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P16371 (GROU_DROME) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 148. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (2) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Interactions·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Protein groucho
Alternative name(s):
Enhancer of split m9/10 protein
Short name=E(spl)m9/10
Gene names
Name:gro
Synonyms:E(spl)m9/m10
ORF Names:CG8384
OrganismDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora

Protein attributes

Sequence length730 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Transcriptional corepressor that regulates transcription when recruited to specific target DNA by hairy-related bHLH proteins. Maternally required for neurogenesis; in the segregation of the neuroectoderm. Directly or indirectly interacts with Notch and Delta. Ref.5

Subunit structure

Forms a complex with the hairy/Enhancer of split/deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in order to repress transcription. Its activity in regulating transcription depends on other proteins as it lacks a DNA-binding motif.

Subcellular location

Nucleus.

Developmental stage

Expressed both maternally and zygotically. Ref.5

Post-translational modification

Ubiquitinated by XIAP/BIRC4. Ref.7

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the WD repeat Groucho/TLE family.

Contains 7 WD repeats.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processDifferentiation
Neurogenesis
Transcription
Transcription regulation
Wnt signaling pathway
   Cellular componentNucleus
   Coding sequence diversityAlternative splicing
   DomainRepeat
WD repeat
   Molecular functionDevelopmental protein
Repressor
   PTMPhosphoprotein
Ubl conjugation
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processWnt signaling pathway

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

actin filament organization

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 14527345. Source: FlyBase

dendrite morphogenesis

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 16547170. Source: FlyBase

lateral inhibition

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 19363474. Source: FlyBase

negative regulation of Wnt signaling pathway

Non-traceable author statement PubMed 12147138. Source: FlyBase

negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 19460168. Source: UniProtKB

negative regulation of smoothened signaling pathway

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 17571073. Source: FlyBase

negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter

Inferred from physical interaction PubMed 9892668. Source: FlyBase

negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 19460168. Source: UniProtKB

nervous system development

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 1427039. Source: FlyBase

regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 19805071. Source: FlyBase

sex determination, primary response to X:A ratio

Traceable author statement PubMed 10648226. Source: FlyBase

   Cellular_componentnucleus

Traceable author statement PubMed 10929403. Source: FlyBase

protein complex

Inferred from physical interaction PubMed 17898168. Source: FlyBase

   Molecular_functionCRD domain binding

Inferred from physical interaction PubMed 19460168. Source: UniProtKB

HMG box domain binding

Inferred from physical interaction PubMed 19460168. Source: UniProtKB

RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 12466194. Source: FlyBase

repressing transcription factor binding

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 12466194. Source: FlyBase

transcription corepressor activity

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 19460168. Source: UniProtKB

transcription factor binding

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 9751710. Source: UniProtKB

Complete GO annotation...

Alternative products

This entry describes 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform E (identifier: P16371-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Isoform A (identifier: P16371-2)

Also known as: B;

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     127-137: Missing.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 730730Protein groucho
PRO_0000051010

Regions

Repeat442 – 48039WD 1
Repeat488 – 52740WD 2
Repeat532 – 57140WD 3
Repeat574 – 61340WD 4
Repeat615 – 65440WD 5
Repeat656 – 69540WD 6
Repeat697 – 73034WD 7
Region206 – 26762CCN domain
Region262 – 425164Binding to basic helix-loop-helix domain
Motif227 – 2304Nuclear localization signal Potential
Compositional bias93 – 14452Gln-rich
Compositional bias317 – 423107Pro-rich

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue2051Phosphoserine Ref.6
Modified residue2071Phosphoserine Ref.6
Modified residue2181Phosphoserine Ref.6
Modified residue2421Phosphoserine; by CK2 Potential
Modified residue2581Phosphoserine; by CDC2 Potential
Modified residue2671Phosphoserine Ref.6
Modified residue3261Phosphothreonine Ref.6
Modified residue3281Phosphothreonine Ref.6

Natural variations

Alternative sequence127 – 13711Missing in isoform A.
VSP_022308

Experimental info

Sequence conflict411Q → H in AAA28512. Ref.1

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform E [UniParc].

Last modified January 9, 2007. Version 3.
Checksum: 9DA08E1ED343B2F5

FASTA73080,231
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MYPSPVRHPA AGGPPPQGPI KFTIADTLER IKEEFNFLQA QYHSIKLECE KLSNEKTEMQ 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
RHYVMYYEMS YGLNVEMHKQ TEIAKRLNTL INQLLPFLQA DHQQQVLQAV ERAKQVTMQE 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
LNLIIGHQQQ HGIQQLLQQI HAQQVPGGPP QPMGALNPFG ALGATMGLPH GPQGLLNKPP 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
EHHRPDIKPT GLEGPAAAEE RLRNSVSPAD REKYRTRSPL DIENDSKRRK DEKLQEDEGE 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
KSDQDLVVDV ANEMESHSPR PNGEHVSMEV RDRESLNGER LEKPSSSGIK QERPPSRSGS 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
SSSRSTPSLK TKDMEKPGTP GAKARTPTPN AAAPAPGVNP KQMMPQGPPP AGYPGAPYQR 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
PADPYQRPPS DPAYGRPPPM PYDPHAHVRT NGIPHPSALT GGKPAYSFHM NGEGSLQPVP 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
FPPDALVGVG IPRHARQINT LSHGEVVCAV TISNPTKYVY TGGKGCVKVW DISQPGNKNP 

       490        500        510        520        530        540 
VSQLDCLQRD NYIRSVKLLP DGRTLIVGGE ASNLSIWDLA SPTPRIKAEL TSAAPACYAL 

       550        560        570        580        590        600 
AISPDSKVCF SCCSDGNIAV WDLHNEILVR QFQGHTDGAS CIDISPDGSR LWTGGLDNTV 

       610        620        630        640        650        660 
RSWDLREGRQ LQQHDFSSQI FSLGYCPTGD WLAVGMENSH VEVLHASKPD KYQLHLHESC 

       670        680        690        700        710        720 
VLSLRFAACG KWFVSTGKDN LLNAWRTPYG ASIFQSKETS SVLSCDISTD DKYIVTGSGD 

       730 
KKATVYEVIY 

« Hide

Isoform A (B) [UniParc].

Checksum: D495291FD77026A5
Show »

FASTA71978,920

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"A deduced gene product from the Drosophila neurogenic locus, enhancer of split, shows homology to mammalian G-protein beta subunit."
Hartley D., Preiss A., Artavanis-Tsakonas S.
Cell 55:785-795(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM A).
[2]"The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D. expand/collapse author list , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: Berkeley.
[3]"Annotation of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatic genome: a systematic review."
Misra S., Crosby M.A., Mungall C.J., Matthews B.B., Campbell K.S., Hradecky P., Huang Y., Kaminker J.S., Millburn G.H., Prochnik S.E., Smith C.D., Tupy J.L., Whitfield E.J., Bayraktaroglu L., Berman B.P., Bettencourt B.R., Celniker S.E., de Grey A.D.N.J. expand/collapse author list , Drysdale R.A., Harris N.L., Richter J., Russo S., Schroeder A.J., Shu S.Q., Stapleton M., Yamada C., Ashburner M., Gelbart W.M., Rubin G.M., Lewis S.E.
Genome Biol. 3:RESEARCH0083.1-RESEARCH0083.22(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Strain: Berkeley.
[4]"A Drosophila complementary DNA resource."
Rubin G.M., Hong L., Brokstein P., Evans-Holm M., Frise E., Stapleton M., Harvey D.A.
Science 287:2222-2224(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM A).
Strain: Berkeley.
Tissue: Embryo.
[5]"Groucho is required for Drosophila neurogenesis, segmentation, and sex determination and interacts directly with hairy-related bHLH proteins."
Paroush Z., Finley R.L. Jr., Kidd T., Wainwright S.M., Ingham P.W., Brent R., Ish-Horowicz D.
Cell 79:805-815(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, BINDING TO HAIRY-RELATED PROTEINS, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
[6]"Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos."
Zhai B., Villen J., Beausoleil S.A., Mintseris J., Gygi S.P.
J. Proteome Res. 7:1675-1682(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-205; SER-207; SER-218; SER-242; SER-258; SER-267; THR-326 AND THR-328, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
Tissue: Embryo.
[7]"XIAP monoubiquitylates Groucho/TLE to promote canonical Wnt signaling."
Hanson A.J., Wallace H.A., Freeman T.J., Beauchamp R.D., Lee L.A., Lee E.
Mol. Cell 45:619-628(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: UBIQUITINATION BY XIAP/BIRC4.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
M20571 mRNA. Translation: AAA28512.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF56557.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN14068.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN14069.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAS65218.1.
AF145695 mRNA. Translation: AAD38670.1.
PIRA30047.
RefSeqNP_001189293.1. NM_001202364.1.
NP_524514.2. NM_079790.5.
NP_733133.1. NM_170254.3.
NP_733134.1. NM_170255.4.
NP_733135.1. NM_170256.2.
NP_996298.1. NM_206575.3.
UniGeneDm.1340.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP16371.
SMRP16371. Positions 401-730.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid68062. 35 interactions.
DIPDIP-40N.
IntActP16371. 22 interactions.
MINTMINT-314389.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP16371.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaFBtr0084966; FBpp0089115; FBgn0001139. [P16371-1]
GeneID43162.
KEGGdme:Dmel_CG8384.
UCSCCG8384-RA. d. melanogaster.

Organism-specific databases

CTD43162.
FlyBaseFBgn0001139. gro.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG2319.
GeneTreeENSGT00550000074465.
InParanoidA4V3F6.
KOK04497.
OMALKTKDME.
OrthoDBEOG7HQNC3.
PhylomeDBP16371.

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkP16371.

Gene expression databases

BgeeP16371.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR005617. Groucho/TLE_N.
IPR009146. Groucho_enhance.
IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
IPR019775. WD40_repeat_CS.
IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF03920. TLE_N. 1 hit.
PF00400. WD40. 5 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR01850. GROUCHOFAMLY.
SMARTSM00320. WD40. 7 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS00678. WD_REPEATS_1. 2 hits.
PS50082. WD_REPEATS_2. 3 hits.
PS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSgro. drosophila.
GenomeRNAi43162.
NextBio832487.
PROP16371.

Entry information

Entry nameGROU_DROME
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P16371
Secondary accession number(s): A4V3F6 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q0KI08, Q7KRZ4, Q9V3F7
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
Last sequence update: January 9, 2007
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 148 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

Drosophila

Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase