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Protein

Myogenin

Gene

Myog

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Acts as a transcriptional activator that promotes transcription of muscle-specific target genes and plays a role in muscle differentiation, cell cycle exit and muscle atrophy. Essential for the development of functional embryonic skeletal fiber muscle differentiation. However is dispensable for postnatal skeletal muscle growth; phosphorylation by CAMK2G inhibits its transcriptional activity in respons to muscle activity. Required for the recruitment of the FACT complex to muscle-specific promoter regions, thus promoting gene expression initiation. During terminal myoblast differentiation, plays a role as a strong activator of transcription at loci with an open chromatin structure previously initiated by MYOD1. Together with MYF5 and MYOD1, co-occupies muscle-specific gene promoter core regions during myogenesis. Cooperates also with myocyte-specific enhancer factor MEF2D and BRG1-dependent recruitment of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes to alter chromatin structure at myogenic late gene promoters. Facilitates cell cycle exit during terminal muscle differentiation through the up-regulation of miR-20a expression, which in turn represses genes involved in cell cycle progression. Binds to the E-box containing (E1) promoter region of the miR-20a gene. Plays also a role in preventing reversal of muscle cell differentiation. Contributes to the atrophy-related gene expression in adult denervated muscles. Induces fibroblasts to differentiate into myoblasts.11 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • chromatin DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  • core promoter binding Source: UniProtKB
  • core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: MGI
  • DNA binding Source: MGI
  • E-box binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: NTNU_SB
  • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • sequence-specific DNA binding Source: MGI
  • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding Source: NTNU_SB
  • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding Source: MGI
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • cellular response to estradiol stimulus Source: UniProtKB
  • cellular response to growth factor stimulus Source: MGI
  • cellular response to lithium ion Source: MGI
  • cellular response to magnetism Source: Ensembl
  • cellular response to retinoic acid Source: Ensembl
  • mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: BHF-UCL
  • muscle organ development Source: MGI
  • myoblast differentiation Source: Ensembl
  • myotube differentiation Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of glycolytic process Source: Ensembl
  • ossification Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of cell cycle arrest Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of muscle atrophy Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of myoblast differentiation Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of myoblast fusion Source: GO_Central
  • positive regulation of myotube differentiation Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of oxidative phosphorylation Source: Ensembl
  • positive regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of myoblast fusion Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  • response to denervation involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Source: UniProtKB
  • response to electrical stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Source: UniProtKB
  • response to gravity Source: Ensembl
  • response to muscle activity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Source: UniProtKB
  • skeletal muscle atrophy Source: Ensembl
  • skeletal muscle cell differentiation Source: GO_Central
  • skeletal muscle fiber development Source: MGI
  • skeletal muscle tissue development Source: MGI
  • skeletal muscle tissue regeneration Source: Ensembl
  • striated muscle atrophy Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Cell cycle, Differentiation, Myogenesis, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-375170. CDO in myogenesis.
SIGNORiP12979.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Myogenin
Alternative name(s):
MYOD1-related protein
Gene namesi
Name:Myog
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:97276. Myog.

Subcellular locationi

  • Nucleus PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication

  • Note: Recruited to late myogenic gene promoter regulatory sequences with SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A and SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes to promote chromatin-remodeling and transcription initiation in developing embryos.

GO - Cellular componenti

  • nucleus Source: MGI
  • protein-DNA complex Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Display normal myoblast formation during embryogenesis, but show perinatal lethality because of a deficiency during the later stages of skeletal muscle fiber formation. Show no abnormalities for smooth muscles and cardiocytes differentiation. Conditional mutant with expression abrogated in muscle cells from 15.5 or 17.5 dpc are viable, fertil and exhibit no noticeable muscle growth and reduction of myofiber diameter defects but show smaller body size and mass. Conditional mutant in muscle cells of denervated hindlimb muscles show an inhibition of the denervation-dependent reductions in mass, force and atrophy of slow fiber-type soleus muscles, without increased in satellite cell proliferation and fusion.2 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00001273761 – 224MyogeninAdd BLAST224

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei77Phosphoserine; by CaMK2GBy similarity1
Modified residuei79Phosphoserine; by CaMK2GBy similarity1
Modified residuei87Phosphothreonine; by CaMK2GBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated by CAMK2G on threonine and serine amino acids in a muscle activity-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of Thr-87 impairs both DNA-binding and trans-activation functions in contracting muscles (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP12979.
PaxDbiP12979.
PRIDEiP12979.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP12979.
PhosphoSitePlusiP12979.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in myoblast cells. Expressed weakly in myotubes (at protein level). Expressed strongly in denervated muscles and in satellite cells isolated from denervated muscles. Expressed weakly in innervated muscle and in satellite cells isolated from innervated muscles.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed in the myotome of the somites at 8.5 dpc, onward (at protein level). Expressed in proximal region of both the hindlimb and the forelimb at 11.5 dpc, onward. Expressed during muscle maturation between 15 and 17 dpc and decreases thereafter. Not detected within the heart.3 Publications

Inductioni

Up-regulated in denervated muscles (at protein level). Up-regulated during myogenesis in the embryo and in cell culture models of myogenic differentiation via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000026459.
CleanExiMM_MYOG.
GenevisibleiP12979. MM.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer and heterodimer with E12; heterodimerization enhances MYOG DNA-binding and transcriptional activities. Interacts with SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A. Interacts (via C-terminal region) with SSRP1 and SUPT16H; the interaction is indicative of an interaction with the FACT complex. nteracts with CSRP3 (By similarity).By similarity3 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi201674. 8 interactors.
DIPiDIP-29976N.
IntActiP12979. 4 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1958829.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000027730.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP12979.
SMRiP12979.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini81 – 132bHLHPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST52

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3960. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111SED. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063004.
HOGENOMiHOG000234799.
HOVERGENiHBG006429.
InParanoidiP12979.
KOiK18483.
OMAiPNPGDHL.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0GKD.
PhylomeDBiP12979.
TreeFamiTF316344.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002546. Basic.
IPR011598. bHLH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01586. Basic. 1 hit.
PF00010. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00520. BASIC. 1 hit.
SM00353. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47459. SSF47459. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50888. BHLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P12979-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MELYETSPYF YQEPHFYDGE NYLPVHLQGF EPPGYERTEL SLSPEARGPL
60 70 80 90 100
EEKGLGTPEH CPGQCLPWAC KVCKRKSVSV DRRRAATLRE KRRLKKVNEA
110 120 130 140 150
FEALKRSTLL NPNQRLPKVE ILRSAIQYIE RLQALLSSLN QEERDLRYRG
160 170 180 190 200
GGGPQPMVPS ECNSHSASCS PEWGNALEFG PNPGDHLLAA DPTDAHNLHS
210 220
LTSIVDSITV EDMSVAFPDE TMPN
Length:224
Mass (Da):25,203
Last modified:December 1, 1992 - v2
Checksum:iCC7352C1EDF9D3D8
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M95800 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59676.1.
X15784 mRNA. Translation: CAA33785.1. Sequence problems.
D90156 mRNA. Translation: BAA14187.1.
BC048683 mRNA. Translation: AAH48683.1.
BC068019 mRNA. Translation: AAH68019.1.
CCDSiCCDS15306.1.
PIRiA35882. A36675.
RefSeqiNP_112466.1. NM_031189.2.
UniGeneiMm.16528.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000027730; ENSMUSP00000027730; ENSMUSG00000026459.
GeneIDi17928.
KEGGimmu:17928.
UCSCiuc007crl.2. mouse.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M95800 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59676.1.
X15784 mRNA. Translation: CAA33785.1. Sequence problems.
D90156 mRNA. Translation: BAA14187.1.
BC048683 mRNA. Translation: AAH48683.1.
BC068019 mRNA. Translation: AAH68019.1.
CCDSiCCDS15306.1.
PIRiA35882. A36675.
RefSeqiNP_112466.1. NM_031189.2.
UniGeneiMm.16528.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP12979.
SMRiP12979.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi201674. 8 interactors.
DIPiDIP-29976N.
IntActiP12979. 4 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1958829.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000027730.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP12979.
PhosphoSitePlusiP12979.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP12979.
PaxDbiP12979.
PRIDEiP12979.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000027730; ENSMUSP00000027730; ENSMUSG00000026459.
GeneIDi17928.
KEGGimmu:17928.
UCSCiuc007crl.2. mouse.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi4656.
MGIiMGI:97276. Myog.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3960. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111SED. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063004.
HOGENOMiHOG000234799.
HOVERGENiHBG006429.
InParanoidiP12979.
KOiK18483.
OMAiPNPGDHL.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0GKD.
PhylomeDBiP12979.
TreeFamiTF316344.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-375170. CDO in myogenesis.
SIGNORiP12979.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP12979.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000026459.
CleanExiMM_MYOG.
GenevisibleiP12979. MM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002546. Basic.
IPR011598. bHLH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01586. Basic. 1 hit.
PF00010. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00520. BASIC. 1 hit.
SM00353. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47459. SSF47459. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50888. BHLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiMYOG_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P12979
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 1, 1990
Last sequence update: December 1, 1992
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 139 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.