Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase

Gene

betA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate.UniRule annotation2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor.UniRule annotation1 Publication
Betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH.UniRule annotation1 Publication

Cofactori

FADUniRule annotation

Enzyme regulationi

Activated by high osmotic strength.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.06 mM for NAD (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. KM=0.13 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  3. KM=0.5 mM for NADP (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  4. KM=1.5 mM for choline (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  5. KM=1.6 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 7.5 for choline dehydrogenase and is between 7.5 and 9.5 for glycine betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.1 Publication

    Pathway:ibetaine biosynthesis via choline pathway

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes betaine aldehyde from choline (cytochrome c reductase route).UniRule annotation
    Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase (betA)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway, which is itself part of Amine and polyamine biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes betaine aldehyde from choline (cytochrome c reductase route), the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway and in Amine and polyamine biosynthesis.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Active sitei473 – 4731Proton acceptorUniRule annotation

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Nucleotide bindingi4 – 3330FADUniRule annotationAdd
    BLAST

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    • glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline Source: EcoCyc
    • response to osmotic stress Source: EcoCyc
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Oxidoreductase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Stress response

    Keywords - Ligandi

    FAD, Flavoprotein, NAD

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW0303-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
    UniPathwayiUPA00529; UER00385.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.1.99.1UniRule annotation)
    Short name:
    CDHUniRule annotation
    Short name:
    CHDUniRule annotation
    Alternative name(s):
    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.2.1.8UniRule annotation)
    Short name:
    BADHUniRule annotation
    Gene namesi
    Name:betAUniRule annotation
    Ordered Locus Names:b0311, JW0303
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacterialesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    ProteomesiUP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG10109. betA.

    Subcellular locationi

    • Cell membrane 1 Publication; Peripheral membrane protein 1 Publication

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • membrane Source: EcoCyc
    • plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Membrane

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    Cells lacking this gene do not grow at high osmotic strength in the presence of choline, but are able to grow when the medium is supplemented with glycine betaine.1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 556556Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenasePRO_0000205586Add
    BLAST

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEiP17444.

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    By osmotic stress. Choline is required for full expression. Oxygen and choline exert their control via the transacting DNA-binding proteins ArcA and BetI, respectively.2 Publications

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    IntActiP17444. 8 interactions.
    STRINGi511145.b0311.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP17444.
    SMRiP17444. Positions 2-532.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the GMC oxidoreductase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG2303.
    HOGENOMiHOG000139600.
    InParanoidiP17444.
    KOiK00108.
    OMAiLKIITHA.
    OrthoDBiEOG67HJQP.
    PhylomeDBiP17444.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_00750. Choline_dehydrogen.
    InterProiIPR011533. BetA.
    IPR012132. GMC_OxRdtase.
    IPR000172. GMC_OxRdtase_N.
    IPR007867. GMC_OxRtase_C.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF05199. GMC_oxred_C. 1 hit.
    PF00732. GMC_oxred_N. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF000137. Alcohol_oxidase. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01810. betA. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00623. GMC_OXRED_1. 1 hit.
    PS00624. GMC_OXRED_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P17444-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MQFDYIIIGA GSAGNVLATR LTEDPNTSVL LLEAGGPDYR FDFRTQMPAA
    60 70 80 90 100
    LAFPLQGKRY NWAYETEPEP FMNNRRMECG RGKGLGGSSL INGMCYIRGN
    110 120 130 140 150
    ALDLDNWAQE PGLENWSYLD CLPYYRKAET RDMGENDYHG GDGPVSVTTS
    160 170 180 190 200
    KPGVNPLFEA MIEAGVQAGY PRTDDLNGYQ QEGFGPMDRT VTPQGRRAST
    210 220 230 240 250
    ARGYLDQAKS RPNLTIRTHA MTDHIIFDGK RAVGVEWLEG DSTIPTRATA
    260 270 280 290 300
    NKEVLLCAGA IASPQILQRS GVGNAELLAE FDIPLVHELP GVGENLQDHL
    310 320 330 340 350
    EMYLQYECKE PVSLYPALQW WNQPKIGAEW LFGGTGVGAS NHFEAGGFIR
    360 370 380 390 400
    SREEFAWPNI QYHFLPVAIN YNGSNAVKEH GFQCHVGSMR SPSRGHVRIK
    410 420 430 440 450
    SRDPHQHPAI LFNYMSHEQD WQEFRDAIRI TREIMHQPAL DQYRGREISP
    460 470 480 490 500
    GVECQTDEQL DEFVRNHAET AFHPCGTCKM GYDEMSVVDG EGRVHGLEGL
    510 520 530 540 550
    RVVDASIMPQ IITGNLNATT IMIGEKIADM IRGQEALPRS TAGYFVANGM

    PVRAKK
    Length:556
    Mass (Da):61,878
    Last modified:August 1, 1990 - v1
    Checksum:iE182480168C8E9FD
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAB18037.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37093.1.
    M77738 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23504.1.
    U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18037.1. Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73414.1.
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76094.1.
    PIRiS15182. S10901.
    RefSeqiNP_414845.1. NC_000913.3.
    WP_001159094.1. NZ_CP010445.1.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73414; AAC73414; b0311.
    BAE76094; BAE76094; BAE76094.
    GeneIDi945716.
    KEGGieco:b0311.
    PATRICi32115751. VBIEscCol129921_0318.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37093.1.
    M77738 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23504.1.
    U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18037.1. Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73414.1.
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76094.1.
    PIRiS15182. S10901.
    RefSeqiNP_414845.1. NC_000913.3.
    WP_001159094.1. NZ_CP010445.1.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP17444.
    SMRiP17444. Positions 2-532.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    IntActiP17444. 8 interactions.
    STRINGi511145.b0311.

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEiP17444.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73414; AAC73414; b0311.
    BAE76094; BAE76094; BAE76094.
    GeneIDi945716.
    KEGGieco:b0311.
    PATRICi32115751. VBIEscCol129921_0318.

    Organism-specific databases

    EchoBASEiEB0107.
    EcoGeneiEG10109. betA.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG2303.
    HOGENOMiHOG000139600.
    InParanoidiP17444.
    KOiK00108.
    OMAiLKIITHA.
    OrthoDBiEOG67HJQP.
    PhylomeDBiP17444.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00529; UER00385.
    BioCyciEcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW0303-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROiP17444.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_00750. Choline_dehydrogen.
    InterProiIPR011533. BetA.
    IPR012132. GMC_OxRdtase.
    IPR000172. GMC_OxRdtase_N.
    IPR007867. GMC_OxRtase_C.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF05199. GMC_oxred_C. 1 hit.
    PF00732. GMC_oxred_N. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF000137. Alcohol_oxidase. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01810. betA. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00623. GMC_OXRED_1. 1 hit.
    PS00624. GMC_OXRED_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Publicationsi

    « Hide 'large scale' publications
    1. "DNA sequence and analysis of the bet genes encoding the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli."
      Lamark T., Kaasen E., Eshoo M.W., Falkenberg P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
      Mol. Microbiol. 5:1049-1064(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12.
    2. "Characterization of an Escherichia coli gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH): structural similarity to mammalian ALDHs and a plant BADH."
      Boyd L.A., Adam L., Pelcher L.E., McHughen A., Hirji R., Selvaraj G.
      Gene 103:45-52(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    3. "Sequence of minutes 4-25 of Escherichia coli."
      Chung E., Allen E., Araujo R., Aparicio A.M., Davis K., Duncan M., Federspiel N., Hyman R., Kalman S., Komp C., Kurdi O., Lew H., Lin D., Namath A., Oefner P., Roberts D., Schramm S., Davis R.W.
      Submitted (JAN-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
    4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
    5. "Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110."
      Hayashi K., Morooka N., Yamamoto Y., Fujita K., Isono K., Choi S., Ohtsubo E., Baba T., Wanner B.L., Mori H., Horiuchi T.
      Mol. Syst. Biol. 2:E1-E5(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / W3110 / ATCC 27325 / DSM 5911.
    6. "Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli."
      Landfald B., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, INDUCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    7. "Selection, mapping, and characterization of osmoregulatory mutants of Escherichia coli blocked in the choline-glycine betaine pathway."
      Styrvold O.B., Falkenberg P., Landfald B., Eshoo M.W., Bjornsen T., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 165:856-863(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, NOMENCLATURE.
    8. "The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress."
      Lamark T., Rokenes T.P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 178:1655-1662(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiBETA_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17444
    Secondary accession number(s): P77861, Q2MCB2
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
    Last sequence update: August 1, 1990
    Last modified: July 22, 2015
    This is version 136 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.