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P17444

- BETA_ECOLI

UniProt

P17444 - BETA_ECOLI

Protein

Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase

Gene

betA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 128 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Aug 1990)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate.2 PublicationsUniRule annotation

    Catalytic activityi

    Choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor.1 PublicationUniRule annotation
    Betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH.1 PublicationUniRule annotation

    Cofactori

    FAD.UniRule annotation

    Enzyme regulationi

    Activated by high osmotic strength.1 Publication

    Kineticsi

    1. KM=0.06 mM for NAD (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
    2. KM=0.13 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
    3. KM=0.5 mM for NADP (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
    4. KM=1.5 mM for choline (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
    5. KM=1.6 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 7.5 for choline dehydrogenase and is between 7.5 and 9.5 for glycine betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.1 Publication

    Pathwayi

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Active sitei473 – 4731UniRule annotation

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Nucleotide bindingi4 – 3330FADUniRule annotationAdd
    BLAST

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC
    2. choline dehydrogenase activity Source: EcoCyc
    3. flavin adenine dinucleotide binding Source: InterPro

    GO - Biological processi

    1. glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline Source: EcoCyc
    2. response to osmotic stress Source: EcoCyc

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Oxidoreductase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Stress response

    Keywords - Ligandi

    FAD, Flavoprotein, NAD

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW0303-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
    UniPathwayiUPA00529; UER00385.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.1.99.1UniRule annotation)
    Short name:
    CDHUniRule annotation
    Short name:
    CHDUniRule annotation
    Alternative name(s):
    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.2.1.8UniRule annotation)
    Short name:
    BADHUniRule annotation
    Gene namesi
    Name:betAUniRule annotation
    Ordered Locus Names:b0311, JW0303
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacterialesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    ProteomesiUP000000318: Chromosome, UP000000625: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG10109. betA.

    Subcellular locationi

    Cell membrane 1 Publication; Peripheral membrane protein 1 Publication

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. membrane Source: EcoCyc
    2. plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Membrane

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    Cells lacking this gene do not grow at high osmotic strength in the presence of choline, but are able to grow when the medium is supplemented with glycine betaine.1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 556556Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenasePRO_0000205586Add
    BLAST

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEiP17444.

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    By osmotic stress. Choline is required for full expression. Oxygen and choline exert their control via the transacting DNA-binding proteins ArcA and BetI, respectively.2 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    GenevestigatoriP17444.

    Interactioni

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    surEP0A8401EBI-1115667,EBI-1126761

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    IntActiP17444. 8 interactions.
    STRINGi511145.b0311.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP17444.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the GMC oxidoreductase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG2303.
    HOGENOMiHOG000139600.
    KOiK00108.
    OMAiYLQYACT.
    OrthoDBiEOG67HJQP.
    PhylomeDBiP17444.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_00750. Choline_dehydrogen.
    InterProiIPR011533. BetA.
    IPR012132. GMC_OxRdtase.
    IPR000172. GMC_OxRdtase_N.
    IPR007867. GMC_OxRtase_C.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF05199. GMC_oxred_C. 1 hit.
    PF00732. GMC_oxred_N. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF000137. Alcohol_oxidase. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01810. betA. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00623. GMC_OXRED_1. 1 hit.
    PS00624. GMC_OXRED_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P17444-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MQFDYIIIGA GSAGNVLATR LTEDPNTSVL LLEAGGPDYR FDFRTQMPAA    50
    LAFPLQGKRY NWAYETEPEP FMNNRRMECG RGKGLGGSSL INGMCYIRGN 100
    ALDLDNWAQE PGLENWSYLD CLPYYRKAET RDMGENDYHG GDGPVSVTTS 150
    KPGVNPLFEA MIEAGVQAGY PRTDDLNGYQ QEGFGPMDRT VTPQGRRAST 200
    ARGYLDQAKS RPNLTIRTHA MTDHIIFDGK RAVGVEWLEG DSTIPTRATA 250
    NKEVLLCAGA IASPQILQRS GVGNAELLAE FDIPLVHELP GVGENLQDHL 300
    EMYLQYECKE PVSLYPALQW WNQPKIGAEW LFGGTGVGAS NHFEAGGFIR 350
    SREEFAWPNI QYHFLPVAIN YNGSNAVKEH GFQCHVGSMR SPSRGHVRIK 400
    SRDPHQHPAI LFNYMSHEQD WQEFRDAIRI TREIMHQPAL DQYRGREISP 450
    GVECQTDEQL DEFVRNHAET AFHPCGTCKM GYDEMSVVDG EGRVHGLEGL 500
    RVVDASIMPQ IITGNLNATT IMIGEKIADM IRGQEALPRS TAGYFVANGM 550
    PVRAKK 556
    Length:556
    Mass (Da):61,878
    Last modified:August 1, 1990 - v1
    Checksum:iE182480168C8E9FD
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAB18037.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37093.1.
    M77738 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23504.1.
    U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18037.1. Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73414.1.
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76094.1.
    PIRiS15182. S10901.
    RefSeqiNP_414845.1. NC_000913.3.
    YP_488606.1. NC_007779.1.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC73414; AAC73414; b0311.
    BAE76094; BAE76094; BAE76094.
    GeneIDi12933806.
    945716.
    KEGGiecj:Y75_p0301.
    eco:b0311.
    PATRICi32115751. VBIEscCol129921_0318.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37093.1 .
    M77738 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23504.1 .
    U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18037.1 . Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73414.1 .
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76094.1 .
    PIRi S15182. S10901.
    RefSeqi NP_414845.1. NC_000913.3.
    YP_488606.1. NC_007779.1.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali P17444.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    IntActi P17444. 8 interactions.
    STRINGi 511145.b0311.

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEi P17444.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriai AAC73414 ; AAC73414 ; b0311 .
    BAE76094 ; BAE76094 ; BAE76094 .
    GeneIDi 12933806.
    945716.
    KEGGi ecj:Y75_p0301.
    eco:b0311.
    PATRICi 32115751. VBIEscCol129921_0318.

    Organism-specific databases

    EchoBASEi EB0107.
    EcoGenei EG10109. betA.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG2303.
    HOGENOMi HOG000139600.
    KOi K00108.
    OMAi YLQYACT.
    OrthoDBi EOG67HJQP.
    PhylomeDBi P17444.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayi UPA00529 ; UER00385 .
    BioCyci EcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW0303-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROi P17444.

    Gene expression databases

    Genevestigatori P17444.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPi MF_00750. Choline_dehydrogen.
    InterProi IPR011533. BetA.
    IPR012132. GMC_OxRdtase.
    IPR000172. GMC_OxRdtase_N.
    IPR007867. GMC_OxRtase_C.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF05199. GMC_oxred_C. 1 hit.
    PF00732. GMC_oxred_N. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PIRSFi PIRSF000137. Alcohol_oxidase. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsi TIGR01810. betA. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS00623. GMC_OXRED_1. 1 hit.
    PS00624. GMC_OXRED_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "DNA sequence and analysis of the bet genes encoding the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli."
      Lamark T., Kaasen E., Eshoo M.W., Falkenberg P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
      Mol. Microbiol. 5:1049-1064(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12.
    2. "Characterization of an Escherichia coli gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH): structural similarity to mammalian ALDHs and a plant BADH."
      Boyd L.A., Adam L., Pelcher L.E., McHughen A., Hirji R., Selvaraj G.
      Gene 103:45-52(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    3. "Sequence of minutes 4-25 of Escherichia coli."
      Chung E., Allen E., Araujo R., Aparicio A.M., Davis K., Duncan M., Federspiel N., Hyman R., Kalman S., Komp C., Kurdi O., Lew H., Lin D., Namath A., Oefner P., Roberts D., Schramm S., Davis R.W.
      Submitted (JAN-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
    4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
    5. "Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110."
      Hayashi K., Morooka N., Yamamoto Y., Fujita K., Isono K., Choi S., Ohtsubo E., Baba T., Wanner B.L., Mori H., Horiuchi T.
      Mol. Syst. Biol. 2:E1-E5(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: K12 / W3110 / ATCC 27325 / DSM 5911.
    6. "Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli."
      Landfald B., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, INDUCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    7. "Selection, mapping, and characterization of osmoregulatory mutants of Escherichia coli blocked in the choline-glycine betaine pathway."
      Styrvold O.B., Falkenberg P., Landfald B., Eshoo M.W., Bjornsen T., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 165:856-863(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, NOMENCLATURE.
    8. "The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress."
      Lamark T., Rokenes T.P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
      J. Bacteriol. 178:1655-1662(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiBETA_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17444
    Secondary accession number(s): P77861, Q2MCB2
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
    Last sequence update: August 1, 1990
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 128 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3