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Protein

Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic

Gene

GOT1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a scavenger of glutamate in brain neuroprotection. The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis. Using L-cysteine as substrate, regulates levels of mercaptopyruvate, an important source of hydrogen sulfide. Mercaptopyruvate is converted into H2S via the action of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). Hydrogen sulfide is an important synaptic modulator and neuroprotectant in the brain.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
L-cysteine + 2-oxoglutarate = mercaptopyruvate + L-glutamate.

Cofactori

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei39Aspartate; via amide nitrogen1
Binding sitei141Aspartate1
Binding sitei195Aspartate1
Binding sitei387Aspartate1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Aminotransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Amino-acid biosynthesis

Keywords - Ligandi

Pyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS04361-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS04361-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-1237112. Methionine salvage pathway.
R-HSA-70263. Gluconeogenesis.
R-HSA-70614. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
SABIO-RKP17174.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic (EC:2.6.1.1, EC:2.6.1.3)
Short name:
cAspAT
Alternative name(s):
Cysteine aminotransferase, cytoplasmic
Cysteine transaminase, cytoplasmic
Short name:
cCAT
Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1
Transaminase A
Gene namesi
Name:GOT1
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 10

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4432. GOT1.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • axon terminus Source: Ensembl
  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  • cytosol Source: GO_Central
  • extracellular exosome Source: UniProtKB
  • lysosome Source: Ensembl
  • nucleus Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi2805.
MalaCardsiGOT1.
MIMi614419. phenotype.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000120053.
PharmGKBiPA28817.

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2189139.
DrugBankiDB00128. L-Aspartic Acid.
DB00151. L-Cysteine.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGOT1.
DMDMi5902703.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources1 Publication
ChainiPRO_00001238792 – 413Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmicAdd BLAST412

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei149PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei259N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP17174.
MaxQBiP17174.
PaxDbiP17174.
PeptideAtlasiP17174.
PRIDEiP17174.

2D gel databases

REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEIPI00219029.
UCD-2DPAGEP17174.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP17174.
PhosphoSitePlusiP17174.
SwissPalmiP17174.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000120053.
CleanExiHS_GOT1.
ExpressionAtlasiP17174. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP17174. HS.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109067. 58 interactors.
IntActiP17174. 3 interactors.
MINTiMINT-5002473.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000359539.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1413
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi6 – 9Combined sources4
Helixi17 – 27Combined sources11
Helixi52 – 62Combined sources11
Helixi78 – 89Combined sources12
Helixi94 – 97Combined sources4
Beta strandi101 – 107Combined sources7
Helixi108 – 123Combined sources16
Beta strandi124 – 128Combined sources5
Beta strandi134 – 139Combined sources6
Helixi143 – 150Combined sources8
Beta strandi156 – 160Combined sources5
Turni164 – 167Combined sources4
Helixi171 – 179Combined sources9
Beta strandi186 – 190Combined sources5
Turni195 – 197Combined sources3
Helixi203 – 216Combined sources14
Beta strandi219 – 225Combined sources7
Turni227 – 231Combined sources5
Helixi234 – 237Combined sources4
Helixi239 – 246Combined sources8
Beta strandi251 – 256Combined sources6
Turni258 – 261Combined sources4
Helixi264 – 266Combined sources3
Beta strandi268 – 274Combined sources7
Helixi278 – 293Combined sources16
Turni294 – 296Combined sources3
Helixi302 – 311Combined sources10
Helixi314 – 344Combined sources31
Helixi352 – 356Combined sources5
Beta strandi359 – 363Combined sources5
Helixi368 – 378Combined sources11
Turni384 – 386Combined sources3
Beta strandi387 – 389Combined sources3
Helixi390 – 392Combined sources3
Turni395 – 397Combined sources3
Helixi398 – 411Combined sources14

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3II0X-ray2.05A/B/C/D14-412[»]
3WZFX-ray2.99A2-413[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP17174.
SMRiP17174.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP17174.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1411. Eukaryota.
COG1448. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014081.
HOGENOMiHOG000185898.
HOVERGENiHBG000951.
InParanoidiP17174.
KOiK14454.
OMAiPNHKGVF.
OrthoDBiEOG091G06G3.
PhylomeDBiP17174.
TreeFamiTF314089.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
IPR000796. Asp_trans.
IPR004838. NHTrfase_class1_PyrdxlP-BS.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11879. PTHR11879. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00799. TRANSAMINASE.
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00105. AA_TRANSFER_CLASS_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P17174-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAPPSVFAEV PQAQPVLVFK LTADFREDPD PRKVNLGVGA YRTDDCHPWV
60 70 80 90 100
LPVVKKVEQK IANDNSLNHE YLPILGLAEF RSCASRLALG DDSPALKEKR
110 120 130 140 150
VGGVQSLGGT GALRIGADFL ARWYNGTNNK NTPVYVSSPT WENHNAVFSA
160 170 180 190 200
AGFKDIRSYR YWDAEKRGLD LQGFLNDLEN APEFSIVVLH ACAHNPTGID
210 220 230 240 250
PTPEQWKQIA SVMKHRFLFP FFDSAYQGFA SGNLERDAWA IRYFVSEGFE
260 270 280 290 300
FFCAQSFSKN FGLYNERVGN LTVVGKEPES ILQVLSQMEK IVRITWSNPP
310 320 330 340 350
AQGARIVAST LSNPELFEEW TGNVKTMADR ILTMRSELRA RLEALKTPGT
360 370 380 390 400
WNHITDQIGM FSFTGLNPKQ VEYLVNEKHI YLLPSGRINV SGLTTKNLDY
410
VATSIHEAVT KIQ
Length:413
Mass (Da):46,248
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:i69FE68BF0C045219
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P17174-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-39: MAPPSVFAEVPQAQPVLVFKLTADFREDPDPRKVNLGVG → MQVWSPWKGAMCPRPHKP

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:392
Mass (Da):44,147
Checksum:i30D3C8E10522C058
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti215H → R AA sequence (PubMed:2241899).Curated1

Polymorphismi

Genetic variations in GOT1 are associated with low serum aspartate aminotransferase and define the aspartate aminotransferase serum level quantitative trait locus 1 (ASTQTL1) [MIMi:614419].1 Publication

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_067256389Missing Results in markedly diminished enzymatic activity. 1 Publication1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0557991 – 39MAPPS…NLGVG → MQVWSPWKGAMCPRPHKP in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST39

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M37400 mRNA. Translation: AAA35563.1.
AF080467
, AF080459, AF080460, AF080461, AF080462, AF080463, AF080464, AF080465, AF080466 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC32851.1.
AF052153 mRNA. Translation: AAC28622.1.
AK301916 mRNA. Translation: BAH13585.1.
AK312684 mRNA. Translation: BAG35564.1.
AL391684 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAH73859.1.
CH471066 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW49869.1.
BC000498 mRNA. Translation: AAH00498.1.
CCDSiCCDS7479.1. [P17174-1]
PIRiS13035.
S29027.
RefSeqiNP_002070.1. NM_002079.2. [P17174-1]
UniGeneiHs.500756.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000370508; ENSP00000359539; ENSG00000120053. [P17174-1]
GeneIDi2805.
KEGGihsa:2805.
UCSCiuc001kpr.4. human. [P17174-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M37400 mRNA. Translation: AAA35563.1.
AF080467
, AF080459, AF080460, AF080461, AF080462, AF080463, AF080464, AF080465, AF080466 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC32851.1.
AF052153 mRNA. Translation: AAC28622.1.
AK301916 mRNA. Translation: BAH13585.1.
AK312684 mRNA. Translation: BAG35564.1.
AL391684 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAH73859.1.
CH471066 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW49869.1.
BC000498 mRNA. Translation: AAH00498.1.
CCDSiCCDS7479.1. [P17174-1]
PIRiS13035.
S29027.
RefSeqiNP_002070.1. NM_002079.2. [P17174-1]
UniGeneiHs.500756.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3II0X-ray2.05A/B/C/D14-412[»]
3WZFX-ray2.99A2-413[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP17174.
SMRiP17174.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109067. 58 interactors.
IntActiP17174. 3 interactors.
MINTiMINT-5002473.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000359539.

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2189139.
DrugBankiDB00128. L-Aspartic Acid.
DB00151. L-Cysteine.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP17174.
PhosphoSitePlusiP17174.
SwissPalmiP17174.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGOT1.
DMDMi5902703.

2D gel databases

REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEIPI00219029.
UCD-2DPAGEP17174.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP17174.
MaxQBiP17174.
PaxDbiP17174.
PeptideAtlasiP17174.
PRIDEiP17174.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000370508; ENSP00000359539; ENSG00000120053. [P17174-1]
GeneIDi2805.
KEGGihsa:2805.
UCSCiuc001kpr.4. human. [P17174-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2805.
DisGeNETi2805.
GeneCardsiGOT1.
HGNCiHGNC:4432. GOT1.
MalaCardsiGOT1.
MIMi138180. gene.
614419. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P17174.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000120053.
PharmGKBiPA28817.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1411. Eukaryota.
COG1448. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014081.
HOGENOMiHOG000185898.
HOVERGENiHBG000951.
InParanoidiP17174.
KOiK14454.
OMAiPNHKGVF.
OrthoDBiEOG091G06G3.
PhylomeDBiP17174.
TreeFamiTF314089.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS04361-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS04361-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-1237112. Methionine salvage pathway.
R-HSA-70263. Gluconeogenesis.
R-HSA-70614. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
SABIO-RKP17174.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGOT1. human.
EvolutionaryTraceiP17174.
GeneWikiiGOT1.
GenomeRNAii2805.
PROiP17174.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000120053.
CleanExiHS_GOT1.
ExpressionAtlasiP17174. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP17174. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
IPR000796. Asp_trans.
IPR004838. NHTrfase_class1_PyrdxlP-BS.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11879. PTHR11879. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00799. TRANSAMINASE.
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00105. AA_TRANSFER_CLASS_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAATC_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P17174
Secondary accession number(s): B2R6R7, B7Z7E9, Q5VW80
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 175 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

In eukaryotes there are cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes.
Aspartate aminotransferase activity found to be increased in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer disease (PubMed:16039064). Fetal serum levels of the enzyme in the umbilical artery and vein are found to be significantly higher than maternal serum levels (PubMed:22633534).2 Publications

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 10
    Human chromosome 10: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  4. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.