
SMRiP18292
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini44 – 90GlaPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST47
Domaini109 – 187Kringle 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST79
Domaini215 – 292Kringle 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST78
Domaini360 – 614Peptidase S1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST255

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni547 – 569High affinity receptor-binding region which is also known as the TP508 peptideAdd BLAST23

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Kringle, Repeat, Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKPN Eukaryota
COG5640 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000251824
HOVERGENiHBG108381
InParanoidiP18292
PhylomeDBiP18292

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00190 Tryp_SPc, 1 hit
Gene3Di2.40.20.10, 2 hits
4.10.140.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR035972 GLA-like_dom_SF
IPR000294 GLA_domain
IPR000001 Kringle
IPR013806 Kringle-like
IPR018056 Kringle_CS
IPR038178 Kringle_sf
IPR009003 Peptidase_S1_PA
IPR001314 Peptidase_S1A
IPR003966 Prothrombin/thrombin
IPR018992 Thrombin_light_chain
IPR037111 Thrombin_light_chain_sf
IPR001254 Trypsin_dom
IPR018114 TRYPSIN_HIS
IPR033116 TRYPSIN_SER
PANTHERiPTHR24254:SF10 PTHR24254:SF10, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00594 Gla, 1 hit
PF00051 Kringle, 2 hits
PF09396 Thrombin_light, 1 hit
PF00089 Trypsin, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF001149 Thrombin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00722 CHYMOTRYPSIN
PR00001 GLABLOOD
PR01505 PROTHROMBIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00069 GLA, 1 hit
SM00130 KR, 2 hits
SM00020 Tryp_SPc, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF50494 SSF50494, 1 hit
SSF57440 SSF57440, 2 hits
SSF57630 SSF57630, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00011 GLA_1, 1 hit
PS50998 GLA_2, 1 hit
PS00021 KRINGLE_1, 2 hits
PS50070 KRINGLE_2, 2 hits
PS50240 TRYPSIN_DOM, 1 hit
PS00134 TRYPSIN_HIS, 1 hit
PS00135 TRYPSIN_SER, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P18292-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLHVRGLGLP GCLALAALAS LVHSQHVFLA PQQALSLLQR VRRANSGFLE
60 70 80 90 100
ELRKGNLERE CVEEQCSYEE AFEALESPQD TDVFWAKYTV CDSVRKPRET
110 120 130 140 150
FMDCLEGRCA MDLGLNYHGN VSVTHTGIEC QLWRSRYPHR PDINSTTHPG
160 170 180 190 200
ADLKENFCRN PDSSTSGPWC YTTDPTVRRE ECSIPVCGQE GRTTVKMTPR
210 220 230 240 250
SRGSKENLSP PLGECLLERG RLYQGNLAVT TLGSPCLAWD SLPTKTLSKY
260 270 280 290 300
QNFDPEVKLV QNFCRNPDRD EEGAWCFVAQ QPGFEYCSLN YCDEAVGEEN
310 320 330 340 350
HDGDESIAGR TTDAEFHTFF DERTFGLGEA DCGLRPLFEK KSLTDKTEKE
360 370 380 390 400
LLDSYIDGRI VEGWDAEKGI APWQVMLFRK SPQELLCGAS LISDRWVLTA
410 420 430 440 450
AHCILYPPWD KNFTENDLLV RIGKHSRTRY ERNVEKISML EKIYIHPRYN
460 470 480 490 500
WRENLDRDIA LLKLKKPVPF SDYIHPVCLP DKQTVTSLLQ AGYKGRVTGW
510 520 530 540 550
GNLRETWTTN INEIQPSVLQ VVNLPIVERP VCKASTRIRI TDNMFCAGFK
560 570 580 590 600
VNDTKRGDAC EGDSGGPFVM KSPYNHRWYQ MGIVSWGEGC DRNGKYGFYT
610
HVFRLKRWMQ KVIDQHR
Length:617
Mass (Da):70,412
Last modified:November 1, 1990 - v1
Checksum:iAD27D1B71445DB1D
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X52835 Transcribed RNA Translation: CAA37017.1
M81397 mRNA Translation: AAA42240.1
PIRiS10511
UniGeneiRn.54498

Genome annotation databases

UCSCiRGD:61996 rat

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTHRB_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P18292
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1990
Last sequence update: November 1, 1990
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 156 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health