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Protein

Major prion protein

Gene

PRNP

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Its primary physiological function is unclear. May play a role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. May be required for neuronal myelin sheath maintenance. May promote myelin homeostasis through acting as an agonist for ADGRG6 receptor. May play a role in iron uptake and iron homeostasis. Soluble oligomers are toxic to cultured neuroblastoma cells and induce apoptosis (in vitro) (By similarity). Association with GPC1 (via its heparan sulfate chains) targets PRNP to lipid rafts. Also provides Cu2+ or ZN2+ for the ascorbate-mediated GPC1 deaminase degradation of its heparan sulfate side chains (By similarity).By similarity

Miscellaneous

This protein is produced by a bicistronic gene which also produces the major prion protein/PRNP from an overlapping reading frame.
The alternative prion protein/AltPrP (AC F7VJQ2) and PRNP have no apparent direct functional relation since a mutation that removes the start codon of the AltPrP has no apparent effect on the biology of PRNP (By similarity). In mouse and hamster, the alternative initiation AUG codon is absent and is replaced by a GUG codon.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi72Copper or zinc 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi73Copper or zinc 1; via amide nitrogenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi74Copper or zinc 1; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi80Copper or zinc 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi81Copper or zinc 2; via amide nitrogenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi82Copper or zinc 2; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi88Copper or zinc 3By similarity1
Metal bindingi89Copper or zinc 3; via amide nitrogenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi90Copper or zinc 3; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi96Copper or zinc 4By similarity1
Metal bindingi98Copper or zinc 4; via amide nitrogenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi99Copper or zinc 4; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionPrion
LigandCopper, Metal-binding, Zinc

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Major prion protein
Short name:
PrP
Alternative name(s):
Major scrapie-associated fibril protein 1
CD_antigen: CD230
Gene namesi
Name:PRNP
Synonyms:PRP
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 Componenti: Chromosome 13

Organism-specific databases

VGNCiVGNC:33356 PRNP

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Amyloid, Cell membrane, Golgi apparatus, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Variations in PRNP are responsible of transmissible bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), a class of neurodegenerative diseases that affect various mammals. These diseases are caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. BSE can be subdivided into at least three groups: classical, H-type and L-type, with the latter 2 collectively referred to as atypical BSE. Susceptibility or resistance to a BSE disease can be influenced by at least 3 factors related to the host prion protein: protein expression levels, number of octapeptide repeats, and specific polymorphisms. In cattle, as in humans, BSEs can occur as infectious, spontaneous and genetic diseases.Curated

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 241 PublicationAdd BLAST24
ChainiPRO_000002562725 – 241Major prion proteinAdd BLAST217
PropeptideiPRO_0000025628242 – 264Removed in mature formSequence analysisAdd BLAST23

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi190 ↔ 225
Glycosylationi192N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCurated1
Glycosylationi208N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineCurated1
Lipidationi241GPI-anchor amidated alanineSequence analysis1

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, GPI-anchor, Lipoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP10279
PRIDEiP10279

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000027937
ExpressionAtlasiP10279 baseline and differential

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer and homodimer. Has a tendency to aggregate into amyloid fibrils containing a cross-beta spine, formed by a steric zipper of superposed beta-strands. Soluble oligomers may represent an intermediate stage on the path to fibril formation. Copper binding may promote oligomerization. Interacts with GRB2, APP, ERI3/PRNPIP and SYN1 (By similarity). Mislocalized cytosolically exposed PrP interacts with MGRN1; this interaction alters MGRN1 subcellular location and causes lysosomal enlargement (By similarity). Interacts with APP. Interacts with KIAA1191 (By similarity). Interacts with ADGRG6 (By similarity).By similarity

Binary interactionsi

Show more details

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi158758, 3 interactors
IntActiP10279, 1 interactor
MINTiP10279
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000043233

Structurei

Secondary structure

1264
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Turni3 – 8Combined sources6
Helixi9 – 21Combined sources13
Beta strandi24 – 26Combined sources3
Beta strandi109 – 111Combined sources3
Helixi136 – 138Combined sources3
Beta strandi139 – 141Combined sources3
Helixi155 – 164Combined sources10
Helixi165 – 167Combined sources3
Helixi177 – 179Combined sources3
Beta strandi180 – 182Combined sources3
Helixi183 – 204Combined sources22
Helixi211 – 233Combined sources23

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1DWYNMR-A132-241[»]
1DWZNMR-A132-241[»]
1DX0NMR-A25-241[»]
1DX1NMR-A25-241[»]
1SKHNMR-A1-30[»]
2HH0X-ray2.85P107-115[»]
2RSKNMR-C/D108-119[»]
2RU7NMR-C/D108-119[»]
4YX2X-ray2.19A103-242[»]
DisProtiDP00783
ProteinModelPortaliP10279
SMRiP10279
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP10279

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Repeati54 – 6219
Repeati63 – 7028
Repeati71 – 7838
Repeati79 – 8648
Repeati87 – 9458
Repeati95 – 10369

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni25 – 241Interaction with GRB2, ERI3 and SYN1By similarityAdd BLAST217
Regioni25 – 41Interaction with ADGRG6By similarityAdd BLAST17
Regioni54 – 1036 X 8 AA tandem repeats of P-H-G-G-G-W-G-QAdd BLAST50

Domaini

The normal, monomeric form has a mainly alpha-helical structure. The disease-associated, protease-resistant form forms amyloid fibrils containing a cross-beta spine, formed by a steric zipper of superposed beta-strands. Disease mutations may favor intermolecular contacts via short beta strands, and may thereby trigger oligomerization.By similarity
Contains an N-terminal region composed of octamer repeats. At low copper concentrations, the sidechains of His residues from three or four repeats contribute to the binding of a single copper ion. Alternatively, a copper ion can be bound by interaction with the sidechain and backbone amide nitrogen of a single His residue. The observed copper binding stoichiometry suggests that two repeat regions cooperate to stabilize the binding of a single copper ion. At higher copper concentrations, each octamer can bind one copper ion by interactions with the His sidechain and Gly backbone atoms. A mixture of binding types may occur, especially in the case of octamer repeat expansion. Copper binding may stabilize the conformation of this region and may promote oligomerization.By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the prion family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IJMM Eukaryota
ENOG410YXUU LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000049083
HOVERGENiHBG008260
InParanoidiP10279
OMAiGYPHNPG
OrthoDBiEOG091G0HMV
TreeFamiTF105188

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.790.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000817 Prion
IPR036924 Prion/Doppel_b-ribbon_dom_sf
IPR022416 Prion/Doppel_prot_b-ribbon_dom
IPR025860 Prion_N_dom
PANTHERiPTHR10502:SF134 PTHR10502:SF134, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00377 Prion, 1 hit
PF11587 Prion_bPrPp, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00341 PRION
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00157 PRP, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF54098 SSF54098, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00291 PRION_1, 1 hit
PS00706 PRION_2, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P10279-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVKSHIGSWI LVLFVAMWSD VGLCKKRPKP GGGWNTGGSR YPGQGSPGGN
60 70 80 90 100
RYPPQGGGGW GQPHGGGWGQ PHGGGWGQPH GGGWGQPHGG GWGQPHGGGG
110 120 130 140 150
WGQGGTHGQW NKPSKPKTNM KHVAGAAAAG AVVGGLGGYM LGSAMSRPLI
160 170 180 190 200
HFGSDYEDRY YRENMHRYPN QVYYRPVDQY SNQNNFVHDC VNITVKEHTV
210 220 230 240 250
TTTTKGENFT ETDIKMMERV VEQMCITQYQ RESQAYYQRG ASVILFSSPP
260
VILLISFLIF LIVG
Length:264
Mass (Da):28,614
Last modified:November 1, 1991 - v2
Checksum:iD6D214038316A231
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti106 – 108THG → SHS in BAA01469 (PubMed:1362024).Curated3
Sequence conflicti218E → K in BAA01467 (PubMed:1362024).Curated1
Sequence conflicti218E → K in BAA19253 (Ref. 4) Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural varianti60W → R1 Publication1
Natural varianti71 – 78Missing in allele 2. 8
Natural varianti84 – 99Missing 1 PublicationAdd BLAST16
Natural varianti92 – 99Missing 2 Publications8
Natural varianti94Q → R1 Publication1
Natural varianti98G → GGWGQPHGG1 Publication1
Natural varianti154S → N2 Publications1
Natural varianti211E → K1 Publication1
Natural varianti234Q → R1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X55882 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA39368.1
D10612 mRNA Translation: BAA01467.1
D10613 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA01468.1
D10614 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA01469.1
S55629 mRNA Translation: AAB25514.1
AB001468 mRNA Translation: BAA19253.1
AJ298878 Genomic DNA Translation: CAC37367.1
AF455119 Genomic DNA Translation: AAM73856.1
AF517842 mRNA Translation: AAM66709.1
AY335912 Genomic DNA Translation: AAP84097.2
AY367638 Genomic DNA Translation: AAQ64645.1
AY367639 Genomic DNA Translation: AAQ64646.1
AY367640 Genomic DNA Translation: AAQ64647.1
AY367641 Genomic DNA Translation: AAQ64648.1
AY367642 Genomic DNA Translation: AAQ64649.1
AY367643 Genomic DNA Translation: AAQ64650.1
AY720445 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30252.1
AY720446 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30253.1
AY720448 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30255.1
AY720449 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30256.1
AY720450 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30257.1
AY720451 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30258.1
AY720452 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30259.1
AY720453 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30260.1
AY720454 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30261.1
AY720455 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30262.1
AY720458 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30265.1
AY720459 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30266.1
AY720460 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30267.1
AY720461 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30268.1
AY720462 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30269.1
AY720463 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30270.1
AY720464 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30271.1
AY720465 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30272.1
AY720466 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30273.1
AY720467 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30274.1
AY720468 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30275.1
AY720469 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30276.1
AY720470 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30277.1
AY720471 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30278.1
AY720472 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30279.1
AY720473 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30280.1
AY720474 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30281.1
AY720475 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30282.1
AY720476 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30283.1
AY720477 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30284.1
AY720478 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30285.1
AY720479 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30286.1
AY720480 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30287.1
AY720481 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30288.1
AY720482 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30289.1
AY720483 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30290.1
AY720484 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30291.1
AY720485 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30292.1
AY720486 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30293.1
AY720488 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30295.1
AY720489 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30296.1
AY720492 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30299.1
AY720493 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30300.1
AY720494 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30301.1
AY720495 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30302.1
AY720496 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30303.1
AY720497 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30304.1
AY720498 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30305.1
AY720503 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30310.1
AY720504 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30311.1
AY720505 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30312.1
AY720506 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30313.1
AY720507 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30314.1
AY720508 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30315.1
AY720509 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30316.1
AY720510 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30317.1
AY720511 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30318.1
AY720512 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30319.1
AY720513 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30320.1
AY720514 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30321.1
AY720525 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30332.1
AY720530 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30337.1
AY720531 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30338.1
AY720532 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30339.1
AY720533 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30340.1
AY720534 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30341.1
AY720535 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30342.1
AY720540 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30347.1
AY720541 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30348.1
AY720544 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30351.1
AY720545 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30352.1
AY720546 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30353.1
AY720547 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30354.1
AY720548 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30355.1
AY720549 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30356.1
AY720550 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30357.1
AY720551 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30358.1
AY720552 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30359.1
AY720553 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30360.1
AY720554 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30361.1
AY720555 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30362.1
AY720556 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30363.1
AY720557 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30364.1
AY720558 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30365.1
AY720559 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30366.1
AY720560 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30367.1
AY720561 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30368.1
AY720562 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30369.1
AY720563 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30370.1
AY720564 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30371.1
AY720565 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30372.1
AY720566 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30373.1
AY720567 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30374.1
AY720568 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30375.1
AY720569 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30376.1
AY720570 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30377.1
AY720571 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30378.1
AY720572 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30379.1
AY720573 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30380.1
AY720574 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30381.1
AY720581 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30388.1
AY720582 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30389.1
AY720583 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30390.1
AY720584 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30391.1
AY720585 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30392.1
AY720588 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30395.1
AY720591 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30398.1
AY720594 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30401.1
AY720595 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30402.1
AY720596 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30403.1
AY720597 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30404.1
AY720600 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30407.1
AY720601 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30408.1
AY720602 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30409.1
AY720603 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30410.1
AY720604 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30411.1
AY720605 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30412.1
AY720606 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30413.1
AY720607 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30414.1
AY720608 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30415.1
AY720609 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30416.1
AY720610 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30417.1
AY720611 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30418.1
AY720612 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30419.1
AY720613 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30420.1
AY720622 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30429.1
AY720623 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30430.1
AY720624 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30431.1
AY720625 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30432.1
AY720626 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30433.1
AY720627 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30434.1
AY720628 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30435.1
AY720629 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30436.1
AY720630 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30437.1
AY720631 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30438.1
AY720632 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30439.1
AY720633 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30440.1
AY720634 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30441.1
AY720635 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30442.1
AY720636 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30443.1
AY720637 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30444.1
AY720640 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30447.1
AY720641 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30448.1
AY720642 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30449.1
AY720643 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30450.1
AY720644 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30451.1
AY720645 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30452.1
AY720648 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30455.1
AY720649 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30456.1
AY720650 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30457.1
AY720651 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30458.1
AY720652 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30459.1
AY720653 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30460.1
AY720654 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30461.1
AY720655 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30462.1
AY720656 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30463.1
AY720657 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30464.1
AY720662 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30469.1
AY720663 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30470.1
AY720664 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30471.1
AY720667 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30474.1
AY720668 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30475.1
AY720669 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30476.1
AY720670 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30477.1
AY720671 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30478.1
AY720672 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30479.1
AY720673 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30480.1
AY720674 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30481.1
AY720675 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30482.1
AY720676 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30483.1
AY720677 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30484.1
AY720678 Genomic DNA Translation: AAV30485.1
DQ205538 Genomic DNA Translation: ABB51165.1
AY944236 Genomic DNA Translation: AAY21624.1
AB248079 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE78586.1
AB247937 Genomic DNA Translation: BAE78583.1
EF139165 Genomic DNA Translation: ABL75501.1
BC119821 mRNA Translation: AAI19822.1
D26151 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA05138.1
PIRiA54330
JU0268
RefSeqiNP_001258555.1, NM_001271626.2
NP_851358.2, NM_181015.3
UniGeneiBt.4737

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000040292; ENSBTAP00000043233; ENSBTAG00000027937
GeneIDi281427

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPRIO_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P10279
Secondary accession number(s): A1YVV9
, Q01880, Q0VD57, Q5UJJ5, Q5UJM6, Q5UK69, Q5UK71, Q6UL03, Q6UL04, Q6UL05, Q6UL06, Q7YRN3, Q8MJI7
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: November 1, 1991
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 184 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

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