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Protein

Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase

Gene

betA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate.UniRule annotation2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor.UniRule annotation1 Publication
Betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH.UniRule annotation1 Publication

Cofactori

FADUniRule annotation

Enzyme regulationi

Activated by high osmotic strength.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.06 mM for NAD (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. KM=0.13 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  3. KM=0.5 mM for NADP (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  4. KM=1.5 mM for choline (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  5. KM=1.6 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 7.5 for choline dehydrogenase and is between 7.5 and 9.5 for glycine betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.1 Publication

Pathwayi

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei473 – 4731UniRule annotation

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi4 – 3330FADUniRule annotationAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC
  2. choline dehydrogenase activity Source: EcoCyc
  3. flavin adenine dinucleotide binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  1. glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline Source: EcoCyc
  2. response to osmotic stress Source: EcoCyc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Stress response

Keywords - Ligandi

FAD, Flavoprotein, NAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciEcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
ECOL316407:JW0303-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
UniPathwayiUPA00529; UER00385.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.1.99.1UniRule annotation)
Short name:
CDHUniRule annotation
Short name:
CHDUniRule annotation
Alternative name(s):
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.2.1.8UniRule annotation)
Short name:
BADHUniRule annotation
Gene namesi
Name:betAUniRule annotation
Ordered Locus Names:b0311, JW0303
OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacterialesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
ProteomesiUP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

Organism-specific databases

EcoGeneiEG10109. betA.

Subcellular locationi

Cell membrane 1 Publication; Peripheral membrane protein 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. membrane Source: EcoCyc
  2. plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Cells lacking this gene do not grow at high osmotic strength in the presence of choline, but are able to grow when the medium is supplemented with glycine betaine.1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 556556Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenasePRO_0000205586Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP17444.

Expressioni

Inductioni

By osmotic stress. Choline is required for full expression. Oxygen and choline exert their control via the transacting DNA-binding proteins ArcA and BetI, respectively.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriP17444.

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
surEP0A8401EBI-1115667,EBI-1126761

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP17444. 8 interactions.
STRINGi511145.b0311.

Structurei

3D structure databases

SMRiP17444. Positions 2-532.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the GMC oxidoreductase family.UniRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG2303.
HOGENOMiHOG000139600.
InParanoidiP17444.
KOiK00108.
OMAiPRIGAEW.
OrthoDBiEOG67HJQP.
PhylomeDBiP17444.

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_00750. Choline_dehydrogen.
InterProiIPR011533. BetA.
IPR012132. GMC_OxRdtase.
IPR000172. GMC_OxRdtase_N.
IPR007867. GMC_OxRtase_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05199. GMC_oxred_C. 1 hit.
PF00732. GMC_oxred_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000137. Alcohol_oxidase. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01810. betA. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00623. GMC_OXRED_1. 1 hit.
PS00624. GMC_OXRED_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P17444-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MQFDYIIIGA GSAGNVLATR LTEDPNTSVL LLEAGGPDYR FDFRTQMPAA
60 70 80 90 100
LAFPLQGKRY NWAYETEPEP FMNNRRMECG RGKGLGGSSL INGMCYIRGN
110 120 130 140 150
ALDLDNWAQE PGLENWSYLD CLPYYRKAET RDMGENDYHG GDGPVSVTTS
160 170 180 190 200
KPGVNPLFEA MIEAGVQAGY PRTDDLNGYQ QEGFGPMDRT VTPQGRRAST
210 220 230 240 250
ARGYLDQAKS RPNLTIRTHA MTDHIIFDGK RAVGVEWLEG DSTIPTRATA
260 270 280 290 300
NKEVLLCAGA IASPQILQRS GVGNAELLAE FDIPLVHELP GVGENLQDHL
310 320 330 340 350
EMYLQYECKE PVSLYPALQW WNQPKIGAEW LFGGTGVGAS NHFEAGGFIR
360 370 380 390 400
SREEFAWPNI QYHFLPVAIN YNGSNAVKEH GFQCHVGSMR SPSRGHVRIK
410 420 430 440 450
SRDPHQHPAI LFNYMSHEQD WQEFRDAIRI TREIMHQPAL DQYRGREISP
460 470 480 490 500
GVECQTDEQL DEFVRNHAET AFHPCGTCKM GYDEMSVVDG EGRVHGLEGL
510 520 530 540 550
RVVDASIMPQ IITGNLNATT IMIGEKIADM IRGQEALPRS TAGYFVANGM

PVRAKK
Length:556
Mass (Da):61,878
Last modified:July 31, 1990 - v1
Checksum:iE182480168C8E9FD
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAB18037.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37093.1.
M77738 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23504.1.
U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18037.1. Different initiation.
U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73414.1.
AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76094.1.
PIRiS15182. S10901.
RefSeqiNP_414845.1. NC_000913.3.
YP_488606.1. NC_007779.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73414; AAC73414; b0311.
BAE76094; BAE76094; BAE76094.
GeneIDi12933806.
945716.
KEGGiecj:Y75_p0301.
eco:b0311.
PATRICi32115751. VBIEscCol129921_0318.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37093.1.
M77738 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23504.1.
U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18037.1. Different initiation.
U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73414.1.
AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76094.1.
PIRiS15182. S10901.
RefSeqiNP_414845.1. NC_000913.3.
YP_488606.1. NC_007779.1.

3D structure databases

SMRiP17444. Positions 2-532.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP17444. 8 interactions.
STRINGi511145.b0311.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP17444.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73414; AAC73414; b0311.
BAE76094; BAE76094; BAE76094.
GeneIDi12933806.
945716.
KEGGiecj:Y75_p0301.
eco:b0311.
PATRICi32115751. VBIEscCol129921_0318.

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASEiEB0107.
EcoGeneiEG10109. betA.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG2303.
HOGENOMiHOG000139600.
InParanoidiP17444.
KOiK00108.
OMAiPRIGAEW.
OrthoDBiEOG67HJQP.
PhylomeDBiP17444.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00529; UER00385.
BioCyciEcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
ECOL316407:JW0303-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP17444.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriP17444.

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_00750. Choline_dehydrogen.
InterProiIPR011533. BetA.
IPR012132. GMC_OxRdtase.
IPR000172. GMC_OxRdtase_N.
IPR007867. GMC_OxRtase_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05199. GMC_oxred_C. 1 hit.
PF00732. GMC_oxred_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000137. Alcohol_oxidase. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01810. betA. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00623. GMC_OXRED_1. 1 hit.
PS00624. GMC_OXRED_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "DNA sequence and analysis of the bet genes encoding the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli."
    Lamark T., Kaasen E., Eshoo M.W., Falkenberg P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
    Mol. Microbiol. 5:1049-1064(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: K12.
  2. "Characterization of an Escherichia coli gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH): structural similarity to mammalian ALDHs and a plant BADH."
    Boyd L.A., Adam L., Pelcher L.E., McHughen A., Hirji R., Selvaraj G.
    Gene 103:45-52(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Sequence of minutes 4-25 of Escherichia coli."
    Chung E., Allen E., Araujo R., Aparicio A.M., Davis K., Duncan M., Federspiel N., Hyman R., Kalman S., Komp C., Kurdi O., Lew H., Lin D., Namath A., Oefner P., Roberts D., Schramm S., Davis R.W.
    Submitted (DEC-1996) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
  5. "Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110."
    Hayashi K., Morooka N., Yamamoto Y., Fujita K., Isono K., Choi S., Ohtsubo E., Baba T., Wanner B.L., Mori H., Horiuchi T.
    Mol. Syst. Biol. 2:E1-E5(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: K12 / W3110 / ATCC 27325 / DSM 5911.
  6. "Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli."
    Landfald B., Strom A.R.
    J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, INDUCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  7. "Selection, mapping, and characterization of osmoregulatory mutants of Escherichia coli blocked in the choline-glycine betaine pathway."
    Styrvold O.B., Falkenberg P., Landfald B., Eshoo M.W., Bjornsen T., Strom A.R.
    J. Bacteriol. 165:856-863(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, NOMENCLATURE.
  8. "The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress."
    Lamark T., Rokenes T.P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
    J. Bacteriol. 178:1655-1662(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiBETA_ECOLI
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17444
Secondary accession number(s): P77861, Q2MCB2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 31, 1990
Last sequence update: July 31, 1990
Last modified: March 31, 2015
This is version 132 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Escherichia coli
    Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.