Skip Header

You are using a version of Internet Explorer that may not display all features of this website. Please upgrade to a modern browser.
Contribute Send feedback
Read comments (?) or add your own

P0C213 (TAX_HTL1F) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified February 19, 2014. Version 38. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (2) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Protein Tax-1
Alternative name(s):
Protein X-LOR
Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1
Gene names
Name:tax
OrganismHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Zaire EL subtype B) (HTLV-1)
Taxonomic identifier39015 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeDeltaretrovirus
Virus hostHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]

Protein attributes

Sequence length353 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Transcriptional activator that activates both the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and cellular promoters via activation of CREB, NF-kappa-B, SRF and AP-1 pathways. Binds to three 21 bp repeat elements located within the LTRs, referred to as Tax-responsive elements (TRE). Binding to TRE requires the interaction with CREB1 and CREBBP. Also induces chromatin remodeling of proviral LTR-mediated gene expression by recruiting the histone acetyl transferases CREBBP and EP300 to the chromatin, which results in histone acetylation. Via its interaction with IKK regulatory subunit IKBKG, Tax-1 persistently stimulates I-kappa-B kinase (IKK), resulting in constitutive activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa-B. Induction of the nuclear expression of members of the NFkB family of transcription factors, which leads to up-regulated expression of many gene promoters containing NFkB motifs. These genes include those encoding IL2, IL15, IL2RA and IL15RA, leading to autocrine IL2/IL2RA and IL15/IL15RA loops. The resulting T-cell proliferation leads to malignant transformation and to the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). IL13, known to be linked to leukemogenesis, is also up-regulated by Tax-1. Interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins induce IL2-independent growth, which may be a factor in multi-step leukemogenesis. Inhibits the action of at least three cellular tumor suppressors p53/TP53, RB1 and DLG1, and suppresses their abilities to dictate apoptosis in primary cells. Required for viral replication By similarity.

Subunit structure

Homodimer. Interacts with host CREB1, SUV39H1, CARM1, DLG1, IKBKG, KDM4A, MAGI3 and TAX1BP1. Recruits the coactivators CREBBP, EP300 and PCAF By similarity.

Subcellular location

Host nucleus By similarity. Host cytoplasm By similarity. Note: Shuttles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Found predominantly in the nucleus, where it is equally distributed between the nucleoplasm and the nuclear matrix By similarity.

Induction

Down-regulated by P30II.

Domain

The 48 N-terminal residues contain a non-canonical functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) By similarity.

The PDZ-binding domain mediates binding to human DLG1 and MAGI3. Interaction with other PDZ domain-containing protein induces IL2-independent growth By similarity.

Post-translational modification

Phosphorylation at Thr-48 results in the loss of NF-kappa-B activation function. Phosphorylation at Thr-215 results in loss of CREB and NF-B responsive promoters activation. Phosphorylation at Thr-184 and Ser-336 have no effect on these Tax functions. Phosphorylation of either Ser-300 or Ser-301 is necessary for localization to nuclear bodies. Thr-48, Thr-184, Thr-215 and Ser-336 are highly phosphorylated, whereas Ser-300 or Ser-301 are only rarely phosphorylated By similarity.

Miscellaneous

HTLV-1 lineages are divided in four clades, A (Cosmopolitan), B (Central African group), C (Melanesian group) and D (New Central African group).

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the deltaretrovirus Tax protein family.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processActivation of host NF-kappa-B by virus
G0/G1 host cell cycle checkpoint dysregulation by virus
G1/S host cell cycle checkpoint dysregulation by virus
Host-virus interaction
Inhibition of host mitotic exit by virus
Modulation of host cell cycle by virus
Transcription
Transcription regulation
   Cellular componentHost cytoplasm
Host nucleus
   DiseaseOncogene
   DomainSH3-binding
Zinc-finger
   LigandDNA-binding
Metal-binding
Zinc
   Molecular functionActivator
   PTMPhosphoprotein
   Technical term3D-structure
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processactivation by virus of host NF-kappaB transcription factor activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

modulation by virus of host G0/G1 transition checkpoint

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

modulation by virus of host G1/S transition checkpoint

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

suppression by virus of host exit from mitosis

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

transcription, DNA-templated

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

   Cellular_componenthost cell cytoplasm

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

host cell nucleus

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

   Molecular_functionDNA binding

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

metal ion binding

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 353353Protein Tax-1
PRO_0000260488

Regions

Zinc finger23 – 4927 Potential
Region2 – 5857Interaction with CREB1 By similarity
Region81 – 9515Interaction with CREBBP/P300 By similarity
Region106 – 1116Interaction with IKBKG By similarity
Region116 – 14530Homodimerization By similarity
Region213 – 24836Homodimerization By similarity
Region289 – 32234Transactivation By similarity
Region312 – 3198Interaction with CREBBP C-terminus By similarity
Motif73 – 808SH3-binding Potential
Motif188 – 20215Nuclear export signal By similarity
Motif350 – 3534PDZ-binding By similarity

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue481Phosphothreonine; by host By similarity
Modified residue1841Phosphothreonine; by host By similarity
Modified residue2151Phosphothreonine; by host By similarity
Modified residue3001Phosphoserine; by host By similarity
Modified residue3011Phosphoserine; by host By similarity
Modified residue3361Phosphoserine; by host By similarity

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P0C213 [UniParc].

Last modified November 28, 2006. Version 1.
Checksum: 1A475682702FD68F

FASTA35339,517
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MAHFPGFGQS LLFGYPVYVF GDCVQGDWCP ISGGLCSARL HRHALLATCP EHQITWDPID 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
GRVIGSALQF LIPRLPSFPT QRTSKTLKVL TPPTTHTTPN IPPSFLQAMR KYSPFRNGYM 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
EPTLGQHLPT LSFPDPGLRP QNLYTLWGGS VVCMYLYQLS PPITWPLLPH VIFDHPDQLG 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
AFLTNVPYKR MEELLYKISL TTGALIILPE DCLPTTLFQP ARAPVTLTAW QSGLLPFHST 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
LTTPGLIWAF TDGTPMISGP CPKDGRPSLV LQSSSFIFHK FQTKAYHPSF LLSHGLIQYS 

       310        320        330        340        350 
SFHNLHLLFE EYTNIPISLL FNEKEADDTD HEPQVSPGGL EPPSEKHFRE TEV 

« Hide

References

[1]"Limited sequence variation in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 isolates from North American and African patients."
Paine E., Garcia J., Philpott T.C., Shaw G., Ratner L.
Virology 182:111-123(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
[2]"Molecular mechanisms of cellular transformation by HTLV-1 Tax."
Grassmann R., Aboud M., Jeang K.T.
Oncogene 24:5976-5985(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[3]"Transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation of HTLV-1."
Kashanchi F., Brady J.N.
Oncogene 24:5938-5951(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
M67514 Genomic RNA. No translation available.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB-PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1BD2X-ray2.50C11-19[»]
4E5XX-ray1.95C/F11-19[»]
4FTVX-ray2.74C11-19[»]
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR004120. Tax.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF02959. Tax. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

EvolutionaryTraceP0C213.

Entry information

Entry nameTAX_HTL1F
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P0C213
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2006
Last sequence update: November 28, 2006
Last modified: February 19, 2014
This is version 38 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references