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P16580

- GLNA_CHICK

UniProt

P16580 - GLNA_CHICK

Protein

Glutamine synthetase

Gene

GLUL

Organism
Gallus gallus (Chicken)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 93 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Aug 1990)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner. When expressed in liver, it may be involved in detoxifying intramitochondrially generated ammonia.2 Publications

    Catalytic activityi

    ATP + L-glutamate + NH3 = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.1 Publication
    L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO2.1 Publication

    Cofactori

    Biotin.
    Magnesium or manganese.

    Enzyme regulationi

    Glutamate to glutamine ratio influences catalytic activity. At glutamate to glutamine ratios greater than 4, decarboxylase activity ceases. In the presence of manganese, synthetase activity is limited to concentrations between 10 mM and 20 mM, whereas decarboxylase activity is not affected. Both catalytic activities are inhibited by avidin.1 Publication

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. glutamate-ammonia ligase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC
    3. glutamate decarboxylase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC

    GO - Biological processi

    1. glutamine biosynthetic process Source: InterPro

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Ligase, Lyase

    Keywords - Ligandi

    ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Glutamine synthetase (EC:6.3.1.2)
    Short name:
    GS
    Alternative name(s):
    Glutamate decarboxylase (EC:4.1.1.15)
    Glutamate--ammonia ligase
    p42
    Gene namesi
    Name:GLUL
    Synonyms:GLNS
    OrganismiGallus gallus (Chicken)
    Taxonomic identifieri9031 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiTestudines + Archosauria groupArchosauriaDinosauriaSaurischiaTheropodaCoelurosauriaAvesNeognathaeGalliformesPhasianidaePhasianinaeGallus
    ProteomesiUP000000539: Unplaced

    Subcellular locationi

    Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion
    Note: In the liver found in mitochondria, in brain and retina in the cytoplasm. In retinal cells found in the outer part of the inner nuclear layer and in the bacillary layer of the photoreceptor, and is probably associated with the cell membrane.

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. mitochondrion Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 373373Glutamine synthetasePRO_0000153144Add
    BLAST

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP16580.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Expressed in retina, brain and liver. Little or no detectable expression in breast muscle, pancreas and spleen.1 Publication

    Developmental stagei

    Weakly expressed in retina on embryonic day 18, with levels increasing until day 6 after hatching and then remaining high until day 21 (at protein level).1 Publication

    Inductioni

    In the retina, down-regulated upon application of glutamate concentrations of 15 µmol/eye or higher.1 Publication

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homooctamer and homotetramer.1 Publication

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi676736. 1 interaction.
    IntActiP16580. 1 interaction.
    STRINGi9031.ENSGALP00000005819.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP16580.
    SMRiP16580. Positions 3-372.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG0174.
    HOGENOMiHOG000061500.
    HOVERGENiHBG005847.
    InParanoidiP16580.
    KOiK01915.
    PhylomeDBiP16580.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.30.590.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR008147. Gln_synt_beta.
    IPR014746. Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom.
    IPR008146. Gln_synth_cat_dom.
    IPR027303. Gln_synth_gly_rich_site.
    IPR027302. Gln_synth_N_conserv_site.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00120. Gln-synt_C. 1 hit.
    PF03951. Gln-synt_N. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF54368. SSF54368. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00180. GLNA_1. 1 hit.
    PS00181. GLNA_ATP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P16580-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MATSASSHLS KAIKHMYMKL PQGEKVQAMY IWIDGTGEHL RCKTRTLDHE    50
    PKSLEDLPEW NFDGSSTFQA EGSNSDMYLR PAAMFRDPFR KDPNKLVLCE 100
    VFKYNRQSAD TNLRHTCRRI MDMVSNQHPW FGMEQEYTLL GTDGHPFGWP 150
    SNCFPGPQGP YYCGVGADKA YGRDIVEAHY RACLYAGVKI GGTNAEVMPA 200
    QWEFQVGPCE GIEMGDHLWI ARFILHRVCE DFGVIVSFDP KPIPGNWNGA 250
    GCHTNFSTKN MREDGGLKHI EEAIEKLSKR HQYHIRAYDP KGGLDNARRL 300
    TGFHETSSIH EFSAGVANRG ASIRIPRNVG HEKKGYFEDR GPSANCDPYA 350
    VTEALVRTCL LNETGDEPFE YKN 373
    Length:373
    Mass (Da):42,146
    Last modified:August 1, 1990 - v1
    Checksum:i505254A25E8733DB
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M29076 mRNA. Translation: AAA48783.1.
    S45408 mRNA. Translation: AAC69361.1.
    EU369427 Genomic DNA. Translation: ABY71840.1.
    PIRiJQ0025. AJCHQ.
    RefSeqiNP_990824.1. NM_205493.1.
    UniGeneiGga.2464.

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi396489.
    KEGGigga:396489.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M29076 mRNA. Translation: AAA48783.1 .
    S45408 mRNA. Translation: AAC69361.1 .
    EU369427 Genomic DNA. Translation: ABY71840.1 .
    PIRi JQ0025. AJCHQ.
    RefSeqi NP_990824.1. NM_205493.1.
    UniGenei Gga.2464.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali P16580.
    SMRi P16580. Positions 3-372.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 676736. 1 interaction.
    IntActi P16580. 1 interaction.
    STRINGi 9031.ENSGALP00000005819.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbi P16580.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi 396489.
    KEGGi gga:396489.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 2752.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG0174.
    HOGENOMi HOG000061500.
    HOVERGENi HBG005847.
    InParanoidi P16580.
    KOi K01915.
    PhylomeDBi P16580.

    Miscellaneous databases

    NextBioi 20816528.
    PROi P16580.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 3.30.590.10. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR008147. Gln_synt_beta.
    IPR014746. Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom.
    IPR008146. Gln_synth_cat_dom.
    IPR027303. Gln_synth_gly_rich_site.
    IPR027302. Gln_synth_N_conserv_site.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00120. Gln-synt_C. 1 hit.
    PF03951. Gln-synt_N. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF54368. SSF54368. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS00180. GLNA_1. 1 hit.
    PS00181. GLNA_ATP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "The structure of the chicken glutamine synthetase-encoding gene."
      Pu H., Young A.P.
      Gene 81:169-175(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
      Tissue: Retina.
    2. "Metabolic compartmentation of vertebrate glutamine synthetase: putative mitochondrial targeting signal in avian liver glutamine synthetase."
      Campbell J.W., Smith D.D. Jr.
      Mol. Biol. Evol. 9:787-805(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
      Tissue: Liver.
    3. "Evolution of mitochondrial targeting mechanisms: tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase."
      Matthews G.D., Gur N., Pines O., Vardimon L.
      Submitted (JAN-2008) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-55.
    4. "Glutamine synthetase. A mitochondrial enzyme in uricotelic species."
      Vorhaben J.E., Campbell J.W.
      J. Biol. Chem. 247:2763-2767(1972) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    5. "A non-mitochondrial carboxylase, related to glutamate action is synthesized in the retina of the chick embryo."
      Sattayasai N., Sattayasai J., Daduang S., Chahomchuen T., Ketkaew S., Puchongkavarin H.
      J. Neuroimmunol. 141:104-111(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: COFACTOR, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, INDUCTION.
    6. "A biotin-coupled bifunctional enzyme exhibiting both glutamine synthetase activity and glutamate decarboxylase activity."
      Arunchaipong K., Sattayasai N., Sattayasai J., Svasti J., Rimlumduan T.
      Curr. Eye Res. 34:809-818(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY, FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, COFACTOR, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBUNIT.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGLNA_CHICK
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P16580
    Secondary accession number(s): B0FZC2
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
    Last sequence update: August 1, 1990
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 93 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3