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Protein

Chromogranin-A

Gene

CHGA

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Pancreastatin: Strongly inhibits glucose induced insulin release from the pancreas.
Catestatin: Inhibits catecholamine release from chromaffin cells and noradrenergic neurons by acting as a non-competitive nicotinic cholinergic antagonist (PubMed:15326220). Displays antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria S.aureus and M.luteus, and Gram-negative bacteria E.coli and P.aeruginosa (PubMed:15723172 and PubMed:24723458). Can induce mast cell migration, degranulation and production of cytokines and chemokines (PubMed:21214543). Acts as a potent scavenger of free radicals in vitro (PubMed:24723458). May play a role in the regulation of cardiac function and blood pressure (PubMed:18541522).1 Publication4 Publications
Serpinin: Regulates granule biogenesis in endocrine cells by up-regulating the transcription of protease nexin 1 (SERPINE2) via a cAMP-PKA-SP1 pathway. This leads to inhibition of granule protein degradation in the Golgi complex which in turn promotes granule formation.By similarity

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Fungicide

Keywords - Ligandi

Calcium

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000100604-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-6803157. Antimicrobial peptides.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Chromogranin-A
Short name:
CgA
Alternative name(s):
Pituitary secretory protein I
Short name:
SP-I
Cleaved into the following 18 chains:
Alternative name(s):
Vasostatin I
Alternative name(s):
Vasostatin II
Catestatin2 Publications
Alternative name(s):
SL211 Publication
GE-251 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:CHGA
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 14

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:1929. CHGA.

Subcellular locationi

Serpinin :
  • Secreted By similarity
  • Cytoplasmic vesiclesecretory vesicle By similarity

  • Note: Pyroglutaminated serpinin localizes to secretory vesicle.By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasmic vesicle, Membrane, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi1113.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000100604.
ENSG00000276781.
PharmGKBiPA26461.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCHGA.
DMDMi215274270.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 182 PublicationsAdd BLAST18
ChainiPRO_000000540819 – 457Chromogranin-AAdd BLAST439
PeptideiPRO_000000540919 – 131Vasostatin-21 PublicationAdd BLAST113
PeptideiPRO_000000541019 – 94Vasostatin-11 PublicationAdd BLAST76
PeptideiPRO_0000005411134 – 225EA-921 PublicationAdd BLAST92
PeptideiPRO_0000005412228 – 260ES-431 PublicationAdd BLAST33
PeptideiPRO_0000005413272 – 319Pancreastatin1 PublicationAdd BLAST48
PeptideiPRO_0000005414322 – 339SS-181 PublicationAdd BLAST18
PeptideiPRO_0000005415342 – 355WE-141 PublicationAdd BLAST14
PeptideiPRO_0000005416342 – 349WA-81 Publication8
PeptideiPRO_0000005417358 – 376LF-191 PublicationAdd BLAST19
PeptideiPRO_0000432682370 – 390Catestatin1 PublicationAdd BLAST21
PeptideiPRO_0000005418380 – 390AL-111 PublicationAdd BLAST11
PeptideiPRO_0000432683393 – 417GE-251 PublicationAdd BLAST25
PeptideiPRO_0000005419393 – 411GV-191 PublicationAdd BLAST19
PeptideiPRO_0000005420413 – 456GR-441 PublicationAdd BLAST44
PeptideiPRO_0000005421420 – 456ER-371 PublicationAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_0000432684429 – 457Serpinin-RRGBy similarityAdd BLAST29
PeptideiPRO_0000432685429 – 454SerpininBy similarityAdd BLAST26
PeptideiPRO_0000432686432 – 454p-Glu serpinin precursorBy similarityAdd BLAST23

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi35 ↔ 561 Publication
Modified residuei142PhosphoserineBy similarity1
GlycosylationiCAR_000116181O-linked (GalNAc...)1 Publication1
GlycosylationiCAR_000117183O-linked (GalNAc...)1 Publication1
Modified residuei194PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei203PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei218Phosphoserine1 Publication1
GlycosylationiCAR_000118251O-linked (GalNAc...)1 Publication1
Modified residuei270Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei300PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei319Glycine amide2 Publications1
Modified residuei322PhosphoserineCombined sources1 Publication1
Modified residuei333Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei371PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei372Methionine sulfoxide1 Publication1
Modified residuei398PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei402PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei424PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei432Pyrrolidone carboxylic acidBy similarity1
Modified residuei438PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei456Arginine amide1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

Sulfated on tyrosine residues and/or contains sulfated glycans.
O-glycosylated with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans.3 Publications
Proteolytic processing gives rise to an additional longer form of catestatin (residues 358-390) which displays a less potent catecholamine release-inhibitory activity (PubMed:10781584). Plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing can give rise to additional shorter and longer forms of catestatin peptides (PubMed:17991725).2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Oxidation, Phosphoprotein, Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, Sulfation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP10645.
PeptideAtlasiP10645.
PRIDEiP10645.
TopDownProteomicsiP10645.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP10645.
PhosphoSitePlusiP10645.
UniCarbKBiP10645.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBQ6NR84.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

GE-25 is found in the brain.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000100604.
CleanExiHS_CHGA.
ExpressionAtlasiP10645. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP10645. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000023.
CAB040544.
CAB055506.
CAB058688.
HPA017369.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with SCG3.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107538. 10 interactors.
IntActiP10645. 3 interactors.
MINTiMINT-4846180.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216492.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1457
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi380 – 383Combined sources4
Beta strandi385 – 387Combined sources3

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1LV4NMR-A370-390[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP10645.
SMRiP10645.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP10645.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni41 – 59O-glycosylated at one site only in cerebrospinal fluidAdd BLAST19
Regioni181 – 191O-glycosylated at one site only in cerebrospinal fluidAdd BLAST11

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410II3Z. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YGBX. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00730000111266.
HOVERGENiHBG001272.
InParanoidiP10645.
KOiK19990.
OMAiVNSPMNK.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0I4D.
PhylomeDBiP10645.
TreeFamiTF336596.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001819. Chromogranin_AB.
IPR018054. Chromogranin_CS.
IPR001990. Granin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10583. PTHR10583. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01271. Granin. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00659. CHROMOGRANIN.
PROSITEiPS00422. GRANINS_1. 1 hit.
PS00423. GRANINS_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P10645-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRSAAVLALL LCAGQVTALP VNSPMNKGDT EVMKCIVEVI SDTLSKPSPM
60 70 80 90 100
PVSQECFETL RGDERILSIL RHQNLLKELQ DLALQGAKER AHQQKKHSGF
110 120 130 140 150
EDELSEVLEN QSSQAELKEA VEEPSSKDVM EKREDSKEAE KSGEATDGAR
160 170 180 190 200
PQALPEPMQE SKAEGNNQAP GEEEEEEEEA TNTHPPASLP SQKYPGPQAE
210 220 230 240 250
GDSEGLSQGL VDREKGLSAE PGWQAKREEE EEEEEEAEAG EEAVPEEEGP
260 270 280 290 300
TVVLNPHPSL GYKEIRKGES RSEALAVDGA GKPGAEEAQD PEGKGEQEHS
310 320 330 340 350
QQKEEEEEMA VVPQGLFRGG KSGELEQEEE RLSKEWEDSK RWSKMDQLAK
360 370 380 390 400
ELTAEKRLEG QEEEEDNRDS SMKLSFRARA YGFRGPGPQL RRGWRPSSRE
410 420 430 440 450
DSLEAGLPLQ VRGYPEEKKE EEGSANRRPE DQELESLSAI EAELEKVAHQ

LQALRRG
Length:457
Mass (Da):50,688
Last modified:November 25, 2008 - v7
Checksum:i2F634E1A83FF0BB1
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti41S → Y in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti54Q → K in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti87A → R in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti119E → Q in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti167N → K in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti200E → K in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti219A → V in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti339 – 340SK → TN in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated2
Sequence conflicti370S → R in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti373K → R in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti380A → G in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti394W → S in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti397S → N in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1
Sequence conflicti416E → Q in AAA52018 (PubMed:2445752).Curated1

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 2051.89 Da from positions 357 - 373. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3770 Da from positions 358 - 390. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3787 Da from positions 358 - 390. Determined by MALDI. With methionine sulfoxide at Met-372.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1070.54 Da from positions 369 - 377. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 840.45 Da from positions 378 - 384. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1389.74 Da from positions 378 - 390. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1419.8 Da from positions 378 - 390. Determined by MALDI. With variant Ser-382.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1545.84 Da from positions 378 - 391. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1575.9 Da from positions 378 - 391. Determined by MALDI. With variant Ser-382.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1701.96 Da from positions 378 - 392. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 1318.71 Da from positions 380 - 391. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_04741761R → Q.Corresponds to variant rs3742712dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025636176E → K.Corresponds to variant rs9658654dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025637264E → D.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs9658655dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025638271R → W.Corresponds to variant rs9658662dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025639274A → G.Corresponds to variant rs9658663dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025640315G → S.Corresponds to variant rs9658664dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025641332L → P.Corresponds to variant rs9658665dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025642369D → N.Corresponds to variant rs2228575dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025643382G → S Polymorphism; may be associated with a reduced risk for hypertension especially in men; reduces activity 4.7 fold; no effect on plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing; increase in ability to inhibit nicotine-evoked catecholamine secretion in vitro; displays alterations in baroreceptor function. 4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs9658667dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025644388P → L Polymorphism; increases activity 2.3 fold; decrease in plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing; decrease in ability to inhibit nicotine-evoked catecholamine secretion in vitro. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs9658668dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_072687392R → Q Polymorphism; no effect on plasmin-mediated proteolytic processing; decrease in ability to inhibit nicotine-evoked catecholamine secretion in vitro. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs9658669dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025645399R → W.3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs729940dbSNPEnsembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J03483 mRNA. Translation: AAA52017.1.
J03915 mRNA. Translation: AAA52018.1.
U03749
, U03742, U03743, U03744, U03748, U03745, U03746, U03747 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB53685.1.
BT006869 mRNA. Translation: AAP35515.1.
AK223381 mRNA. Translation: BAD97101.1.
AL117192 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AK313757 mRNA. Translation: BAG36496.1.
CH471061 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW81505.1.
BC001059 mRNA. Translation: AAH01059.1.
BC006459 mRNA. Translation: AAH06459.1.
BC009384 mRNA. Translation: AAH09384.2.
BC012755 mRNA. Translation: AAH12755.2.
CCDSiCCDS9906.1.
PIRiA54376. A28468.
RefSeqiNP_001266.1. NM_001275.3.
NP_001288619.1. NM_001301690.1.
XP_011534672.1. XM_011536370.1.
UniGeneiHs.150793.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216492; ENSP00000216492; ENSG00000100604.
ENST00000613166; ENSP00000478198; ENSG00000276781.
GeneIDi1113.
KEGGihsa:1113.
UCSCiuc001ybc.6. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
J03483 mRNA. Translation: AAA52017.1.
J03915 mRNA. Translation: AAA52018.1.
U03749
, U03742, U03743, U03744, U03748, U03745, U03746, U03747 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB53685.1.
BT006869 mRNA. Translation: AAP35515.1.
AK223381 mRNA. Translation: BAD97101.1.
AL117192 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AK313757 mRNA. Translation: BAG36496.1.
CH471061 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW81505.1.
BC001059 mRNA. Translation: AAH01059.1.
BC006459 mRNA. Translation: AAH06459.1.
BC009384 mRNA. Translation: AAH09384.2.
BC012755 mRNA. Translation: AAH12755.2.
CCDSiCCDS9906.1.
PIRiA54376. A28468.
RefSeqiNP_001266.1. NM_001275.3.
NP_001288619.1. NM_001301690.1.
XP_011534672.1. XM_011536370.1.
UniGeneiHs.150793.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1LV4NMR-A370-390[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP10645.
SMRiP10645.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi107538. 10 interactors.
IntActiP10645. 3 interactors.
MINTiMINT-4846180.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216492.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP10645.
PhosphoSitePlusiP10645.
UniCarbKBiP10645.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCHGA.
DMDMi215274270.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP10645.
PeptideAtlasiP10645.
PRIDEiP10645.
TopDownProteomicsiP10645.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi1113.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216492; ENSP00000216492; ENSG00000100604.
ENST00000613166; ENSP00000478198; ENSG00000276781.
GeneIDi1113.
KEGGihsa:1113.
UCSCiuc001ybc.6. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi1113.
DisGeNETi1113.
GeneCardsiCHGA.
HGNCiHGNC:1929. CHGA.
HPAiCAB000023.
CAB040544.
CAB055506.
CAB058688.
HPA017369.
MIMi118910. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P10645.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000100604.
ENSG00000276781.
PharmGKBiPA26461.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410II3Z. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YGBX. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00730000111266.
HOVERGENiHBG001272.
InParanoidiP10645.
KOiK19990.
OMAiVNSPMNK.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0I4D.
PhylomeDBiP10645.
TreeFamiTF336596.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000100604-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-6803157. Antimicrobial peptides.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiCHGA. human.
EvolutionaryTraceiP10645.
GeneWikiiChromogranin_A.
GenomeRNAii1113.
PMAP-CutDBQ6NR84.
PROiP10645.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000100604.
CleanExiHS_CHGA.
ExpressionAtlasiP10645. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP10645. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001819. Chromogranin_AB.
IPR018054. Chromogranin_CS.
IPR001990. Granin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10583. PTHR10583. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01271. Granin. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00659. CHROMOGRANIN.
PROSITEiPS00422. GRANINS_1. 1 hit.
PS00423. GRANINS_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCMGA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P10645
Secondary accession number(s): B2R9E9
, Q53FA8, Q6NR84, Q96E84, Q96GL7, Q9BQB5
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: November 25, 2008
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 181 of the entry and version 7 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Binds calcium with a low-affinity.

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 14
    Human chromosome 14: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.