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Protein

Serum amyloid A-2 protein

Gene

SAA2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Major acute phase reactant. Apolipoprotein of the HDL complex.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Acute phase

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Serum amyloid A-2 protein
Short name:
SAA2
Gene namesi
Name:SAA2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 11

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:10514. SAA2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular exosome Source: UniProtKB
  • extracellular space Source: GO_Central
  • high-density lipoprotein particle Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Amyloid, HDL, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Reactive, secondary amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular accumulation in various tissues of the SAA2 protein. These deposits are highly insoluble and resistant to proteolysis; they disrupt tissue structure and compromise function.

Keywords - Diseasei

Amyloidosis

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiSAA2.
DMDMi395406827.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 1818Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini19 – 122104Serum amyloid A-2 proteinPRO_0000418061Add
BLAST
Propeptidei95 – 12228Often cleaved during amyloidogenesisBy similarityPRO_0000418062Add
BLAST

Post-translational modificationi

This protein is the precursor of amyloid protein A, which is formed by the removal of approximately 24 residues from the C-terminal end.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP0DJI9.
PaxDbiP0DJI9.
PRIDEiP0DJI9.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP0DJI9.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed by the liver; secreted in plasma.

Inductioni

Upon cytokine stimulation.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP0DJI9.
ExpressionAtlasiP0DJI9. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP0DJI9. HS.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi112197. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000256733.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP0DJI9.
SMRiP0DJI9. Positions 19-122.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the SAA family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IXU4. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YSBK. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004737.
InParanoidiP0DJI9.
KOiK17310.
OMAiLANEWGR.
OrthoDBiEOG7QVM4V.
PhylomeDBiP0DJI9.
TreeFamiTF332544.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000096. Serum_amyloid_A.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00277. SAA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF002472. Serum_amyloid_A. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00306. SERUMAMYLOID.
SMARTiSM00197. SAA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00992. SAA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P0DJI9-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKLLTGLVFC SLVLSVSSRS FFSFLGEAFD GARDMWRAYS DMREANYIGS
60 70 80 90 100
DKYFHARGNY DAAKRGPGGA WAAEVISNAR ENIQRLTGRG AEDSLADQAA
110 120
NKWGRSGRDP NHFRPAGLPE KY
Length:122
Mass (Da):13,527
Last modified:July 11, 2012 - v1
Checksum:iC4AAB684E0EDCBB8
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P0DJI9-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     78-122: NARENIQRLTGRGAEDSLADQAANKWGRSGRDPNHFRPAGLPEKY → LFSAEL

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:83
Mass (Da):9,184
Checksum:iF4E49AC5203E286F
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti15 – 151S → G in AAB59539 (PubMed:2890635).Curated

Polymorphismi

At least 2 different SAA2 alleles have been described: SAA2.1 (SAA2alpha) and SAA2.2 (SAA2beta). We use here the revised nomenclature described in PubMed:10211414. The sequence shown is that of SAA2.2.

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti89 – 891R → H in allele SAA2.1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs2229338 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006930

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei78 – 12245NAREN…LPEKY → LFSAEL in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_045626Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M26152 mRNA. Translation: AAA85338.1.
J03474 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59539.1.
M23699 mRNA. Translation: AAA64800.1.
M23700 mRNA. Translation: AAA64801.1.
X51440 mRNA. Translation: CAA35805.1.
X51444 mRNA. Translation: CAA35809.1.
X51445 mRNA. Translation: CAA35810.1.
X56653 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA39975.1.
AK307163 mRNA. No translation available.
AC090099 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471064 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW68414.1.
BC020795 mRNA. Translation: AAH20795.1.
CCDSiCCDS44548.1. [P0DJI9-2]
CCDS7833.1. [P0DJI9-1]
RefSeqiNP_001120852.1. NM_001127380.2. [P0DJI9-2]
NP_110381.2. NM_030754.4. [P0DJI9-1]
UniGeneiHs.731376.
Hs.734161.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000256733; ENSP00000256733; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-1]
ENST00000414546; ENSP00000416716; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-2]
ENST00000526900; ENSP00000436126; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-1]
ENST00000529528; ENSP00000437162; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-1]
GeneIDi6289.
KEGGihsa:6289.
UCSCiuc001mnz.5. human. [P0DJI9-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M26152 mRNA. Translation: AAA85338.1.
J03474 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59539.1.
M23699 mRNA. Translation: AAA64800.1.
M23700 mRNA. Translation: AAA64801.1.
X51440 mRNA. Translation: CAA35805.1.
X51444 mRNA. Translation: CAA35809.1.
X51445 mRNA. Translation: CAA35810.1.
X56653 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA39975.1.
AK307163 mRNA. No translation available.
AC090099 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471064 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW68414.1.
BC020795 mRNA. Translation: AAH20795.1.
CCDSiCCDS44548.1. [P0DJI9-2]
CCDS7833.1. [P0DJI9-1]
RefSeqiNP_001120852.1. NM_001127380.2. [P0DJI9-2]
NP_110381.2. NM_030754.4. [P0DJI9-1]
UniGeneiHs.731376.
Hs.734161.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP0DJI9.
SMRiP0DJI9. Positions 19-122.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi112197. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000256733.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP0DJI9.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiSAA2.
DMDMi395406827.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP0DJI9.
PaxDbiP0DJI9.
PRIDEiP0DJI9.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000256733; ENSP00000256733; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-1]
ENST00000414546; ENSP00000416716; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-2]
ENST00000526900; ENSP00000436126; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-1]
ENST00000529528; ENSP00000437162; ENSG00000134339. [P0DJI9-1]
GeneIDi6289.
KEGGihsa:6289.
UCSCiuc001mnz.5. human. [P0DJI9-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi6289.
GeneCardsiSAA2.
HGNCiHGNC:10514. SAA2.
MIMi104751. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P0DJI9.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IXU4. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YSBK. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004737.
InParanoidiP0DJI9.
KOiK17310.
OMAiLANEWGR.
OrthoDBiEOG7QVM4V.
PhylomeDBiP0DJI9.
TreeFamiTF332544.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiSAA2.
GenomeRNAii6289.
PROiP0DJI9.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP0DJI9.
ExpressionAtlasiP0DJI9. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP0DJI9. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000096. Serum_amyloid_A.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00277. SAA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF002472. Serum_amyloid_A. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00306. SERUMAMYLOID.
SMARTiSM00197. SAA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00992. SAA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "DNA sequence evidence for polymorphic forms of human serum amyloid A (SAA)."
    Kluve-Beckerman B., Long G.L., Benson M.D.
    Biochem. Genet. 24:795-803(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ALLELE SAA2.1).
  2. "Structure of a human serum amyloid A gene and modulation of its expression in transfected L cells."
    Woo P., Sipe J., Dinarello C.A., Colten H.R.
    J. Biol. Chem. 262:15790-15795(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] (ALLELE SAA2.2).
  3. "Human serum amyloid A. Three hepatic mRNAs and the corresponding proteins in one person."
    Kluve-Beckerman B., Dwulet F.E., Benson M.D.
    J. Clin. Invest. 82:1670-1675(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ALLELES SAA2.1 AND SAA2.2).
    Tissue: Liver.
  4. "Heterogeneity of human serum amyloid A protein. Five different variants from one individual demonstrated by cDNA sequence analysis."
    Steinkasserer A., Weiss E.H., Schwaeble W., Linke R.P.
    Biochem. J. 268:187-193(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ALLELE SAA2.1).
    Tissue: Liver.
  5. "The human acute-phase serum amyloid A gene family: structure, evolution and expression in hepatoma cells."
    Betts J., Edbrooke M., Thakker R., Woo P.
    Scand. J. Immunol. 34:471-482(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 32-122, VARIANT HIS-89.
    Tissue: Liver.
  6. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Tissue: Thalamus.
  7. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA] (ALLELE SAA2.2).
  8. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  9. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ALLELE SAA2.1).
    Tissue: Liver.
  10. "Identification of two novel amyloid A protein subsets coexisting in an individual patient of AA-amyloidosis."
    Baba S., Takahashi T., Kasama T., Shirasawa H.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1180:195-200(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DISEASE, PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 19-94, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Tissue: Thyroid.
  11. "Revised nomenclature for serum amyloid A (SAA). Nomenclature Committee of the International Society of Amyloidosis. Part 2."
    Sipe J.
    Amyloid 6:67-70(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: POLYMORPHISM, NOMENCLATURE OF ALLELES.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSAA2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P0DJI9
Secondary accession number(s): G3XAK9
, P02735, P02736, P02737, Q16730, Q16834, Q16835, Q16879, Q3KRB3, Q6FG67, Q96QN0, Q9UCK9, Q9UCL0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 11, 2012
Last sequence update: July 11, 2012
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 31 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 11
    Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.