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Protein

Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase

Gene

betA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate.UniRule annotation2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor.UniRule annotation1 Publication
Betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH.UniRule annotation1 Publication

Cofactori

FADUniRule annotation

Enzyme regulationi

Activated by high osmotic strength.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.06 mM for NAD (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. KM=0.13 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  3. KM=0.5 mM for NADP (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  4. KM=1.5 mM for choline (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  5. KM=1.6 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 7.5 for choline dehydrogenase and is between 7.5 and 9.5 for glycine betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.1 Publication

    Pathwayi: betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes betaine aldehyde from choline (cytochrome c reductase route).UniRule annotation
    Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase (betA)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway, which is itself part of Amine and polyamine biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes betaine aldehyde from choline (cytochrome c reductase route), the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway and in Amine and polyamine biosynthesis.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Active sitei473Proton acceptorUniRule annotation1

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Nucleotide bindingi4 – 33FADUniRule annotationAdd BLAST30

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    • glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline Source: EcoCyc
    • response to osmotic stress Source: EcoCyc

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    Biological processStress response
    LigandFAD, Flavoprotein, NAD

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER
    MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER
    UniPathwayiUPA00529; UER00385

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.1.99.1UniRule annotation)
    Short name:
    CDHUniRule annotation
    Short name:
    CHDUniRule annotation
    Alternative name(s):
    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.2.1.8UniRule annotation)
    Short name:
    BADHUniRule annotation
    Gene namesi
    Name:betAUniRule annotation
    Ordered Locus Names:b0311, JW0303
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacteralesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    Proteomesi
    • UP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome
    • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG10109 betA

    Subcellular locationi

    • Cell membrane 1 Publication; Peripheral membrane protein 1 Publication

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • membrane Source: EcoCyc
    • plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Membrane

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    Cells lacking this gene do not grow at high osmotic strength in the presence of choline, but are able to grow when the medium is supplemented with glycine betaine.1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00002055861 – 556Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST556

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP17444
    PRIDEiP17444

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    By osmotic stress. Choline is required for full expression. Oxygen and choline exert their control via the transacting DNA-binding proteins ArcA and BetI, respectively.2 Publications

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi4262800, 6 interactors
    IntActiP17444, 8 interactors
    STRINGi316385.ECDH10B_0298

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP17444
    SMRiP17444
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the GMC oxidoreductase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4105CZ6 Bacteria
    COG2303 LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000139600
    InParanoidiP17444
    KOiK00108
    OMAiGWDYAHC
    PhylomeDBiP17444

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.50.50.60, 4 hits
    4.10.450.10, 2 hits
    HAMAPiMF_00750 Choline_dehydrogen, 1 hit
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR011533 BetA
    IPR036188 FAD/NAD-bd_sf
    IPR027424 Glucose_Oxidase_domain_2
    IPR012132 GMC_OxRdtase
    IPR000172 GMC_OxRdtase_N
    IPR007867 GMC_OxRtase_C
    PANTHERiPTHR11552:SF157 PTHR11552:SF157, 1 hit
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF05199 GMC_oxred_C, 1 hit
    PF00732 GMC_oxred_N, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF000137 Alcohol_oxidase, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF51905 SSF51905, 2 hits
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01810 betA, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS00623 GMC_OXRED_1, 1 hit
    PS00624 GMC_OXRED_2, 1 hit

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P17444-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MQFDYIIIGA GSAGNVLATR LTEDPNTSVL LLEAGGPDYR FDFRTQMPAA
    60 70 80 90 100
    LAFPLQGKRY NWAYETEPEP FMNNRRMECG RGKGLGGSSL INGMCYIRGN
    110 120 130 140 150
    ALDLDNWAQE PGLENWSYLD CLPYYRKAET RDMGENDYHG GDGPVSVTTS
    160 170 180 190 200
    KPGVNPLFEA MIEAGVQAGY PRTDDLNGYQ QEGFGPMDRT VTPQGRRAST
    210 220 230 240 250
    ARGYLDQAKS RPNLTIRTHA MTDHIIFDGK RAVGVEWLEG DSTIPTRATA
    260 270 280 290 300
    NKEVLLCAGA IASPQILQRS GVGNAELLAE FDIPLVHELP GVGENLQDHL
    310 320 330 340 350
    EMYLQYECKE PVSLYPALQW WNQPKIGAEW LFGGTGVGAS NHFEAGGFIR
    360 370 380 390 400
    SREEFAWPNI QYHFLPVAIN YNGSNAVKEH GFQCHVGSMR SPSRGHVRIK
    410 420 430 440 450
    SRDPHQHPAI LFNYMSHEQD WQEFRDAIRI TREIMHQPAL DQYRGREISP
    460 470 480 490 500
    GVECQTDEQL DEFVRNHAET AFHPCGTCKM GYDEMSVVDG EGRVHGLEGL
    510 520 530 540 550
    RVVDASIMPQ IITGNLNATT IMIGEKIADM IRGQEALPRS TAGYFVANGM

    PVRAKK
    Length:556
    Mass (Da):61,878
    Last modified:August 1, 1990 - v1
    Checksum:iE182480168C8E9FD
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAB18037 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    X52905 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA37093.1
    M77738 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA23504.1
    U73857 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB18037.1 Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC73414.1
    AP009048 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE76094.1
    PIRiS15182 S10901
    RefSeqiNP_414845.1, NC_000913.3
    WP_001159094.1, NZ_LN832404.1

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73414; AAC73414; b0311
    BAE76094; BAE76094; BAE76094
    GeneIDi945716
    KEGGiecj:JW0303
    eco:b0311
    PATRICifig|1411691.4.peg.1966

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiBETA_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17444
    Secondary accession number(s): P77861, Q2MCB2
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
    Last sequence update: August 1, 1990
    Last modified: March 28, 2018
    This is version 152 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

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