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Protein

Glutamine synthetase

Gene

GLUL

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

ATP + L-glutamate + NH3 = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO2.

Cofactori

Protein has several cofactor binding sites:
  • biotinBy similarityNote: Biotin.By similarity
  • Mg2+By similarity, Mn2+By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. glutamate-ammonia ligase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC
  3. glutamate decarboxylase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC

GO - Biological processi

  1. cell proliferation Source: Ensembl
  2. cellular response to starvation Source: Ensembl
  3. glutamine biosynthetic process Source: InterPro
  4. response to glucose Source: Ensembl
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Ligase, Lyase

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_217400. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
REACT_219505. Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glutamine synthetase (EC:6.3.1.2)
Short name:
GS
Alternative name(s):
Glutamate decarboxylase (EC:4.1.1.15)
Glutamate--ammonia ligase
Gene namesi
Name:GLUL
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
ProteomesiUP000009136: Chromosome 16

Subcellular locationi

Cytoplasm By similarity. Mitochondrion By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. cell body Source: Ensembl
  2. extracellular vesicular exosome Source: Ensembl
  3. glial cell projection Source: Ensembl
  4. mitochondrion Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  5. nucleus Source: Ensembl
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methioninei1 – 11RemovedBy similarity
Chaini2 – 373372Glutamine synthetasePRO_0000153136Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylalanineBy similarity
Modified residuei104 – 1041PhosphotyrosineBy similarity
Modified residuei343 – 3431PhosphoserineBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Ubiquitinated by ZNRF1.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP15103.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP15103. baseline.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homooctamer and homotetramer. Interacts with PALMD (By similarity).By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000041778.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP15103.
SMRiP15103. Positions 3-372.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0174.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000010047.
HOGENOMiHOG000061500.
HOVERGENiHBG005847.
InParanoidiP15103.
KOiK01915.
OMAiRIPRNVG.
OrthoDBiEOG7CZK5G.
TreeFamiTF300491.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.10.20.70. 1 hit.
3.30.590.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008147. Gln_synt_beta.
IPR014746. Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom.
IPR008146. Gln_synth_cat_dom.
IPR027303. Gln_synth_gly_rich_site.
IPR027302. Gln_synth_N_conserv_site.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00120. Gln-synt_C. 1 hit.
PF03951. Gln-synt_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54368. SSF54368. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00180. GLNA_1. 1 hit.
PS00181. GLNA_ATP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P15103-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MATSASSHLN KGIKQVYMAL PQGDKVQAMY IWIDGTGEGL RCKTRTLDSE
60 70 80 90 100
PKCIEELPEW NFDGSSTFQS EGSNSDMYLV PAAMFRDPFR KDPNKLVFCE
110 120 130 140 150
VFKYNRKPAE TNLRHTCKRI MDMVSNQRPW FGMEQEYTLM GTDGHPFGWP
160 170 180 190 200
SNGFPGPQGP YYCGVGADKA YGRDIVEAHY RACLYAGIKI GGTNAEVMPA
210 220 230 240 250
QWEFQIGPCE GIDMGDHLWV ARFILHRVCE DFGVIATFDP KPIPGNWNGA
260 270 280 290 300
GCHTNFSTKA MREENGLKYI EEAIEKLSKR HQYHIRAYDP KGGLDNARRL
310 320 330 340 350
TGFHETSNIN DFSAGVANRG ASIRIPRTVG QEKKGYFEDR RPSANCDPFA
360 370
VTEALIRTCL LNETGDEPFQ YKN
Length:373
Mass (Da):42,031
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v4
Checksum:iBBCC6A953FD7DAD5
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC103099 mRNA. Translation: AAI03100.1.
Y10347 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA71373.1. Sequence problems.
AY186585 mRNA. Translation: AAO27470.1.
J03604 mRNA. Translation: AAA87357.1.
PIRiA34006.
RefSeqiNP_001035564.1. NM_001040474.2.
XP_005217320.1. XM_005217263.2.
UniGeneiBt.106825.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000038488; ENSBTAP00000038301; ENSBTAG00000013631.
GeneIDi281199.
KEGGibta:281199.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC103099 mRNA. Translation: AAI03100.1.
Y10347 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA71373.1. Sequence problems.
AY186585 mRNA. Translation: AAO27470.1.
J03604 mRNA. Translation: AAA87357.1.
PIRiA34006.
RefSeqiNP_001035564.1. NM_001040474.2.
XP_005217320.1. XM_005217263.2.
UniGeneiBt.106825.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP15103.
SMRiP15103. Positions 3-372.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000041778.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP15103.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000038488; ENSBTAP00000038301; ENSBTAG00000013631.
GeneIDi281199.
KEGGibta:281199.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2752.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0174.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000010047.
HOGENOMiHOG000061500.
HOVERGENiHBG005847.
InParanoidiP15103.
KOiK01915.
OMAiRIPRNVG.
OrthoDBiEOG7CZK5G.
TreeFamiTF300491.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_217400. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
REACT_219505. Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi20805255.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP15103. baseline.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.10.20.70. 1 hit.
3.30.590.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008147. Gln_synt_beta.
IPR014746. Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom.
IPR008146. Gln_synth_cat_dom.
IPR027303. Gln_synth_gly_rich_site.
IPR027302. Gln_synth_N_conserv_site.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00120. Gln-synt_C. 1 hit.
PF03951. Gln-synt_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54368. SSF54368. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00180. GLNA_1. 1 hit.
PS00181. GLNA_ATP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. NIH - Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project
    Submitted (AUG-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: Hereford.
    Tissue: Hypothalamus.
  2. "The bovine glutamine synthase gene (GLUL) maps to 10q33 and a pseudogene (GLULP) to 16q21."
    Masabanda J., Wigger G., Eggen A., Stranzinger G., Fries R.
    Mamm. Genome 8:794-795(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 202-267.
  3. "The pattern of EAAC1 and GLT-1 glutamate transporter expression by skeletal and adipose tissues of fattening cattle differs from that of glutamine synthetase."
    Matthews J.C., Etienne N.M.P.
    Submitted (NOV-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 258-352.
    Tissue: Kidney.
  4. "Distribution of glutamine synthetase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I in vertebrate liver."
    Smith D.D. Jr., Campbell J.W.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:160-164(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 267-373.
    Tissue: Liver.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLNA_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P15103
Secondary accession number(s): O02850, Q3ZBU6, Q866Q7
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 1, 1990
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: March 4, 2015
This is version 114 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.