P15834 (VIF_HV2D2) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified April 3, 2013. Version 67. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Virion infectivity factor
|Organism||Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)|
|Taxonomic identifier||11716 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Viruses › Retro-transcribing viruses › Retroviridae › Orthoretrovirinae › Lentivirus › Primate lentivirus group ›|
|Virus host||Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]|
|Sequence length||216 AA.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at transcript level|
General annotation (Comments)
Counteracts the innate antiviral activity of APOBEC3G. Forms a complex with host APOBEC3G thus preventing the entry of this lethally hypermutating enzyme into progeny virions. Functions as an adapter molecule, recruiting APOBEC3G to the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery. Targets APOBEC3G for degradation through the assembly with elongin BC complex, CUL5 and RBX1. Binds viral RNA and affects the stability of viral nucleoprotein core. May play a role in viral morphology By similarity.
Homomultimer; in vitro and presumably in vivo. Interacts with viral Pr55Gag precursor and human APOBEC3G. The interaction between Vif and APOBEC3G is species-specific, which may play a role in restricting the replication of HIV to humans. Forms an E3 ligase complex by interacting with human CUL5 and elongin BC complex (TCEB1 and TCEB2) By similarity.
Host cytoplasm By similarity. Host cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side By similarity. Virion By similarity. Note: In the cytoplasm, seems to colocalize with intermediate filament vimentin. A fraction is associated with the cytoplasmic side of cellular membranes, presumably via the interaction with Pr55Gag precursor By similarity.
Expressed late during infection in a Rev-dependent manner.
The BC-like-box motif mediates the interaction with elongin BC complex By similarity.
The HCCH motif (H-x(5)-C-x(18)-C-x(5)-H) mediates the interaction with CUL5 By similarity.
Processed in virion by the viral protease By similarity.
Highly phosphorylated on serines and threonines residues By similarity.
Polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in the presence of APOBEC3G By similarity.
Required for replication in 'nonpermissive' cells, including primary T-cells, macrophages and certain T-cell lines, but is dispensable for replication in 'permissive' cell lines, such as 293T cells. In nonpermissive cells, Vif-defective viruses can produce virions, but they fail to complete reverse transcription and cannot successfully infect new cells.
Vif-defective viruses show catastrophic failure in reverse transcription due to APOBEC-induced mutations that initiate a DNA base repair pathway and compromise the structural integrity of the ssDNA. In the absence of Vif, the virion is morphologically abnormal.
Belongs to the primate lentivirus group Vif protein family.
|Biological process||Host-virus interaction|
Ubl conjugation pathway
|Cellular component||Host cell membrane|
|Gene Ontology (GO)|
|Biological_process||viral infectious cycle|
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterProvirus-host interaction
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW
|Cellular_component||host cell cytoplasm|
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCellhost cell plasma membrane
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCellmembrane
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KWvirion
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
|Complete GO annotation...|
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Chain||1 – 216||216||Virion infectivity factor||PRO_0000085319|
|Region||154 – 167||14||Multimerization By similarity|
|Motif||110 – 141||32||HCCH motif By similarity|
|Motif||147 – 156||10||BC-box-like motif By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||98||1||Phosphothreonine; by host MAP4K1 By similarity|
|Modified residue||147||1||Phosphoserine; by host By similarity|
|X61240 Genomic DNA. No translation available.|
3D structure databases
Protocols and materials databases
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR000475. Viral_infect. |
|Pfam||PF00559. Vif. 1 hit. |
|PRINTS||PR00349. VIRIONINFFCT. |
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P15834|
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Viral Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families