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Protein

Alpha-hemolysin

Gene

hly

Organism
Staphylococcus aureus
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Alpha-toxin binds to the membrane of eukaryotic cells resulting in the release of low-molecular weight molecules and leading to an eventual osmotic lysis. Heptamer oligomerization and pore formation is required for lytic activity.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • identical protein binding Source: IntAct
  • toxin activity Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionToxin
Biological processCytolysis, Hemolysis

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-844456 The NLRP3 inflammasome

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi1.C.3.1.1 the Alpha-hemolysin channel-forming toxin (Alphahl) family

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alpha-hemolysin
Short name:
Alpha-HL
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-toxin
Gene namesi
Name:hly
Synonyms:hla
OrganismiStaphylococcus aureus
Taxonomic identifieri1280 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaFirmicutesBacilliBacillalesStaphylococcaceaeStaphylococcus

Subcellular locationi

  • Secreted
  • Note: Secreted as a monomer. After oligomerization and pore formation, the complex is translocated across the bilayer, probably via the Gly-rich domain of each strand.

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi61H → L: No oligomerization nor hemolytic activity. 1
Mutagenesisi61H → R: No oligomerization nor hemolytic activity. 1
Mutagenesisi74H → L: 7% of normal hemolytic activity. 1
Mutagenesisi170H → L: 16% of normal hemolytic activity. 1
Mutagenesisi285H → L: 46% of normal hemolytic activity. 1

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL1075259

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 261 PublicationAdd BLAST26
ChainiPRO_000003563627 – 319Alpha-hemolysinAdd BLAST293

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei159 – 160Cleavage of monomers by proteinase K (minor site)2
Sitei161 – 162Cleavage of monomers by proteinase K (major site)2
Sitei164 – 165Cleavage of monomers by proteinase K (minor site)2
Sitei165 – 166Cleavage of monomers by proteinase K (major site)2

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP09616

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP09616

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Self-assembles to form first, a non-lytic oligomeric intermediate, and then, a mushroom-shaped homoheptamer structure of 100 Angstroms in length and up to 100 Angstroms in diameter.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
itself6EBI-15848589,EBI-15848589

GO - Molecular functioni

  • identical protein binding Source: IntAct

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-59322N
IntActiP09616, 1 interactor

Structurei

Secondary structure

1319
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi28 – 31Combined sources4
Turni35 – 38Combined sources4
Beta strandi40 – 43Combined sources4
Beta strandi47 – 55Combined sources9
Turni56 – 59Combined sources4
Beta strandi60 – 69Combined sources10
Beta strandi74 – 87Combined sources14
Beta strandi92 – 95Combined sources4
Turni98 – 100Combined sources3
Beta strandi101 – 115Combined sources15
Beta strandi123 – 129Combined sources7
Beta strandi135 – 153Combined sources19
Beta strandi158 – 184Combined sources27
Beta strandi188 – 197Combined sources10
Beta strandi200 – 202Combined sources3
Beta strandi205 – 208Combined sources4
Turni215 – 217Combined sources3
Helixi232 – 234Combined sources3
Helixi239 – 241Combined sources3
Helixi244 – 247Combined sources4
Beta strandi254 – 260Combined sources7
Beta strandi268 – 286Combined sources19
Beta strandi288 – 311Combined sources24
Turni312 – 315Combined sources4
Beta strandi316 – 318Combined sources3

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3M2LX-ray2.10A/B/C/D/E/F/G27-319[»]
3M3RX-ray2.20A/B/C/D/E/F/G27-319[»]
3M4DX-ray1.90A/B/C/D/E/F/G27-319[»]
3M4EX-ray2.30A/B/C/D/E/F/G27-319[»]
4IDJX-ray3.36A27-319[»]
4YHDX-ray2.80A/B/C/D/E/G27-319[»]
7AHLX-ray1.89A/B/C/D/E/F/G27-319[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP09616
SMRiP09616
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP09616

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi145 – 169Gly-richAdd BLAST25

Domaini

The mushroom-shaped heptamer is composed of a cap domain (comprising 7 beta sandwiches and the amino latches of each protomer), 7 rim regions whose protruding strands may interact with the membrane bilayer, and the stem domain (52 Angstroms in length, 26 Angstroms in diameter) which forms the transmembrane pore.

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the aerolysin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG4106UK0 Bacteria
ENOG410YPMH LUCA

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR005831 Aerolysin/haemolysin_CS
IPR003963 Bi-component_toxin_staph
IPR016183 Leukocidin/Hemolysin_toxin
IPR036435 Leukocidin/porin_MspA_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF07968 Leukocidin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01468 BICOMPNTOXIN
SUPFAMiSSF56959 SSF56959, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01002 hlyII, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00274 AEROLYSIN, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P09616-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKTRIVSSVT TTLLLGSILM NPVAGAADSD INIKTGTTDI GSNTTVKTGD
60 70 80 90 100
LVTYDKENGM HKKVFYSFID DKNHNKKLLV IRTKGTIAGQ YRVYSEEGAN
110 120 130 140 150
KSGLAWPSAF KVQLQLPDNE VAQISDYYPR NSIDTKEYMS TLTYGFNGNV
160 170 180 190 200
TGDDTGKIGG LIGANVSIGH TLKYVQPDFK TILESPTDKK VGWKVIFNNM
210 220 230 240 250
VNQNWGPYDR DSWNPVYGNQ LFMKTRNGSM KAADNFLDPN KASSLLSSGF
260 270 280 290 300
SPDFATVITM DRKASKQQTN IDVIYERVRD DYQLHWTSTN WKGTNTKDKW
310
TDRSSERYKI DWEKEEMTN
Length:319
Mass (Da):35,904
Last modified:December 1, 1992 - v2
Checksum:i6711C415DF7EBF30
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X01645 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA25801.1
M90536 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA26598.1
PIRiS69209

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiHLA_STAAU
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P09616
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: December 1, 1992
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 129 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing

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