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P17445

- BETB_ECOLI

UniProt

P17445 - BETB_ECOLI

Protein

NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase

Gene

betB

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 123 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 3 (23 Jan 2007)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Catalyzes the reversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to the corresponding acid. It is highly specific for betaine and has a significantly higher affinity for NAD than for NADP.2 PublicationsUniRule annotation

    Catalytic activityi

    Betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH.2 PublicationsUniRule annotation

    Cofactori

    Binds 2 potassium ions per subunit.UniRule annotation

    Enzyme regulationi

    Aldehydes with apolar groups are the most effective inhibitors. N-Methylated compounds are also inhibitory, but to a much lesser degree than the aldehydes. The alcohols are more inhibitory than the corresponding acids, and the inhibitory effect increases with the degree of methylation from ethanolamine to choline.1 Publication

    Kineticsi

    1. KM=99 µM for NAD (at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees Celsius)2 Publications
    2. KM=160 µM for betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees Celsius)2 Publications
    3. KM=400 µM for NADP (at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees Celsius)2 Publications

    Vmax=66 µmol/min/mg enzyme (at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees Celsius)2 Publications

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is between 7.5 and 9.5.2 Publications

    Pathwayi

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Metal bindingi26 – 261Potassium 1UniRule annotation
    Metal bindingi27 – 271Potassium 1; via carbonyl oxygenUniRule annotation
    Metal bindingi93 – 931Potassium 1UniRule annotation
    Active sitei162 – 1621Charge relay systemUniRule annotation
    Metal bindingi180 – 1801Potassium 1; via carbonyl oxygenUniRule annotation
    Binding sitei209 – 2091NAD/NADP; via amide nitrogenUniRule annotation
    Metal bindingi246 – 2461Potassium 2; via carbonyl oxygenUniRule annotation
    Sitei248 – 2481Seems to be a necessary countercharge to the potassium cationsUniRule annotation
    Active sitei252 – 2521Proton acceptorUniRule annotation
    Binding sitei286 – 2861NAD/NADPUniRule annotation
    Binding sitei387 – 3871NAD/NADPUniRule annotation
    Metal bindingi457 – 4571Potassium 2; via carbonyl oxygenUniRule annotation
    Metal bindingi460 – 4601Potassium 2; via carbonyl oxygenUniRule annotation
    Active sitei464 – 4641Charge relay systemUniRule annotation

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Nucleotide bindingi150 – 1534NAD/NADPUniRule annotation
    Nucleotide bindingi176 – 1794NAD/NADPUniRule annotation
    Nucleotide bindingi229 – 2346NAD/NADPUniRule annotation

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity Source: EcoCyc
    2. metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

    GO - Biological processi

    1. glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline Source: EcoCyc
    2. response to osmotic stress Source: EcoCyc

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Oxidoreductase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Stress response

    Keywords - Ligandi

    Metal-binding, NAD, NADP, Potassium

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:BADH-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW0304-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:BADH-MONOMER.
    UniPathwayiUPA00529; UER00386.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.2.1.8UniRule annotation)
    Short name:
    BADHUniRule annotation
    Gene namesi
    Name:betBUniRule annotation
    Ordered Locus Names:b0312, JW0304
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacterialesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    ProteomesiUP000000318: Chromosome, UP000000625: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG10110. betB.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Initiator methioninei1 – 11Removed1 Publication
    Chaini2 – 490489NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenasePRO_0000056541Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei286 – 2861Cysteine sulfenic acid (-SOH)UniRule annotation

    Keywords - PTMi

    Oxidation

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP17445.
    PRIDEiP17445.

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    By osmotic stress. Choline is required for full expression. Oxygen and choline exert their control via the transacting DNA-binding proteins ArcA and BetI, respectively.2 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    GenevestigatoriP17445.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Dimer of dimers.1 Publication

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    DIPiDIP-9208N.
    IntActiP17445. 7 interactions.
    STRINGi511145.b0312.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP17445.
    SMRiP17445. Positions 2-490.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG1012.
    HOGENOMiHOG000271505.
    KOiK00130.
    OMAiCTDEMTI.
    OrthoDBiEOG6BS8QW.
    PhylomeDBiP17445.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.309.10. 1 hit.
    3.40.605.10. 1 hit.
    HAMAPiMF_00804. BADH.
    InterProiIPR016161. Ald_DH/histidinol_DH.
    IPR016163. Ald_DH_C.
    IPR016160. Ald_DH_CS_CYS.
    IPR029510. Ald_DH_CS_GLU.
    IPR016162. Ald_DH_N.
    IPR015590. Aldehyde_DH_dom.
    IPR011264. BADH.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00171. Aldedh. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF53720. SSF53720. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01804. BADH. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00070. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_CYS. 1 hit.
    PS00687. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_GLU. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P17445-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

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    MSRMAEQQLY IHGGYTSATS GRTFETINPA NGNVLATVQA AGREDVDRAV    50
    KSAQQGQKIW ASMTAMERSR ILRRAVDILR ERNDELAKLE TLDTGKAYSE 100
    TSTVDIVTGA DVLEYYAGLI PALEGSQIPL RETSFVYTRR EPLGVVAGIG 150
    AWNYPIQIAL WKSAPALAAG NAMIFKPSEV TPLTALKLAE IYSEAGLPDG 200
    VFNVLPGVGA ETGQYLTEHP GIAKVSFTGG VASGKKVMAN SAASSLKEVT 250
    MELGGKSPLI VFDDADLDLA ADIAMMANFF SSGQVCTNGT RVFVPAKCKA 300
    AFEQKILARV ERIRAGDVFD PQTNFGPLVS FPHRDNVLRY IAKGKEEGAR 350
    VLCGGDVLKG DGFDNGAWVA PTVFTDCSDD MTIVREEIFG PVMSILTYES 400
    EDEVIRRAND TDYGLAAGIV TADLNRAHRV IHQLEAGICW INTWGESPAE 450
    MPVGGYKHSG IGRENGVMTL QSYTQVKSIQ VEMAKFQSIF 490
    Length:490
    Mass (Da):52,911
    Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
    Checksum:i747F822DA1233808
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAA23505.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally shortened.
    The sequence AAB18038.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally shortened.

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti232 – 2321A → R in AAA23506. (PubMed:1879697)Curated
    Sequence conflicti232 – 2321A → R in AAA23505. (PubMed:1879697)Curated
    Sequence conflicti312 – 3121R → P in AAA23506. (PubMed:1879697)Curated
    Sequence conflicti312 – 3121R → P in AAA23505. (PubMed:1879697)Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37092.1.
    M77739 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23506.1.
    M77739 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23505.1. Different initiation.
    U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18038.1. Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73415.1.
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76095.1.
    PIRiS15181.
    RefSeqiNP_414846.1. NC_000913.3.
    YP_488607.1. NC_007779.1.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73415; AAC73415; b0312.
    BAE76095; BAE76095; BAE76095.
    GeneIDi12933807.
    947376.
    KEGGiecj:Y75_p0302.
    eco:b0312.
    PATRICi32115753. VBIEscCol129921_0319.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37092.1 .
    M77739 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23506.1 .
    M77739 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23505.1 . Different initiation.
    U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18038.1 . Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73415.1 .
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76095.1 .
    PIRi S15181.
    RefSeqi NP_414846.1. NC_000913.3.
    YP_488607.1. NC_007779.1.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali P17445.
    SMRi P17445. Positions 2-490.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    DIPi DIP-9208N.
    IntActi P17445. 7 interactions.
    STRINGi 511145.b0312.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbi P17445.
    PRIDEi P17445.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriai AAC73415 ; AAC73415 ; b0312 .
    BAE76095 ; BAE76095 ; BAE76095 .
    GeneIDi 12933807.
    947376.
    KEGGi ecj:Y75_p0302.
    eco:b0312.
    PATRICi 32115753. VBIEscCol129921_0319.

    Organism-specific databases

    EchoBASEi EB0108.
    EcoGenei EG10110. betB.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG1012.
    HOGENOMi HOG000271505.
    KOi K00130.
    OMAi CTDEMTI.
    OrthoDBi EOG6BS8QW.
    PhylomeDBi P17445.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayi UPA00529 ; UER00386 .
    BioCyci EcoCyc:BADH-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW0304-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:BADH-MONOMER.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROi P17445.

    Gene expression databases

    Genevestigatori P17445.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 3.40.309.10. 1 hit.
    3.40.605.10. 1 hit.
    HAMAPi MF_00804. BADH.
    InterProi IPR016161. Ald_DH/histidinol_DH.
    IPR016163. Ald_DH_C.
    IPR016160. Ald_DH_CS_CYS.
    IPR029510. Ald_DH_CS_GLU.
    IPR016162. Ald_DH_N.
    IPR015590. Aldehyde_DH_dom.
    IPR011264. BADH.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00171. Aldedh. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF53720. SSF53720. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsi TIGR01804. BADH. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS00070. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_CYS. 1 hit.
    PS00687. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_GLU. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "DNA sequence and analysis of the bet genes encoding the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli."
      Lamark T., Kaasen E., Eshoo M.W., Falkenberg P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
      Mol. Microbiol. 5:1049-1064(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 2-29.
      Strain: K12.
    2. "Characterization of an Escherichia coli gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH): structural similarity to mammalian ALDHs and a plant BADH."
      Boyd L.A., Adam L., Pelcher L.E., McHughen A., Hirji R., Selvaraj G.
      Gene 103:45-52(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    3. "Sequence of minutes 4-25 of Escherichia coli."
      Chung E., Allen E., Araujo R., Aparicio A.M., Davis K., Duncan M., Federspiel N., Hyman R., Kalman S., Komp C., Kurdi O., Lew H., Lin D., Namath A., Oefner P., Roberts D., Schramm S., Davis R.W.
      Submitted (JAN-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
    4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
    5. "Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110."
      Hayashi K., Morooka N., Yamamoto Y., Fujita K., Isono K., Choi S., Ohtsubo E., Baba T., Wanner B.L., Mori H., Horiuchi T.
      Mol. Syst. Biol. 2:E1-E5(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / W3110 / ATCC 27325 / DSM 5911.
    6. "Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli."
      Landfald B., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, INDUCTION.
    7. "Purification and characterization of osmoregulatory betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli."
      Falkenberg P., Strom A.R.
      Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1034:253-259(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY, SUBUNIT.
    8. "The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress."
      Lamark T., Rokenes T.P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 178:1655-1662(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiBETB_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17445
    Secondary accession number(s): Q2MCB1
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
    Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 123 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3