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P17444 (BETA_ECOLI) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified June 11, 2014. Version 126. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (3) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Interactions·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase

Short name=CDH
Short name=CHD
EC=1.1.99.1
Alternative name(s):
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase
Short name=BADH
EC=1.2.1.8
Gene names
Name:betA
Ordered Locus Names:b0311, JW0303
OrganismEscherichia coli (strain K12) [Reference proteome] [HAMAP]
Taxonomic identifier83333 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacterialesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia

Protein attributes

Sequence length556 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate. Ref.6 Ref.7

Catalytic activity

Choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor. Ref.6

Betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH. Ref.6

Cofactor

FAD By similarity. HAMAP-Rule MF_00750

Enzyme regulation

Activated by high osmotic strength. Ref.6

Pathway

Amine and polyamine biosynthesis; betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway; betaine aldehyde from choline (cytochrome c reductase route): step 1/1. HAMAP-Rule MF_00750

Subcellular location

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein Ref.6.

Induction

By osmotic stress. Choline is required for full expression. Oxygen and choline exert their control via the transacting DNA-binding proteins ArcA and BetI, respectively. Ref.6 Ref.8

Disruption phenotype

Cells lacking this gene do not grow at high osmotic strength in the presence of choline, but are able to grow when the medium is supplemented with glycine betaine. Ref.7

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the GMC oxidoreductase family.

Biophysicochemical properties

Kinetic parameters:

KM=0.06 mM for NAD (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius) Ref.6

KM=0.13 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)

KM=0.5 mM for NADP (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)

KM=1.5 mM for choline (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)

KM=1.6 mM for glycine betaine aldehyde (at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees Celsius)

pH dependence:

Optimum pH is 7.5 for choline dehydrogenase and is between 7.5 and 9.5 for glycine betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Sequence caution

The sequence AAB18037.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.

Binary interactions

With

Entry

#Exp.

IntAct

Notes

surEP0A8401EBI-1115667,EBI-1126761

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 556556Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase HAMAP-Rule MF_00750
PRO_0000205586

Regions

Nucleotide binding4 – 3330FAD By similarity

Sites

Active site4731 By similarity

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P17444 [UniParc].

Last modified August 1, 1990. Version 1.
Checksum: E182480168C8E9FD

FASTA55661,878
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MQFDYIIIGA GSAGNVLATR LTEDPNTSVL LLEAGGPDYR FDFRTQMPAA LAFPLQGKRY 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
NWAYETEPEP FMNNRRMECG RGKGLGGSSL INGMCYIRGN ALDLDNWAQE PGLENWSYLD 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
CLPYYRKAET RDMGENDYHG GDGPVSVTTS KPGVNPLFEA MIEAGVQAGY PRTDDLNGYQ 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
QEGFGPMDRT VTPQGRRAST ARGYLDQAKS RPNLTIRTHA MTDHIIFDGK RAVGVEWLEG 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
DSTIPTRATA NKEVLLCAGA IASPQILQRS GVGNAELLAE FDIPLVHELP GVGENLQDHL 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
EMYLQYECKE PVSLYPALQW WNQPKIGAEW LFGGTGVGAS NHFEAGGFIR SREEFAWPNI 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
QYHFLPVAIN YNGSNAVKEH GFQCHVGSMR SPSRGHVRIK SRDPHQHPAI LFNYMSHEQD 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
WQEFRDAIRI TREIMHQPAL DQYRGREISP GVECQTDEQL DEFVRNHAET AFHPCGTCKM 

       490        500        510        520        530        540 
GYDEMSVVDG EGRVHGLEGL RVVDASIMPQ IITGNLNATT IMIGEKIADM IRGQEALPRS 

       550 
TAGYFVANGM PVRAKK 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"DNA sequence and analysis of the bet genes encoding the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli."
Lamark T., Kaasen E., Eshoo M.W., Falkenberg P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
Mol. Microbiol. 5:1049-1064(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: K12.
[2]"Characterization of an Escherichia coli gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH): structural similarity to mammalian ALDHs and a plant BADH."
Boyd L.A., Adam L., Pelcher L.E., McHughen A., Hirji R., Selvaraj G.
Gene 103:45-52(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[3]"Sequence of minutes 4-25 of Escherichia coli."
Chung E., Allen E., Araujo R., Aparicio A.M., Davis K., Duncan M., Federspiel N., Hyman R., Kalman S., Komp C., Kurdi O., Lew H., Lin D., Namath A., Oefner P., Roberts D., Schramm S., Davis R.W.
Submitted (JAN-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
[4]"The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12."
Blattner F.R., Plunkett G. III, Bloch C.A., Perna N.T., Burland V., Riley M., Collado-Vides J., Glasner J.D., Rode C.K., Mayhew G.F., Gregor J., Davis N.W., Kirkpatrick H.A., Goeden M.A., Rose D.J., Mau B., Shao Y.
Science 277:1453-1462(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: K12 / MG1655 / ATCC 47076.
[5]"Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110."
Hayashi K., Morooka N., Yamamoto Y., Fujita K., Isono K., Choi S., Ohtsubo E., Baba T., Wanner B.L., Mori H., Horiuchi T.
Mol. Syst. Biol. 2:E1-E5(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: K12 / W3110 / ATCC 27325 / DSM 5911.
[6]"Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli."
Landfald B., Strom A.R.
J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, INDUCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
[7]"Selection, mapping, and characterization of osmoregulatory mutants of Escherichia coli blocked in the choline-glycine betaine pathway."
Styrvold O.B., Falkenberg P., Landfald B., Eshoo M.W., Bjornsen T., Strom A.R.
J. Bacteriol. 165:856-863(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, NOMENCLATURE.
[8]"The complex bet promoters of Escherichia coli: regulation by oxygen (ArcA), choline (BetI), and osmotic stress."
Lamark T., Rokenes T.P., McDougall J., Strom A.R.
J. Bacteriol. 178:1655-1662(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INDUCTION.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
X52905 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37093.1.
M77738 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA23504.1.
U73857 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB18037.1. Different initiation.
U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC73414.1.
AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE76094.1.
PIRS10901. S15182.
RefSeqNP_414845.1. NC_000913.3.
YP_488606.1. NC_007779.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP17444.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActP17444. 8 interactions.
STRING511145.b0311.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEP17444.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblBacteriaAAC73414; AAC73414; b0311.
BAE76094; BAE76094; BAE76094.
GeneID12933806.
945716.
KEGGecj:Y75_p0301.
eco:b0311.
PATRIC32115751. VBIEscCol129921_0318.

Organism-specific databases

EchoBASEEB0107.
EcoGeneEG10109. betA.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG2303.
HOGENOMHOG000139600.
KOK00108.
OMAYLQYACT.
OrthoDBEOG67HJQP.
PhylomeDBP17444.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCycEcoCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
ECOL316407:JW0303-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:CHD-MONOMER.
UniPathwayUPA00529; UER00385.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorP17444.

Family and domain databases

HAMAPMF_00750. Choline_dehydrogen.
InterProIPR011533. Choline_dehydrogenase.
IPR012132. GMC_OxRdtase.
IPR000172. GMC_OxRdtase_N.
IPR007867. GMC_OxRtase_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF05199. GMC_oxred_C. 1 hit.
PF00732. GMC_oxred_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFPIRSF000137. Alcohol_oxidase. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsTIGR01810. betA. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS00623. GMC_OXRED_1. 1 hit.
PS00624. GMC_OXRED_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

PROP17444.

Entry information

Entry nameBETA_ECOLI
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P17444
Secondary accession number(s): P77861, Q2MCB2
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
Last sequence update: August 1, 1990
Last modified: June 11, 2014
This is version 126 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PATHWAY comments

Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene