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P12979

- MYOG_MOUSE

UniProt

P12979 - MYOG_MOUSE

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Protein

Myogenin

Gene

Myog

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Acts as a transcriptional activator that promotes transcription of muscle-specific target genes and plays a role in muscle differentiation, cell cycle exit and muscle atrophy. Essential for the development of functional embryonic skeletal fiber muscle differentiation. However is dispensable for postnatal skeletal muscle growth; phosphorylation by CAMK2G inhibits its transcriptional activity in respons to muscle activity. Required for the recruitment of the FACT complex to muscle-specific promoter regions, thus promoting gene expression initiation. During terminal myoblast differentiation, plays a role as a strong activator of transcription at loci with an open chromatin structure previously initiated by MYOD1. Together with MYF5 and MYOD1, co-occupies muscle-specific gene promoter core regions during myogenesis. Cooperates also with myocyte-specific enhancer factor MEF2D and BRG1-dependent recruitment of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes to alter chromatin structure at myogenic late gene promoters. Facilitates cell cycle exit during terminal muscle differentiation through the up-regulation of miR-20a expression, which in turn represses genes involved in cell cycle progression. Binds to the E-box containing (E1) promoter region of the miR-20a gene. Plays also a role in preventing reversal of muscle cell differentiation. Contributes to the atrophy-related gene expression in adult denervated muscles. Induces fibroblasts to differentiate into myoblasts.11 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. chromatin DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  2. core promoter binding Source: UniProtKB
  3. core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: MGI
  4. DNA binding Source: MGI
  5. E-box binding Source: BHF-UCL
  6. RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: NTNU_SB
  7. RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription Source: NTNU_SB
  8. RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: MGI
  9. RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: BHF-UCL
  10. RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription Source: BHF-UCL
  11. sequence-specific DNA binding Source: MGI
  12. sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. cellular response to estradiol stimulus Source: UniProtKB
  3. cellular response to growth factor stimulus Source: MGI
  4. cellular response to lithium ion Source: MGI
  5. mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: BHF-UCL
  6. muscle organ development Source: MGI
  7. myotube differentiation Source: MGI
  8. negative regulation of cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  9. ossification Source: MGI
  10. positive regulation of cell cycle arrest Source: UniProtKB
  11. positive regulation of muscle atrophy Source: UniProtKB
  12. positive regulation of myoblast differentiation Source: UniProtKB
  13. positive regulation of myotube differentiation Source: UniProtKB
  14. positive regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Source: UniProtKB
  15. positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: MGI
  16. positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: UniProtKB
  17. regulation of myoblast fusion Source: UniProtKB
  18. regulation of satellite cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  19. response to denervation involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Source: UniProtKB
  20. response to electrical stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Source: UniProtKB
  21. response to muscle activity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Source: UniProtKB
  22. skeletal muscle fiber development Source: MGI
  23. skeletal muscle tissue development Source: MGI
  24. striated muscle atrophy Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Cell cycle, Differentiation, Myogenesis, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Myogenin
Alternative name(s):
MYOD1-related protein
Gene namesi
Name:Myog
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
ProteomesiUP000000589: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:97276. Myog.

Subcellular locationi

Nucleus 1 PublicationPROSITE-ProRule annotation
Note: Recruited to late myogenic gene promoter regulatory sequences with SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A and SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes to promote chromatin-remodeling and transcription initiation in developing embryos.

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. nucleus Source: MGI
  2. protein-DNA complex Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Display normal myoblast formation during embryogenesis, but show perinatal lethality because of a deficiency during the later stages of skeletal muscle fiber formation. Show no abnormalities for smooth muscles and cardiocytes differentiation. Conditional mutant with expression abrogated in muscle cells from 15.5 or 17.5 dpc are viable, fertil and exhibit no noticeable muscle growth and reduction of myofiber diameter defects but show smaller body size and mass. Conditional mutant in muscle cells of denervated hindlimb muscles show an inhibition of the denervation-dependent reductions in mass, force and atrophy of slow fiber-type soleus muscles, without increased in satellite cell proliferation and fusion.2 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 224224MyogeninPRO_0000127376Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei77 – 771Phosphoserine; by CaMK2GBy similarity
Modified residuei79 – 791Phosphoserine; by CaMK2GBy similarity
Modified residuei87 – 871Phosphothreonine; by CaMK2GBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated by CAMK2G on threonine and serine amino acids in a muscle activity-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of Thr-87 impairs both DNA-binding and trans-activation functions in contracting muscles (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP12979.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP12979.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in myoblast cells. Expressed weakly in myotubes (at protein level). Expressed strongly in denervated muscles and in satellite cells isolated from denervated muscles. Expressed weakly in innervated muscle and in satellite cells isolated from innervated muscles.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed in the myotome of the somites at 8.5 dpc, onward (at protein level). Expressed in proximal region of both the hindlimb and the forelimb at 11.5 dpc, onward. Expressed during muscle maturation between 15 and 17 dpc and decreases thereafter. Not detected within the heart.3 Publications

Inductioni

Up-regulated in denervated muscles (at protein level). Up-regulated during myogenesis in the embryo and in cell culture models of myogenic differentiation via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP12979.
CleanExiMM_MYOG.
GenevestigatoriP12979.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer and heterodimer with E12; heterodimerization enhances MYOG DNA-binding and transcriptional activities. Interacts with SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A. Interacts (via C-terminal region) with SSRP1 and SUPT16H; the interaction is indicative of an interaction with the FACT complex.3 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi201674. 9 interactions.
DIPiDIP-29976N.
IntActiP12979. 3 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1958829.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000027730.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP12979.
SMRiP12979. Positions 74-136.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini81 – 13252bHLHPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG285405.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063004.
HOGENOMiHOG000234799.
HOVERGENiHBG006429.
InParanoidiP12979.
KOiK18483.
OMAiFYQEPHF.
OrthoDBiEOG76QFK1.
PhylomeDBiP12979.
TreeFamiTF316344.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002546. Basic.
IPR011598. bHLH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01586. Basic. 1 hit.
PF00010. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00520. BASIC. 1 hit.
SM00353. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47459. SSF47459. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50888. BHLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P12979-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MELYETSPYF YQEPHFYDGE NYLPVHLQGF EPPGYERTEL SLSPEARGPL
60 70 80 90 100
EEKGLGTPEH CPGQCLPWAC KVCKRKSVSV DRRRAATLRE KRRLKKVNEA
110 120 130 140 150
FEALKRSTLL NPNQRLPKVE ILRSAIQYIE RLQALLSSLN QEERDLRYRG
160 170 180 190 200
GGGPQPMVPS ECNSHSASCS PEWGNALEFG PNPGDHLLAA DPTDAHNLHS
210 220
LTSIVDSITV EDMSVAFPDE TMPN
Length:224
Mass (Da):25,203
Last modified:December 1, 1992 - v2
Checksum:iCC7352C1EDF9D3D8
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
M95800 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59676.1.
X15784 mRNA. Translation: CAA33785.1. Sequence problems.
D90156 mRNA. Translation: BAA14187.1.
BC048683 mRNA. Translation: AAH48683.1.
BC068019 mRNA. Translation: AAH68019.1.
CCDSiCCDS15306.1.
PIRiA35882. A36675.
RefSeqiNP_112466.1. NM_031189.2.
UniGeneiMm.16528.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000027730; ENSMUSP00000027730; ENSMUSG00000026459.
GeneIDi17928.
KEGGimmu:17928.
UCSCiuc007crl.2. mouse.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
M95800 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59676.1 .
X15784 mRNA. Translation: CAA33785.1 . Sequence problems.
D90156 mRNA. Translation: BAA14187.1 .
BC048683 mRNA. Translation: AAH48683.1 .
BC068019 mRNA. Translation: AAH68019.1 .
CCDSi CCDS15306.1.
PIRi A35882. A36675.
RefSeqi NP_112466.1. NM_031189.2.
UniGenei Mm.16528.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali P12979.
SMRi P12979. Positions 74-136.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi 201674. 9 interactions.
DIPi DIP-29976N.
IntActi P12979. 3 interactions.
MINTi MINT-1958829.
STRINGi 10090.ENSMUSP00000027730.

PTM databases

PhosphoSitei P12979.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEi P12979.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

Ensembli ENSMUST00000027730 ; ENSMUSP00000027730 ; ENSMUSG00000026459 .
GeneIDi 17928.
KEGGi mmu:17928.
UCSCi uc007crl.2. mouse.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 4656.
MGIi MGI:97276. Myog.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG285405.
GeneTreei ENSGT00530000063004.
HOGENOMi HOG000234799.
HOVERGENi HBG006429.
InParanoidi P12979.
KOi K18483.
OMAi FYQEPHF.
OrthoDBi EOG76QFK1.
PhylomeDBi P12979.
TreeFami TF316344.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi 292801.
PROi P12979.
SOURCEi Search...

Gene expression databases

Bgeei P12979.
CleanExi MM_MYOG.
Genevestigatori P12979.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di 4.10.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProi IPR002546. Basic.
IPR011598. bHLH_dom.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF01586. Basic. 1 hit.
PF00010. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SMARTi SM00520. BASIC. 1 hit.
SM00353. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF47459. SSF47459. 1 hit.
PROSITEi PS50888. BHLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "A gene with homology to the myc similarity region of MyoD1 is expressed during myogenesis and is sufficient to activate the muscle differentiation program."
    Edmondson D.G., Olson E.N.
    Genes Dev. 3:628-640(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Strain: BALB/c.
    Tissue: Muscle.
  2. "Analysis of the myogenin promoter reveals an indirect pathway for positive autoregulation mediated by the muscle-specific enhancer factor MEF-2."
    Edmondson D.G., Cheng T.C., Cserjesi P., Chakraborty T., Olson E.N.
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 12:3665-3677(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Myogenin contains two domains conserved among myogenic factors."
    Fujisawa-Sehara A., Nabeshima Y., Hosoda Y., Obinata T., Nabeshima Y.
    J. Biol. Chem. 265:15219-15223(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Limb.
  5. "Expression of two myogenic regulatory factors myogenin and MyoD1 during mouse embryogenesis."
    Sassoon D., Lyons G., Wright W.E., Lin V., Lassar A., Weintraub H., Buckingham M.
    Nature 341:303-307(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  6. "Myogenin and MyoD join a family of skeletal muscle genes regulated by electrical activity."
    Eftimie R., Brenner H.R., Buonanno A.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:1349-1353(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  7. "Muscle deficiency and neonatal death in mice with a targeted mutation in the myogenin gene."
    Hasty P., Bradley A., Morris J.H., Edmondson D.G., Venuti J.M., Olson E.N., Klein W.H.
    Nature 364:501-506(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  8. "Myogenin gene disruption results in perinatal lethality because of severe muscle defect."
    Nabeshima Y., Hanaoka K., Hayasaka M., Esumi E., Li S., Nonaka I., Nabeshima Y.
    Nature 364:532-535(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  9. "Somite subdomains, muscle cell origins, and the four muscle regulatory factor proteins."
    Smith T.H., Kachinsky A.M., Miller J.B.
    J. Cell Biol. 127:95-105(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  10. "Analysis of the DNA-binding properties of MyoD, myogenin, and E12 by fluorescence anisotropy."
    Maleki S.J., Royer C.A., Hurlburt B.K.
    Biochemistry 41:10888-10894(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBUNIT.
  11. Cited for: FUNCTION, PROMOTER BINDING.
  12. "Loss of myogenin in postnatal life leads to normal skeletal muscle but reduced body size."
    Knapp J.R., Davie J.K., Myer A., Meadows E., Olson E.N., Klein W.H.
    Development 133:601-610(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CONDITIONAL KNOCKOUT IN MUSCLE CELLS.
  13. "Skeletal muscle specification by myogenin and Mef2D via the SWI/SNF ATPase Brg1."
    Ohkawa Y., Marfella C.G., Imbalzano A.N.
    EMBO J. 25:490-501(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH SMARCA4, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  14. "Global and gene-specific analyses show distinct roles for Myod and Myog at a common set of promoters."
    Cao Y., Kumar R.M., Penn B.H., Berkes C.A., Kooperberg C., Boyer L.A., Young R.A., Tapscott S.J.
    EMBO J. 25:502-511(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  15. "Myogenin regulates denervation-dependent muscle atrophy in mouse soleus muscle."
    Macpherson P.C., Wang X., Goldman D.
    J. Cell. Biochem. 112:2149-2159(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CONDITIONAL KNOCKOUT IN MUSCLE CELLS, INDUCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  16. "Sequential association of myogenic regulatory factors and E proteins at muscle-specific genes."
    Londhe P., Davie J.K.
    Skelet. Muscle 1:14-14(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, PROMOTER BINDING, INDUCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  17. "Comparative expression profiling identifies differential roles for Myogenin and p38alpha MAPK signaling in myogenesis."
    Liu Q.C., Zha X.H., Faralli H., Yin H., Louis-Jeune C., Perdiguero E., Pranckeviciene E., Munoz-Canoves P., Rudnicki M.A., Brand M., Perez-Iratxeta C., Dilworth F.J.
    J. Mol. Cell Biol. 4:386-397(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INDUCTION.
  18. "Down-regulation of myogenin can reverse terminal muscle cell differentiation."
    Mastroyiannopoulos N.P., Nicolaou P., Anayasa M., Uney J.B., Phylactou L.A.
    PLoS ONE 7:E29896-E29896(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION IN MUSCLE DEDIFFERENTIATION INHIBITION.
  19. "Myogenin recruits the histone chaperone facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) to promote nucleosome disassembly at muscle-specific genes."
    Lolis A.A., Londhe P., Beggs B.C., Byrum S.D., Tackett A.J., Davie J.K.
    J. Biol. Chem. 288:7676-7687(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH SSRP1 AND SUPT16H.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiMYOG_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P12979
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 1, 1990
Last sequence update: December 1, 1992
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 120 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3