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Protein

Glutamine synthetase

Gene

Glul

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

ATP + L-glutamate + NH3 = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO2.

Cofactori

Protein has several cofactor binding sites:

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: RGD
  • dynein light chain binding Source: RGD
  • glutamate-ammonia ligase activity Source: RGD
  • glutamate binding Source: RGD
  • glutamate decarboxylase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC
  • identical protein binding Source: RGD
  • magnesium ion binding Source: RGD
  • manganese ion binding Source: RGD

GO - Biological processi

  • ammonia assimilation cycle Source: RGD
  • cell proliferation Source: RGD
  • cellular response to starvation Source: RGD
  • glutamate metabolic process Source: RGD
  • glutamine biosynthetic process Source: RGD
  • neurotransmitter metabolic process Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of insulin secretion Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic Source: RGD
  • protein homooligomerization Source: RGD
  • response to glucose Source: RGD

Keywordsi

Molecular functionLigase, Lyase
LigandATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi6.3.1.2 5301
ReactomeiR-RNO-210455 Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism
R-RNO-70614 Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination)

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glutamine synthetase (EC:6.3.1.2)
Short name:
GS
Alternative name(s):
Glutamate decarboxylase (EC:4.1.1.15)
Glutamate--ammonia ligase
Gene namesi
Name:Glul
Synonyms:Glns
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome 13

Organism-specific databases

RGDi2710 Glul

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
ChainiPRO_00001531432 – 373Glutamine synthetaseAdd BLAST372

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei2N-acetylalanineBy similarity1
Modified residuei104PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei343PhosphoserineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Ubiquitinated by ZNRF1.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP09606
PRIDEiP09606

2D gel databases

World-2DPAGEi0004:P09606

PTM databases

CarbonylDBiP09606
iPTMnetiP09606
PhosphoSitePlusiP09606
SwissPalmiP09606

Expressioni

Inductioni

By glucocorticoids. Stimulated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptor antagonist MK801. Vitamin D and the Wnt signaling pathway inhibit its expression and activity. Down-regulated during osteoblast mineralization.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000049560
GenevisibleiP09606 RN

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homooctamer and homotetramer. Interacts with PALMD (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • dynein light chain binding Source: RGD
  • identical protein binding Source: RGD

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi247058, 2 interactors
IntActiP09606, 1 interactor
STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000065890

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP09606
SMRiP09606
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0683 Eukaryota
COG0174 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000010047
HOVERGENiHBG005847
InParanoidiP09606
KOiK01915
OMAiMMPDGVT
OrthoDBiEOG091G07E9
PhylomeDBiP09606

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.10.20.70, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR008147 Gln_synt_b-grasp
IPR036651 Gln_synt_N
IPR014746 Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom
IPR008146 Gln_synth_cat_dom
IPR027303 Gln_synth_gly_rich_site
IPR027302 Gln_synth_N_conserv_site
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00120 Gln-synt_C, 1 hit
PF03951 Gln-synt_N, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM01230 Gln-synt_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF54368 SSF54368, 1 hit
SSF55931 SSF55931, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00180 GLNA_1, 1 hit
PS00181 GLNA_ATP, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P09606-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MATSASSHLN KGIKQMYMNL PQGEKIQLMY IWVDGTGEGL RCKTRTLDCD
60 70 80 90 100
PKCVEELPEW NFDGSSTFQS EGSNSDMYLH PVAMFRDPFR RDPNKLVFCE
110 120 130 140 150
VFKYNRKPAE TNLRHSCKRI MDMVSSQHPW FGMEQEYTLM GTDGHPFGWP
160 170 180 190 200
SNGFPGPQGP YYCGVGADKA YGRDIVEAHY RACLYAGIKI TGTNAEVMPA
210 220 230 240 250
QWEFQIGPCE GIRMGDHLWV ARFILHRVCE DFGVIATFDP KPIPGNWNGA
260 270 280 290 300
GCHTNFSTKA MREENGLRCI EEAIDKLSKR HQYHIRAYDP KGGLDNARRL
310 320 330 340 350
TGFHETSNIN DFSAGVANRS ASIRIPRIVG QEKKGYFEDR RPSANCDPYA
360 370
VTEAIVRTCL LNETGDEPFQ YKN
Length:373
Mass (Da):42,268
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:iA7C12D9C5959BCA1
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti74N → D in AAH61559 (PubMed:15489334).Curated1
Sequence conflicti128H → R in AAC42038 (PubMed:1674354).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X07921 mRNA Translation: CAA30754.1
M29599
, M29595, M29596, M29597, M29598 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA65096.1
M29579 mRNA Translation: AAA65095.1
M91652 mRNA Translation: AAC42038.1
BC061559 mRNA Translation: AAH61559.1
BC072694 mRNA Translation: AAH72694.1
PIRiS01242 AJRTQ
RefSeqiNP_058769.4, NM_017073.3
UniGeneiRn.2204

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000075480; ENSRNOP00000065890; ENSRNOG00000049560
GeneIDi24957
KEGGirno:24957

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLNA_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P09606
Secondary accession number(s): Q6P7Q9
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 1989
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: April 25, 2018
This is version 152 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health