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Protein

Protein Rex

Gene
N/A
Organism
Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Rex escorts unspliced gag-pro-pol and singly spliced env mRNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells. These mRNAs carry a recognition sequence called Rex responsive element (RxRE or XRE) located at the 3' region of the long terminal repeat (LTR). This function is essential since most HTLV proteins are translated from unspliced or partially spliced pre-mRNAs that cannot exit the nucleus by the pathway used by fully processed cellular mRNAs. Rex itself is translated from a fully spliced mRNA that probably readily exits the nucleus. Rex's nuclear localization signal (NLS) binds directly to KPNB1/importin beta-1 without previous binding to KPNA1/importin alpha-1. KPNB1 binds to the GDP bound form of RAN (Ran-GDP) and targets Rex to the nucleus. In the nucleus, the conversion from Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP dissociates Rex from KPNB1 and allows Rex's binding to the RRE in viral pre-mRNAs. Rex multimerizes on the RRE via cooperative assembly. This multimerization is critical for its full biological activity, since it may shield the viral RNA from being spliced or down-regulated, and probably exposes Rex's nuclear export signal (NES) to the surface. Rex can then form a complex with XPO1/CRM1, RANBP3 and Ran-GTP, leading to nuclear export of the complex. Conversion from Ran-GTP to Ran-GDP mediates dissociation of the Rex/RRE/XPO1/RANBP3/RAN complex, so that Rex can return to the nucleus for a subsequent round of export (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Host-virus interaction, mRNA transport, Transport

Keywords - Ligandi

RNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein Rex
Alternative name(s):
Rev homolog
Rex-1
p27Rex
OrganismiHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1)
Taxonomic identifieri11927 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeDeltaretrovirus
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
Proteomesi
  • UP000001061 Componenti: Genome

Subcellular locationi

Isoform Rex :
  • Host nucleushost nucleolus By similarity
  • Host cytoplasm By similarity

  • Note: The presence of both nuclear import and nuclear export signals leads to continuous shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm.By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host cytoplasm, Host nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 189189Protein RexPRO_0000259783Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei70 – 701Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei174 – 1741Phosphothreonine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei177 – 1771Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Expressioni

Inductioni

Down-regulated by P30II.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homomultimer. Multimeric assembly is essential for activity and involves XPO1. Binds to human XPO1 and KPNB1 (By similarity). Interacts (via N-terminal nuclear localization signal) with human NPM1.By similarity1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
BHLHE40O145033EBI-9675596,EBI-711810From a different organism.
DYNLL2Q96FJ24EBI-9675596,EBI-742371From a different organism.
LNX2Q8N4484EBI-9675596,EBI-2340947From a different organism.
LZTS2Q9BRK44EBI-9675596,EBI-741037From a different organism.
TTC23LQ6PF053EBI-9675596,EBI-8656864From a different organism.

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP0C206. 18 interactions.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
189
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi10 – 123Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1EXYNMR-B1-16[»]
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni56 – 7015HomomultimerizationBy similarityAdd
BLAST
Regioni123 – 1319HomomultimerizationBy similarity

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi2 – 1817Nuclear localization signal, and RNA-binding (RxRE)By similarityAdd
BLAST
Motifi82 – 9312Nuclear export signalBy similarityAdd
BLAST

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi95 – 18894Pro-richAdd
BLAST

Domaini

The RNA-binding motif binds to the RxRE, a complex secondary structure consisting of four stem loops and a long stretch of stem structure, present in incompletely spliced viral pre-mRNAs. This region also contains the NLS which mediates nuclear localization. These overlapping functions prevent Rex bound to RxRE from undesirable return to the nucleus. When Rex binds the RxRE, the NLS becomes masked while the NES remains accessible. The leucine-rich NES mediates binding to human XPO1 (By similarity).By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the deltaretrovirus Rex protein family.Curated

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform Rex (identifier: P0C206-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: p27Rex

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPKTRRRPRR SQRKRPPTPW PTSQGLDRVF FSDTQSTCLE TVYKATGAPS
60 70 80 90 100
LGDYVRPAYI VTPYWPPVQS IRSPGTPSMD ALSAQLYSSL SLDSPPSPPR
110 120 130 140 150
EPLRPLRSLP RQSLIQPPTF HPPSSRPCAN TPPSEMDTWN PPLGSTSQPC
160 170 180
LFQTPDSGPK TCTPSGEAPL SACTSTSFPP PSPGPSCPM
Length:189
Mass (Da):20,555
Last modified:November 14, 2006 - v1
Checksum:iD47A22D76F7A2449
GO
Isoform p21Rex (identifier: P0C206-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: p21

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-78: Missing.

Show »
Length:111
Mass (Da):11,696
Checksum:i1CA4725CF7DD46E9
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAC82584.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction. Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 7878Missing in isoform p21Rex. CuratedVSP_021540Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D13784 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AF033817 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC82584.1. Sequence problems.
RefSeqiNP_057863.1. NC_001436.1.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi1491937.
KEGGivg:1491937.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D13784 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AF033817 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC82584.1. Sequence problems.
RefSeqiNP_057863.1. NC_001436.1.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1EXYNMR-B1-16[»]
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP0C206. 18 interactions.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi1491937.
KEGGivg:1491937.

Family and domain databases

ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Molecular cloning and complete nucleotide sequence of an adult T cell leukaemia virus/human T cell leukaemia virus type I (ATLV/HTLV-I) isolate of Caribbean origin: relationship to other members of the ATLV/HTLV-I subgroup."
    Malik K.T.A., Even J., Karpas A.
    J. Gen. Virol. 69:1695-1710(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  2. Chappey C.
    Submitted (NOV-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Nucleolar targeting signal of Rex protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I specifically binds to nucleolar shuttle protein B-23."
    Adachi Y., Copeland T.D., Hatanaka M., Oroszlan S.
    J. Biol. Chem. 268:13930-13934(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HUMAN NPM1.
  4. "The human T-cell leukemia virus Rex protein."
    Younis I., Green P.L.
    Front. Biosci. 10:431-445(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.
  5. "Transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation of HTLV-1."
    Kashanchi F., Brady J.N.
    Oncogene 24:5938-5951(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiREX_HTL1C
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P0C206
Secondary accession number(s): O56230
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 14, 2006
Last sequence update: November 14, 2006
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 45 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

HTLV-1 lineages are divided in four clades, A (Cosmopolitan), B (Central African group), C (Melanesian group) and D (New Central African group).

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.