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Protein

Protein wingless

Gene

wg

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Binds as a ligand to a family of frizzled seven-transmembrane receptors and acts through a cascade of genes on the nucleus. Segment polarity protein. May be a growth factor. Acts on neighboring cells to regulate at least one gene, the homeobox segmentation gene engrailed. Wg signal represses arm phosphorylation. Wg signaling operates by inactivating the sgg repression of engrailed autoactivation. Wg and Wnt2 have a role in the developing trachea and together are responsible for all dorsal trunk formation. Wg also acts in the developing epidermis. Acts as a morphogen, and diffuses long distances despite its lipidation. Lipophorin is required for diffusion, probably by acting as vehicle for its movement, explaining how it can spread over long distances despite its lipidation. In non-neuronal cells, wls directs wg secretion via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the retromer complex (a conserved protein complex consisting of Vps26 and Vps35) to sustain a wls traffic loop encompassing the Golgi, the cell surface, an endocytic compartment and a retrograde route leading back to the Golgi. In neuronal cells (the larval motorneuron NMJ), wg signal moves across the synapse through the release of wls-containing exosome-like vesicles.4 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • extracellular matrix binding Source: FlyBase
  • frizzled-2 binding Source: FlyBase
  • frizzled binding Source: FlyBase
  • glycosaminoglycan binding Source: FlyBase
  • heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding Source: FlyBase
  • morphogen activity Source: FlyBase
  • Notch binding Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • actin filament bundle assembly Source: FlyBase
  • anterior/posterior axis specification, embryo Source: FlyBase
  • anterior/posterior pattern specification, imaginal disc Source: FlyBase
  • anterior head segmentation Source: FlyBase
  • branch fusion, open tracheal system Source: FlyBase
  • branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube Source: FlyBase
  • canonical Wnt signaling pathway Source: FlyBase
  • cardioblast differentiation Source: FlyBase
  • cell elongation involved in imaginal disc-derived wing morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • cell fate commitment Source: GO_Central
  • compound eye development Source: FlyBase
  • compound eye morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • cuticle pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • determination of genital disc primordium Source: FlyBase
  • dorsal/ventral pattern formation, imaginal disc Source: FlyBase
  • dorsal closure Source: FlyBase
  • dorsal closure, elongation of leading edge cells Source: FlyBase
  • ectoderm development Source: FlyBase
  • epidermis development Source: FlyBase
  • epithelial cell proliferation involved in Malpighian tubule morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • epithelial cell type specification, open tracheal system Source: FlyBase
  • filopodium assembly Source: FlyBase
  • genital disc anterior/posterior pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • genital disc development Source: FlyBase
  • genital disc sexually dimorphic development Source: FlyBase
  • heart formation Source: FlyBase
  • hindgut morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • histoblast morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • imaginal disc-derived wing morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • imaginal disc development Source: FlyBase
  • imaginal disc growth Source: FlyBase
  • imaginal disc pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • instar larval development Source: FlyBase
  • labial disc development Source: FlyBase
  • lamellipodium assembly Source: FlyBase
  • larval lymph gland hemopoiesis Source: FlyBase
  • larval visceral muscle development Source: FlyBase
  • leg disc proximal/distal pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • long-term memory Source: FlyBase
  • lymph gland crystal cell differentiation Source: FlyBase
  • lymph gland development Source: FlyBase
  • Malpighian tubule bud morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • Malpighian tubule tip cell differentiation Source: FlyBase
  • mesoderm development Source: FlyBase
  • mesoderm morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of apoptotic process Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of cell fate specification Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of DNA endoreduplication Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of heart induction by canonical Wnt signaling pathway Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of hemocyte differentiation Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: FlyBase
  • neuroblast development Source: FlyBase
  • neuron differentiation Source: GO_Central
  • ommatidial rotation Source: FlyBase
  • ovarian follicle cell development Source: FlyBase
  • pericardial nephrocyte differentiation Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of cell death Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of compound eye retinal cell programmed cell death Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of crystal cell differentiation Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of stem cell proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • posterior head segmentation Source: FlyBase
  • posterior Malpighian tubule development Source: FlyBase
  • proboscis development Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of cell proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of compound eye pigmentation Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of imaginal disc-derived wing size Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of mitotic cell cycle Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of stem cell proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: FlyBase
  • segment polarity determination Source: FlyBase
  • sensory organ development Source: FlyBase
  • Spemann organizer formation Source: BHF-UCL
  • spiracle morphogenesis, open tracheal system Source: FlyBase
  • synapse organization Source: FlyBase
  • synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction Source: FlyBase
  • trunk segmentation Source: FlyBase
  • ventral cord development Source: FlyBase
  • ventral midline development Source: FlyBase
  • wing cell fate specification Source: FlyBase
  • wing disc development Source: FlyBase
  • wing disc dorsal/ventral pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • Wnt signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway Source: FlyBase
  • Wnt signaling pathway involved in heart development Source: FlyBase

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, Morphogen, Segmentation polarity protein
Biological processWnt signaling pathway

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DME-3238698. WNT ligand biogenesis and trafficking.
R-DME-4641262. Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to the membrane.
SignaLinkiP09615.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein wingless
Alternative name(s):
Protein Wnt-1
Protein int-1
dInt-1
dWnt-1
Gene namesi
Name:wg
ORF Names:CG4889
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 2L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0284084. wg.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell junction, Extracellular matrix, Membrane, Secreted, Synapse

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Accumulation in the Golgi, thereby preventing secretion.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi51T → A: No effect on glycosylation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi93C → Y in allele wg-S21; results in lethality. 1
Mutagenesisi104C → S in allele wg-IL114; temperature sensitive lethal. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi105S → A: Glycosylation disrupted. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi110S → A: No effect on glycosylation. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi221G → D in allele wg-IN67; embryonic lethal. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi416T → A: Glycosylation disrupted. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 17Add BLAST17
ChainiPRO_000004147618 – 468Protein winglessAdd BLAST451

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi93 ↔ 104By similarity
Glycosylationi103N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine1 Publication1
Glycosylationi108N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi146 ↔ 154By similarity
Disulfide bondi156 ↔ 185By similarity
Disulfide bondi233 ↔ 247By similarity
Disulfide bondi235 ↔ 242By similarity
Lipidationi239O-palmitoleoyl serine; by PORCNBy similarity1
Disulfide bondi413 ↔ 428By similarity
Glycosylationi414N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine1 Publication1
Disulfide bondi443 ↔ 458By similarity
Disulfide bondi445 ↔ 455By similarity
Disulfide bondi450 ↔ 451By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Palmitoleoylated by porcupine. The lipid group functions as a sorting signal, targeting the ligand to polarized vesicles that transport wg to unique sites at the cell surface. Depalmitoleoylated by notum, leading to inhibit Wnt signaling pathway.3 Publications
Major form is glycosylated at 2 sites, glycosylation is stimulated by porcupine at the ER.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Lipoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP09615.
PRIDEiP09615.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP09615.
SwissPalmiP09615.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Segmented expression in embryos. In embryonic tracheal cells, expression is in stripes flanking the tracheal placode.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed throughout development, but barely detectable in adults.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiFBgn0004009.
ExpressionAtlasiP09615. differential.
GenevisibleiP09615. DM.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer; folds by intramolecular disulfide bonds (PubMed:11821428). Interacts with porcupine (por) (PubMed:11821428). Interacts with wls; in the Golgi (PubMed:18193037). Interacts with en (PubMed:1335365). Interacts with the proteoglycan Cow (heparan sulfate-bound form); this stabilizes wg and promotes its extracellular distribution (PubMed:25360738).4 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
opmQ9VXY92EBI-98242,EBI-7560899

GO - Molecular functioni

  • frizzled-2 binding Source: FlyBase
  • frizzled binding Source: FlyBase
  • heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding Source: FlyBase
  • Notch binding Source: FlyBase

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi60155. 121 interactors.
DIPiDIP-21777N.
IntActiP09615. 1 interactor.
MINTiMINT-1645341.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0079060.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP09615.
SMRiP09615.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni83 – 106Binds porcupineAdd BLAST24

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the Wnt family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3913. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQZ1. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118943.
InParanoidiP09615.
KOiK03209.
OMAiAIKECKW.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0OFF.
PhylomeDBiP09615.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR005817. Wnt.
IPR018161. Wnt_CS.
PANTHERiPTHR12027. PTHR12027. 1 hit.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00110. wnt. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR01349. WNTPROTEIN.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00097. WNT1. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00246. WNT1. 1 hit.

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform A (identifier: P09615-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MDISYIFVIC LMALCSGGSS LSQVEGKQKS GRGRGSMWWG IAKVGEPNNI
60 70 80 90 100
TPIMYMDPAI HSTLRRKQRR LVRDNPGVLG ALVKGANLAI SECQHQFRNR
110 120 130 140 150
RWNCSTRNFS RGKNLFGKIV DRGCRETSFI YAITSAAVTH SIARACSEGT
160 170 180 190 200
IESCTCDYSH QSRSPQANHQ AGSVAGVRDW EWGGCSDNIG FGFKFSREFV
210 220 230 240 250
DTGERGRNLR EKMNLHNNEA GRAHVQAEMR QECKCHGMSG SCTVKTCWMR
260 270 280 290 300
LANFRVIGDN LKARFDGATR VQVTNSLRAT NALAPVSPNA AGSNSVGSNG
310 320 330 340 350
LIIPQSGLVY GEEEERMLND HMPDILLENS HPISKIHHPN MPSPNSLPQA
360 370 380 390 400
GQRGGRNGRR QGRKHNRYHF QLNPHNPEHK PPGSKDLVYL EPSPSFCEKN
410 420 430 440 450
LRQGILGTHG RQCNETSLGV DGCGLMCCGR GYRRDEVVVV ERCACTFHWC
460
CEVKCKLCRT KKVIYTCL
Length:468
Mass (Da):51,986
Last modified:July 1, 1989 - v1
Checksum:iF766972A731E6171
GO
Isoform B (identifier: P09615-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-53: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:415
Mass (Da):46,330
Checksum:i6220D909225E393A
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti92E → K in AAM75051 (PubMed:12537569).Curated1
Sequence conflicti182W → C in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1
Sequence conflicti204E → D in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1
Sequence conflicti275N → T in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1
Sequence conflicti297G → A in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1
Sequence conflicti315E → EE in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1
Sequence conflicti364K → N in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1
Sequence conflicti391E → D in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1
Sequence conflicti441E → D in AAA28646 (PubMed:3129722).Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0165351 – 53Missing in isoform B. CuratedAdd BLAST53

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M17230 mRNA. Translation: AAA28647.1.
J03650 mRNA. Translation: AAA28646.1.
S67382 mRNA. Translation: AAB29368.1.
S67383 mRNA. Translation: AAB29369.1.
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF52501.1.
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN10628.1.
AY128458 mRNA. Translation: AAM75051.1.
PIRiA29650.
A31337. TVFFT1.
RefSeqiNP_523502.1. NM_078778.5. [P09615-1]
UniGeneiDm.6628.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0079432; FBpp0079060; FBgn0004009. [P09615-1]
GeneIDi34009.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG4889.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiWNTG_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P09615
Secondary accession number(s): Q27768
, Q27769, Q8IPI1, Q8MQP9, Q9VM27
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: July 1, 1989
Last modified: October 25, 2017
This is version 192 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Caution

Was initially thought to be palmitoylated at Ser-239. It was later shown that it is palmitoleoylated.Curated

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families