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Protein

Homeotic protein caudal

Gene

cad

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Caudal (cad) is one of a number of transcription factors controlling segmentation of the embryo. Further transcriptional regulation via a 5' flanking region containing DNA replication-related elements (DRE) and by dref also regulated by trh and tgo via the CNS midline element. Alongside Bicoid (bcd), caudal forms concentration gradients down the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis providing positional information and subsequent induction of the gap genes. Plays a role in gastrulation/germ band extension, hindgut morphogenesis, positive regulation of cell proliferation, genital disk development and pattern formation. Acts as a key regulator of the Hox gene network and activates transcription via the downstream core promoter element (DPE) relative to the TATA box. Plays a role in the establishment of the hindgut and in the invagination of the hindgut primordium during gastrulation. These effects on the gut are achieved by acting combinatorially at the posterior of the embryo to activate transcription of different targets including fog, fkh and wg. Caudal is involved in regulation of proliferation through transactivation of the E2F gene. Postembryonically its function is mostly restricted to the intestine where it regulates antimicrobial peptide (AMP) levels preserving the normal gut flora.4 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
DNA bindingi273 – 332HomeoboxPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST60

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: FlyBase
  • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • analia development Source: FlyBase
  • animal organ morphogenesis Source: GO_Central
  • anterior/posterior axis specification Source: FlyBase
  • blastoderm segmentation Source: UniProtKB
  • cell differentiation Source: GO_Central
  • gastrulation involving germ band extension Source: UniProtKB
  • genital disc anterior/posterior pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • genital disc development Source: FlyBase
  • germ-band extension Source: FlyBase
  • hindgut morphogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  • Malpighian tubule morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of antimicrobial peptide biosynthetic process Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: FlyBase
  • segment specification Source: FlyBase
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, DNA-binding
Biological processGastrulation, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiP09085

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Homeotic protein caudal
Gene namesi
Name:cad
ORF Names:CG1759
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 2L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0000251 cad

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000490171 – 427Homeotic protein caudalAdd BLAST427

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei245Phosphothreonine1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP09085
PRIDEiP09085

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP09085

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Maternally localized in an anteroposterior gradient in the syncytial blastoderm. Also expressed in the pole cells. Zygotically localized in the primordia of the terminal abdominal segment, the hindgut and in the posterior midgut rudiment. Expressed in the gut, the gonads and parts of the genital disks of third instar larvae (at protein level).1 Publication

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiFBgn0000251
ExpressionAtlasiP09085 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiP09085 DM

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi61304, 30 interactors
IntActiP09085, 2 interactors
STRINGi7227.FBpp0080942

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP09085
SMRiP09085
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Motifi252 – 257Antp-type hexapeptide6

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi37 – 115His-richAdd BLAST79
Compositional biasi116 – 167Ala/Gly/Ser-richAdd BLAST52
Compositional biasi124 – 164Gly-richAdd BLAST41
Compositional biasi215 – 243Asn-richAdd BLAST29

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the Caudal homeobox family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Homeobox

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0848 Eukaryota
ENOG4111W2J LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00910000143983
HOGENOMiHOG000063531
InParanoidiP09085
KOiK09312
OMAiQYYEWMK
OrthoDBiEOG091G0LXJ

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00086 homeodomain, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009057 Homeobox-like_sf
IPR017970 Homeobox_CS
IPR001356 Homeobox_dom
IPR020479 Homeobox_metazoa
IPR000047 HTH_motif
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00046 Homeobox, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00024 HOMEOBOX
PR00031 HTHREPRESSR
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00389 HOX, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF46689 SSF46689, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00027 HOMEOBOX_1, 1 hit
PS50071 HOMEOBOX_2, 1 hit

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P09085-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: A, B

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVSHYYNTLP YTQKHSAANL AYASAAGQPW NWTPNYHHTP PNHQFLGDVD
60 70 80 90 100
SSHAAHHAAA AHQMYYNSHH MFHSAAAASA GEWHSPASST ADNFVQNVPT
110 120 130 140 150
SAHQLMQQHH HHHAHASSSS ASSGSSSSGG APGAPQLNET NSSIGVGGAG
160 170 180 190 200
GGGGVGGATD GGPGSAPPNH QQHIAEGLPS PPITVSGSEI SSPGAPTSAS
210 220 230 240 250
SPHHHLAHHL SAVANNNNNN NNNNNSPSTH NNNNNNNSVS NNNRTSPSKP
260 270 280 290 300
PYFDWMKKPA YPAQPQPGKT RTKDKYRVVY TDFQRLELEK EYCTSRYITI
310 320 330 340 350
RRKSELAQTL SLSERQVKIW FQNRRAKERK QNKKGSDPNV MGVGVQHADY
360 370 380 390 400
SQLLDAKAKL EPGLHLSHSL AHSMNPMAAM NIPAMRLHPH LAAHSHSLAA
410 420
VAAHSHQLQQ QHSAQMSAAA AVGTLSM
Length:427
Mass (Da):45,726
Last modified:June 7, 2005 - v4
Checksum:i23415B8E03867AEE
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P09085-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     268-273: GKTRTK → VHANFL
     274-427: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:273
Mass (Da):28,418
Checksum:i7B52687DDEBEEB2E
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAA28409 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at positions 44 and 418.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti129G → A in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated1
Sequence conflicti151G → V in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated1
Sequence conflicti167P → A in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated1
Sequence conflicti215Missing in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated1
Sequence conflicti215Missing in CAA26868 (PubMed:16453641).Curated1
Sequence conflicti330 – 331KQ → TS in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated2
Sequence conflicti330 – 331KQ → TS in CAA26868 (PubMed:16453641).Curated2
Sequence conflicti358A → T in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated1
Sequence conflicti359 – 360KL → NV in CAA26868 (PubMed:16453641).Curated2

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_046454268 – 273GKTRTK → VHANFL in isoform 2. 1 Publication6
Alternative sequenceiVSP_046455274 – 427Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST154

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M21070, M21069 Genomic DNA Translation: AAA28409.1 Frameshift.
AE014134 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF53923.1
AE014134 Genomic DNA Translation: AAN11088.1
AY069565 mRNA Translation: AAL39710.1
BT122084 mRNA Translation: ADE06690.1
X03062 mRNA Translation: CAA26868.1
PIRiA26357
RefSeqiNP_476954.1, NM_057606.6 [P09085-1]
NP_599128.1, NM_134301.4 [P09085-1]
UniGeneiDm.2073

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0081412; FBpp0080942; FBgn0000251 [P09085-1]
FBtr0081413; FBpp0089336; FBgn0000251 [P09085-1]
GeneIDi35341
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG1759
UCSCiCG1759-RA d. melanogaster [P09085-1]
CG1759-RB d. melanogaster

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCAD_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P09085
Secondary accession number(s): A4V0Y1, D4G7D2, Q9VIJ6
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1988
Last sequence update: June 7, 2005
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 175 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health