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Protein

Acrosin

Gene

ACR

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome.

Catalytic activityi

Preferential cleavage: Arg-|-Xaa, Lys-|-Xaa.

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by SERPINA5.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei88 – 881Charge relay systemBy similarity
Active sitei142 – 1421Charge relay systemBy similarity
Active sitei240 – 2401Charge relay systemBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. amidase activity Source: UniProtKB
  2. copper ion binding Source: UniProtKB
  3. DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  4. drug binding Source: UniProtKB
  5. fucose binding Source: UniProtKB
  6. mannose binding Source: UniProtKB
  7. serine-type endopeptidase activity Source: UniProtKB
  8. zinc ion binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. acrosome matrix dispersal Source: UniProtKB
  2. acrosome reaction Source: UniProtKB
  3. activation of adenylate cyclase activity Source: UniProtKB
  4. binding of sperm to zona pellucida Source: Ensembl
  5. multicellular organism reproduction Source: Reactome
  6. response to steroid hormone Source: Ensembl
  7. single fertilization Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hydrolase, Protease, Serine protease

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi3.4.21.10. 2681.
ReactomeiREACT_163938. Acrosome Reaction.

Protein family/group databases

MEROPSiS01.223.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Acrosin (EC:3.4.21.10)
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:ACR
Synonyms:ACRS
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 22

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:126. ACR.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. acrosomal matrix Source: HGNC
  2. extracellular region Source: Reactome
  3. Golgi-associated vesicle Source: Ensembl
  4. nucleus Source: UniProtKB
  5. protein complex Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA24451.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 1919Add
BLAST
Chaini20 – 421402AcrosinPRO_0000027518Add
BLAST
Chaini20 – 4223Acrosin light chainPRO_0000027519Add
BLAST
Chaini43 – 343301Acrosin heavy chainPRO_0000027520Add
BLAST
Propeptidei344 – 42178Pro-richCuratedPRO_0000027521Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi22 – 221N-linked (GlcNAc...)By similarity
Disulfide bondi25 ↔ 154Interchain (between light and heavy chains)PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi29 ↔ 162Interchain (between light and heavy chains)PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi73 ↔ 89PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi177 ↔ 246PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi209 ↔ 225PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Glycosylationi210 – 2101N-linked (GlcNAc...)By similarity
Disulfide bondi236 ↔ 266PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Zymogen

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP10323.
PRIDEiP10323.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP10323.
CleanExiHS_ACR.
ExpressionAtlasiP10323. baseline.
GenevestigatoriP10323.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA048687.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Heavy chain (catalytic) and a light chain linked by two disulfide bonds. Forms a heterodimer with SERPINA5.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106565. 2 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216139.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP10323.
SMRiP10323. Positions 43-301.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini43 – 290248Peptidase S1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG5640.
GeneTreeiENSGT00780000121864.
HOGENOMiHOG000033792.
HOVERGENiHBG013304.
InParanoidiP10323.
KOiK01317.
OMAiKKVYDWR.
OrthoDBiEOG75B84T.
PhylomeDBiP10323.
TreeFamiTF335943.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR012267. Pept_S1A_acrosin.
IPR001254. Peptidase_S1.
IPR018114. Peptidase_S1_AS.
IPR001314. Peptidase_S1A.
IPR009003. Trypsin-like_Pept_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR24252. PTHR24252. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00089. Trypsin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF001141. Acrosin. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00722. CHYMOTRYPSIN.
SMARTiSM00020. Tryp_SPc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF50494. SSF50494. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50240. TRYPSIN_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00134. TRYPSIN_HIS. 1 hit.
PS00135. TRYPSIN_SER. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P10323-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVEMLPTAIL LVLAVSVVAK DNATCDGPCG LRFRQNPQGG VRIVGGKAAQ
60 70 80 90 100
HGAWPWMVSL QIFTYNSHRY HTCGGSLLNS RWVLTAAHCF VGKNNVHDWR
110 120 130 140 150
LVFGAKEITY GNNKPVKAPL QERYVEKIII HEKYNSATEG NDIALVEITP
160 170 180 190 200
PISCGRFIGP GCLPHFKAGL PRGSQSCWVA GWGYIEEKAP RPSSILMEAR
210 220 230 240 250
VDLIDLDLCN STQWYNGRVQ PTNVCAGYPV GKIDTCQGDS GGPLMCKDSK
260 270 280 290 300
ESAYVVVGIT SWGVGCARAK RPGIYTATWP YLNWIASKIG SNALRMIQSA
310 320 330 340 350
TPPPPTTRPP PIRPPFSHPI SAHLPWYFQP PPRPLPPRPP AAQPRPPPSP
360 370 380 390 400
PPPPPPPASP LPPPPPPPPP TPSSTTKLPQ GLSFAKRLQQ LIEVLKGKTY
410 420
SDGKNHYDME TTELPELTST S
Length:421
Mass (Da):45,847
Last modified:October 2, 2006 - v4
Checksum:i7A2F7ECEC98008FA
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti64 – 641T → R (PubMed:2114285).Curated
Sequence conflicti64 – 641T → R (PubMed:1628652).Curated
Sequence conflicti226 – 2261A → V (PubMed:2298447).Curated
Sequence conflicti268 – 2681R → L (PubMed:2114285).Curated
Sequence conflicti268 – 2681R → L (PubMed:1628652).Curated
Sequence conflicti296 – 2961M → V in CAG30252 (PubMed:15461802).Curated
Sequence conflicti345 – 3451R → P (PubMed:2114285).Curated
Sequence conflicti345 – 3451R → P (PubMed:2298447).Curated
Sequence conflicti345 – 3451R → P (PubMed:1628652).Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti120 – 1201L → V.
Corresponds to variant rs1064734 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_011650
Natural varianti166 – 1661F → L.
Corresponds to variant rs1064735 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_011651

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y00970 mRNA. Translation: CAA68784.1.
X54017
, X54018, X54019, X54020 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37964.1.
M77378 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51572.1.
M77379 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51573.1.
M77380 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51574.1.
M77381 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51575.1.
X66188
, X54018, X54019, X54020 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA46956.1.
CR456366 mRNA. Translation: CAG30252.1.
CCDSiCCDS14101.1.
PIRiS11674.
RefSeqiNP_001088.2. NM_001097.2.
UniGeneiHs.370870.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216139; ENSP00000216139; ENSG00000100312.
GeneIDi49.
KEGGihsa:49.
UCSCiuc003bnh.4. human.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi115502349.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y00970 mRNA. Translation: CAA68784.1.
X54017
, X54018, X54019, X54020 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA37964.1.
M77378 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51572.1.
M77379 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51573.1.
M77380 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51574.1.
M77381 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51575.1.
X66188
, X54018, X54019, X54020 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA46956.1.
CR456366 mRNA. Translation: CAG30252.1.
CCDSiCCDS14101.1.
PIRiS11674.
RefSeqiNP_001088.2. NM_001097.2.
UniGeneiHs.370870.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP10323.
SMRiP10323. Positions 43-301.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106565. 2 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216139.

Chemistry

BindingDBiP10323.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL2738.

Protein family/group databases

MEROPSiS01.223.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi115502349.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP10323.
PRIDEiP10323.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi49.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216139; ENSP00000216139; ENSG00000100312.
GeneIDi49.
KEGGihsa:49.
UCSCiuc003bnh.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi49.
GeneCardsiGC22P051176.
H-InvDBHIX0041187.
HGNCiHGNC:126. ACR.
HPAiHPA048687.
MIMi102480. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P10323.
PharmGKBiPA24451.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG5640.
GeneTreeiENSGT00780000121864.
HOGENOMiHOG000033792.
HOVERGENiHBG013304.
InParanoidiP10323.
KOiK01317.
OMAiKKVYDWR.
OrthoDBiEOG75B84T.
PhylomeDBiP10323.
TreeFamiTF335943.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi3.4.21.10. 2681.
ReactomeiREACT_163938. Acrosome Reaction.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiAcrosin.
GenomeRNAii49.
NextBioi191.
PROiP10323.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP10323.
CleanExiHS_ACR.
ExpressionAtlasiP10323. baseline.
GenevestigatoriP10323.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR012267. Pept_S1A_acrosin.
IPR001254. Peptidase_S1.
IPR018114. Peptidase_S1_AS.
IPR001314. Peptidase_S1A.
IPR009003. Trypsin-like_Pept_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR24252. PTHR24252. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00089. Trypsin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF001141. Acrosin. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00722. CHYMOTRYPSIN.
SMARTiSM00020. Tryp_SPc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF50494. SSF50494. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50240. TRYPSIN_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00134. TRYPSIN_HIS. 1 hit.
PS00135. TRYPSIN_SER. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Primary structure of human proacrosin deduced from its cDNA sequence."
    Baba T., Watanabe K., Kashiwabara S., Arai Y.
    FEBS Lett. 244:296-300(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Testis.
  2. "Nucleotide sequence and exon-intron organization of the human proacrosin gene."
    Keime S., Adham I.M., Engel W.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 190:195-200(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Tissue: Leukocyte.
  3. "Molecular cloning of human preproacrosin cDNA."
    Adham I.M., Klemm U., Maier W.-M., Engel W.
    Hum. Genet. 84:125-128(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  4. "Molecular cloning, sequencing and restriction mapping of the genomic sequence encoding human proacrosin."
    Vazquez-Levin M.H., Reventos J., Gordon J.W.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 207:23-26(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  5. Erratum
    Adham I.M., Spitzer U., Schloesser M., Kremling H., Keime S., Engel W.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 207:27-28(1991)
    Cited for: DISCUSSION OF PUBMED:1628652.
  6. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  7. "Inhibition of acrosin by protein C inhibitor and localization of protein C inhibitor to spermatozoa."
    Zheng X., Geiger M., Ecke S., Bielek E., Donner P., Eberspacher U., Schleuning W.D., Binder B.R.
    Am. J. Physiol. 267:C466-C472(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ENZYME REGULATION, HETERODIMER WITH SERPINA5.
  8. "Evaluation of the proacrosin/acrosin system and its mechanism of activation in human sperm extracts."
    Zahn A., Furlong L.I., Biancotti J.C., Ghiringhelli P.D., Marijn-Briggiler C.I., Vazquez-Levin M.H.
    J. Reprod. Immunol. 54:43-63(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROPEPTIDE, ACTIVATION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiACRO_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P10323
Secondary accession number(s): Q6ICK2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 30, 1989
Last sequence update: October 2, 2006
Last modified: March 31, 2015
This is version 160 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 22
    Human chromosome 22: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. Peptidase families
    Classification of peptidase families and list of entries
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.