P0C8G7 (PV22_POMCA) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified February 19, 2014. Version 11. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Perivitellin-2 31 kDa subunit
Short name=PcPV2 31 kDa subunit
PV2 tachylectin subunit
|Organism||Pomacea canaliculata (Golden apple snail)|
|Taxonomic identifier||400727 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Eukaryota › Metazoa › Lophotrochozoa › Mollusca › Gastropoda › Caenogastropoda › Architaenioglossa › Ampullarioidea › Ampullariidae › Pomacea|
|Sequence length||286 AA.|
|Sequence processing||The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at protein level|
General annotation (Comments)
Neurotoxin present in eggs that is lethal when ingested. Shows wide pH range stability and is resistant to proteases trypsin and pepsin (gastric and intestinal digestion). Specifically binds mature enterocytes (binding due to the tachylectin subunit). May traverse the intestinal barrier, since it is able to orally stimulate the immune system in rats and mice. Also shows hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes. Ref.4 Ref.7
Perivitellin-2 is a heterooctamer of 4 identical 98 kDa heterodimers, each composed of one 31 kDa and one 67 kDa subunits. The 98 kDa heterodimer subunits are held together by disulfide bridges while the heterodimers are assembled into the native perivitellin-2 octamer by non-covalent forces. Ref.3 Ref.8
Produced by albumen secretory cells. Found in developing eggs. Ref.6
Albumen secretory cells produce perivitellin-2 during the reproductive period. Ref.6
Glycosylated. Contains four O-linked and one N-linked oligosaccharide bonds. The protein contains 2.5% of carbohydrates (high levels of mannose, galactose, and NAcGlucosamine, and small amounts of NacGalactosamine). Ref.5
Very high density lipoprotein (VHDL). Contains 3.75% of lipids. The major lipid classes are free sterols and phospholipids and also have significant quantities of energy-providing triacylglycerides and free fatty acids.
LD50 is 250 µg/kg by intraperitoneal injection into mice. Ref.7
Mice receiving sublethal doses of toxin become immunized towards the toxin and doses up to LD(100) do not kill them.
Does not show hemolytic activity nor caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) or rat intestinal cell disruption activity (Ref.1).
|Technical term||Direct protein sequencing|
|Gene Ontology (GO)|
|Molecular_function||nutrient reservoir activity|
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW
|Complete GO annotation...|
Sequence annotation (Features)
|||"Novel animal defenses against predation: a snail egg neurotoxin combining lectin and pore-forming chains that resembles plant defense and bacteria attack toxins."|
Dreon M.S., Frassa M.V., Ceolin M., Ituarte S., Qiu J.W., Sun J., Fernandez P.E., Heras H.
PLoS ONE 8:E63782-E63782(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Tissue: Albumen gland.
|||"Synthesis, distribution, and levels of an egg lipoprotein from the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Gastropoda)."|
Dreon M., Lavarias S., Garin C.F., Heras H., Pollero R.J.
J. Exp. Zool. 292:323-330(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 31-45.
Tissue: Albumen gland.
|||"Lipoproteins of the egg perivitelline fluid of Pomacea canaliculata snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda)."|
Garin C.F., Heras H., Pollero R.J.
J. Exp. Zool. 276:307-314(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBUNIT, LIPID COMPOSITION.
|||"Biochemical composition and energy sources during embryo development and in early juveniles of the snail Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Gastropoda)."|
Heras H., Garin C.F., Pollero R.J.
J. Exp. Zool. 280:375-383(1998)
Cited for: FUNCTION.
|||"Characterization of the major egg glycolipoproteins from the perivitellin fluid of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata."|
Dreon M.S., Heras H., Pollero R.J.
Mol. Reprod. Dev. 68:359-364(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: CARBOHYDRATE COMPOSITION, GLYCOSYLATION PATTERN.
|||"Pallial oviduct of Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda): ultrastructural studies of the parenchymal cellular types involved in the metabolism of perivitellins."|
Catalan M., Dreon M.S., Heras H., Pollero R.J., Fernandez S.N., Winik B.
Cell Tissue Res. 324:523-533(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
|||"First egg protein with a neurotoxic effect on mice."|
Heras H., Frassa M.V., Fernandez P.E., Galosi C.M., Gimeno E.J., Dreon M.S.
Toxicon 52:481-488(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, LETHAL DOSE.
|||"Structure and stability of the neurotoxin PV2 from the eggs of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata."|
Frassa M.V., Ceolin M., Dreon M.S., Heras H.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1804:1492-1499(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBUNIT.
|Protein Spotlight |
A snail's sting - Issue 100 of December 2008
|JX155862 mRNA. Translation: AGG40752.1.|
3D structure databases
Protocols and materials databases
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR006624. Beta-propeller_rpt_TECPR. |
|SMART||SM00706. TECPR. 3 hits. |
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P0C8G7|
Secondary accession number(s): M1TI98
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Animal Toxin Annotation Program|
Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries