Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Protein groucho

Gene

gro

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Transcriptional corepressor that regulates transcription when recruited to specific target DNA by hairy-related bHLH proteins. Maternally required for neurogenesis; in the segregation of the neuroectoderm. Directly or indirectly interacts with Notch and Delta.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • CRD domain binding Source: UniProtKB
  • HMG box domain binding Source: UniProtKB
  • repressing transcription factor binding Source: FlyBase
  • RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity Source: FlyBase
  • transcription corepressor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • transcription factor binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • actin filament organization Source: FlyBase
  • dendrite morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • lateral inhibition Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of smoothened signaling pathway Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of Wnt signaling pathway Source: FlyBase
  • nervous system development Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: FlyBase
  • sex determination, primary response to X:A ratio Source: FlyBase
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • Wnt signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein, Repressor

Keywords - Biological processi

Differentiation, Neurogenesis, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Wnt signaling pathway

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DME-201722. Formation of the beta-catenin:TCF transactivating complex.
R-DME-3769402. Deactivation of the beta-catenin transactivating complex.
R-DME-4641265. Repression of WNT target genes.
SignaLinkiP16371.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein groucho
Alternative name(s):
Enhancer of split m9/10 protein
Short name:
E(spl)m9/10
Gene namesi
Name:gro
Synonyms:E(spl)m9/m10
ORF Names:CG8384
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 3R

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0001139. gro.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • nucleoplasm Source: Reactome
  • nucleus Source: FlyBase
  • protein complex Source: FlyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 730730Protein grouchoPRO_0000051010Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei205 – 2051Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei207 – 2071Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei218 – 2181Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei242 – 2421Phosphoserine; by CK2Sequence analysis
Modified residuei258 – 2581Phosphoserine; by CDC2Sequence analysis
Modified residuei267 – 2671Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei326 – 3261Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei328 – 3281Phosphothreonine1 Publication

Post-translational modificationi

Ubiquitinated by XIAP/BIRC4.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP16371.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP16371.

Expressioni

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP16371.
ExpressionAtlasiP16371. differential.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Forms a complex with the hairy/Enhancer of split/deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins in order to repress transcription. Its activity in regulating transcription depends on other proteins as it lacks a DNA-binding motif.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
E(spl)P130984EBI-153866,EBI-185388
E(spl)m3-HLHQ010684EBI-153866,EBI-121622
E(spl)m5-HLHP130963EBI-153866,EBI-104760
hP140033EBI-153866,EBI-123011
HLHmdeltaQ010713EBI-153866,EBI-118907
panP919432EBI-153866,EBI-147301
RUNX1Q01196-14EBI-153866,EBI-925940From a different organism.
sbbQ9GRA92EBI-153866,EBI-7461944
Six3Q622332EBI-153866,EBI-2297327From a different organism.
smt3O971022EBI-153866,EBI-114439

GO - Molecular functioni

  • CRD domain binding Source: UniProtKB
  • HMG box domain binding Source: UniProtKB
  • repressing transcription factor binding Source: FlyBase
  • transcription factor binding Source: UniProtKB

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi68062. 35 interactions.
DIPiDIP-40N.
IntActiP16371. 22 interactions.
MINTiMINT-314389.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0089115.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP16371.
SMRiP16371. Positions 21-129, 401-730.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Repeati442 – 48039WD 1Add
BLAST
Repeati488 – 52740WD 2Add
BLAST
Repeati532 – 57140WD 3Add
BLAST
Repeati574 – 61340WD 4Add
BLAST
Repeati615 – 65440WD 5Add
BLAST
Repeati656 – 69540WD 6Add
BLAST
Repeati697 – 73034WD 7Add
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni206 – 26762CCN domainAdd
BLAST
Regioni262 – 425164Binding to basic helix-loop-helix domainAdd
BLAST

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi227 – 2304Nuclear localization signalSequence analysis

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi93 – 14452Gln-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi317 – 423107Pro-richAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the WD repeat Groucho/TLE family.Curated
Contains 7 WD repeats.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, WD repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0639. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XPX3. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00550000074465.
InParanoidiP16371.
KOiK04497.
OMAiKDMDKPG.
OrthoDBiEOG7HQNC3.
PhylomeDBiP16371.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR005617. Groucho/TLE_N.
IPR009146. Groucho_enhance.
IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
IPR019775. WD40_repeat_CS.
IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF03920. TLE_N. 1 hit.
PF00400. WD40. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01850. GROUCHOFAMLY.
SMARTiSM00320. WD40. 7 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00678. WD_REPEATS_1. 2 hits.
PS50082. WD_REPEATS_2. 3 hits.
PS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform E (identifier: P16371-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MYPSPVRHPA AGGPPPQGPI KFTIADTLER IKEEFNFLQA QYHSIKLECE
60 70 80 90 100
KLSNEKTEMQ RHYVMYYEMS YGLNVEMHKQ TEIAKRLNTL INQLLPFLQA
110 120 130 140 150
DHQQQVLQAV ERAKQVTMQE LNLIIGHQQQ HGIQQLLQQI HAQQVPGGPP
160 170 180 190 200
QPMGALNPFG ALGATMGLPH GPQGLLNKPP EHHRPDIKPT GLEGPAAAEE
210 220 230 240 250
RLRNSVSPAD REKYRTRSPL DIENDSKRRK DEKLQEDEGE KSDQDLVVDV
260 270 280 290 300
ANEMESHSPR PNGEHVSMEV RDRESLNGER LEKPSSSGIK QERPPSRSGS
310 320 330 340 350
SSSRSTPSLK TKDMEKPGTP GAKARTPTPN AAAPAPGVNP KQMMPQGPPP
360 370 380 390 400
AGYPGAPYQR PADPYQRPPS DPAYGRPPPM PYDPHAHVRT NGIPHPSALT
410 420 430 440 450
GGKPAYSFHM NGEGSLQPVP FPPDALVGVG IPRHARQINT LSHGEVVCAV
460 470 480 490 500
TISNPTKYVY TGGKGCVKVW DISQPGNKNP VSQLDCLQRD NYIRSVKLLP
510 520 530 540 550
DGRTLIVGGE ASNLSIWDLA SPTPRIKAEL TSAAPACYAL AISPDSKVCF
560 570 580 590 600
SCCSDGNIAV WDLHNEILVR QFQGHTDGAS CIDISPDGSR LWTGGLDNTV
610 620 630 640 650
RSWDLREGRQ LQQHDFSSQI FSLGYCPTGD WLAVGMENSH VEVLHASKPD
660 670 680 690 700
KYQLHLHESC VLSLRFAACG KWFVSTGKDN LLNAWRTPYG ASIFQSKETS
710 720 730
SVLSCDISTD DKYIVTGSGD KKATVYEVIY
Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Length:730
Mass (Da):80,231
Last modified:January 9, 2007 - v3
Checksum:i9DA08E1ED343B2F5
GO
Isoform A (identifier: P16371-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: B

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     127-137: Missing.

Show »
Length:719
Mass (Da):78,920
Checksum:iD495291FD77026A5
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti41 – 411Q → H in AAA28512 (PubMed:3142687).Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei127 – 13711Missing in isoform A. 2 PublicationsVSP_022308Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M20571 mRNA. Translation: AAA28512.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF56557.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN14068.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN14069.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAS65218.1.
AF145695 mRNA. Translation: AAD38670.1.
PIRiA30047.
RefSeqiNP_001189293.1. NM_001202364.1. [P16371-2]
NP_524514.2. NM_079790.5. [P16371-2]
NP_733133.1. NM_170254.3. [P16371-2]
NP_733134.1. NM_170255.4. [P16371-2]
NP_733135.1. NM_170256.2. [P16371-2]
NP_996298.1. NM_206575.3. [P16371-1]
UniGeneiDm.1340.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0084966; FBpp0089115; FBgn0001139. [P16371-1]
GeneIDi43162.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG8384.
UCSCiCG8384-RA. d. melanogaster.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M20571 mRNA. Translation: AAA28512.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF56557.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN14068.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN14069.1.
AE014297 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAS65218.1.
AF145695 mRNA. Translation: AAD38670.1.
PIRiA30047.
RefSeqiNP_001189293.1. NM_001202364.1. [P16371-2]
NP_524514.2. NM_079790.5. [P16371-2]
NP_733133.1. NM_170254.3. [P16371-2]
NP_733134.1. NM_170255.4. [P16371-2]
NP_733135.1. NM_170256.2. [P16371-2]
NP_996298.1. NM_206575.3. [P16371-1]
UniGeneiDm.1340.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP16371.
SMRiP16371. Positions 21-129, 401-730.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi68062. 35 interactions.
DIPiDIP-40N.
IntActiP16371. 22 interactions.
MINTiMINT-314389.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0089115.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP16371.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP16371.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0084966; FBpp0089115; FBgn0001139. [P16371-1]
GeneIDi43162.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG8384.
UCSCiCG8384-RA. d. melanogaster.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi43162.
FlyBaseiFBgn0001139. gro.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0639. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XPX3. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00550000074465.
InParanoidiP16371.
KOiK04497.
OMAiKDMDKPG.
OrthoDBiEOG7HQNC3.
PhylomeDBiP16371.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DME-201722. Formation of the beta-catenin:TCF transactivating complex.
R-DME-3769402. Deactivation of the beta-catenin transactivating complex.
R-DME-4641265. Repression of WNT target genes.
SignaLinkiP16371.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSigro. fly.
GenomeRNAii43162.
PROiP16371.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP16371.
ExpressionAtlasiP16371. differential.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR005617. Groucho/TLE_N.
IPR009146. Groucho_enhance.
IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
IPR019775. WD40_repeat_CS.
IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF03920. TLE_N. 1 hit.
PF00400. WD40. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01850. GROUCHOFAMLY.
SMARTiSM00320. WD40. 7 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00678. WD_REPEATS_1. 2 hits.
PS50082. WD_REPEATS_2. 3 hits.
PS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "A deduced gene product from the Drosophila neurogenic locus, enhancer of split, shows homology to mammalian G-protein beta subunit."
    Hartley D., Preiss A., Artavanis-Tsakonas S.
    Cell 55:785-795(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM A).
  2. "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D.
    , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
    Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
  3. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
    Strain: Berkeley.
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM A).
    Strain: Berkeley.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  5. "Groucho is required for Drosophila neurogenesis, segmentation, and sex determination and interacts directly with hairy-related bHLH proteins."
    Paroush Z., Finley R.L. Jr., Kidd T., Wainwright S.M., Ingham P.W., Brent R., Ish-Horowicz D.
    Cell 79:805-815(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, BINDING TO HAIRY-RELATED PROTEINS, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  6. "Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos."
    Zhai B., Villen J., Beausoleil S.A., Mintseris J., Gygi S.P.
    J. Proteome Res. 7:1675-1682(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-205; SER-207; SER-218; SER-242; SER-258; SER-267; THR-326 AND THR-328, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  7. "XIAP monoubiquitylates Groucho/TLE to promote canonical Wnt signaling."
    Hanson A.J., Wallace H.A., Freeman T.J., Beauchamp R.D., Lee L.A., Lee E.
    Mol. Cell 45:619-628(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: UBIQUITINATION BY XIAP/BIRC4.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGROU_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P16371
Secondary accession number(s): A4V3F6
, Q0KI08, Q7KRZ4, Q9V3F7
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 1, 1990
Last sequence update: January 9, 2007
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 168 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.