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Protein

Homeotic protein caudal

Gene

cad

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Caudal (cad) is one of a number of transcription factors controlling segmentation of the embryo. Further transcriptional regulation via a 5' flanking region containing DNA replication-related elements (DRE) and by dref also regulated by trh and tgo via the CNS midline element. Alongside Bicoid (bcd), caudal forms concentration gradients down the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis providing positional information and subsequent induction of the gap genes. Plays a role in gastrulation/germ band extension, hindgut morphogenesis, positive regulation of cell proliferation, genital disk development and pattern formation. Acts as a key regulator of the Hox gene network and activates transcription via the downstream core promoter element (DPE) relative to the TATA box. Plays a role in the establishment of the hindgut and in the invagination of the hindgut primordium during gastrulation. These effects on the gut are achieved by acting combinatorially at the posterior of the embryo to activate transcription of different targets including fog, fkh and wg. Caudal is involved in regulation of proliferation through transactivation of the E2F gene. Postembryonically its function is mostly restricted to the intestine where it regulates antimicrobial peptide (AMP) levels preserving the normal gut flora.4 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
DNA bindingi273 – 33260HomeoboxPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • analia development Source: FlyBase
  • anterior/posterior axis specification Source: FlyBase
  • blastoderm segmentation Source: UniProtKB
  • cell differentiation Source: GO_Central
  • gastrulation involving germ band extension Source: UniProtKB
  • genital disc anterior/posterior pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • genital disc development Source: FlyBase
  • germ-band extension Source: FlyBase
  • hindgut morphogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  • Malpighian tubule morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • organ morphogenesis Source: GO_Central
  • positive regulation of antimicrobial peptide biosynthetic process Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: UniProtKB
  • segment specification Source: FlyBase
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Gastrulation, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiP09085.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Homeotic protein caudal
Gene namesi
Name:cad
ORF Names:CG1759
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 2L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0000251. cad.

Subcellular locationi

  • Nucleus PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: FlyBase
  • nucleus Source: FlyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 427427Homeotic protein caudalPRO_0000049017Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei245 – 2451Phosphothreonine1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP09085.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP09085.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Maternally localized in an anteroposterior gradient in the syncytial blastoderm. Also expressed in the pole cells. Zygotically localized in the primordia of the terminal abdominal segment, the hindgut and in the posterior midgut rudiment. Expressed in the gut, the gonads and parts of the genital disks of third instar larvae (at protein level).1 Publication

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP09085.
ExpressionAtlasiP09085. differential.
GenevisibleiP09085. DM.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi61304. 18 interactions.
IntActiP09085. 1 interaction.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0080942.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP09085.
SMRiP09085. Positions 277-332.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi252 – 2576Antp-type hexapeptide

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi37 – 11579His-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi116 – 16752Ala/Gly/Ser-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi124 – 16441Gly-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi215 – 24329Asn-richAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the Caudal homeobox family.Curated
Contains 1 homeobox DNA-binding domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Homeobox

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0848. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111W2J. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063388.
HOGENOMiHOG000063531.
InParanoidiP09085.
KOiK09312.
OMAiLHSMNPM.
OrthoDBiEOG71P2BK.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.10.60. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR017970. Homeobox_CS.
IPR001356. Homeobox_dom.
IPR020479. Homeobox_metazoa.
IPR009057. Homeodomain-like.
IPR000047. HTH_motif.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00046. Homeobox. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00024. HOMEOBOX.
PR00031. HTHREPRESSR.
SMARTiSM00389. HOX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF46689. SSF46689. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00027. HOMEOBOX_1. 1 hit.
PS50071. HOMEOBOX_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P09085-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: A, B

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVSHYYNTLP YTQKHSAANL AYASAAGQPW NWTPNYHHTP PNHQFLGDVD
60 70 80 90 100
SSHAAHHAAA AHQMYYNSHH MFHSAAAASA GEWHSPASST ADNFVQNVPT
110 120 130 140 150
SAHQLMQQHH HHHAHASSSS ASSGSSSSGG APGAPQLNET NSSIGVGGAG
160 170 180 190 200
GGGGVGGATD GGPGSAPPNH QQHIAEGLPS PPITVSGSEI SSPGAPTSAS
210 220 230 240 250
SPHHHLAHHL SAVANNNNNN NNNNNSPSTH NNNNNNNSVS NNNRTSPSKP
260 270 280 290 300
PYFDWMKKPA YPAQPQPGKT RTKDKYRVVY TDFQRLELEK EYCTSRYITI
310 320 330 340 350
RRKSELAQTL SLSERQVKIW FQNRRAKERK QNKKGSDPNV MGVGVQHADY
360 370 380 390 400
SQLLDAKAKL EPGLHLSHSL AHSMNPMAAM NIPAMRLHPH LAAHSHSLAA
410 420
VAAHSHQLQQ QHSAQMSAAA AVGTLSM
Length:427
Mass (Da):45,726
Last modified:June 7, 2005 - v4
Checksum:i23415B8E03867AEE
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P09085-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     268-273: GKTRTK → VHANFL
     274-427: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:273
Mass (Da):28,418
Checksum:i7B52687DDEBEEB2E
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAA28409.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at positions 44 and 418. Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti129 – 1291G → A in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated
Sequence conflicti151 – 1511G → V in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated
Sequence conflicti167 – 1671P → A in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated
Sequence conflicti215 – 2151Missing in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated
Sequence conflicti215 – 2151Missing in CAA26868 (PubMed:16453641).Curated
Sequence conflicti330 – 3312KQ → TS in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated
Sequence conflicti330 – 3312KQ → TS in CAA26868 (PubMed:16453641).Curated
Sequence conflicti358 – 3581A → T in AAA28409 (PubMed:2433048).Curated
Sequence conflicti359 – 3602KL → NV in CAA26868 (PubMed:16453641).Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei268 – 2736GKTRTK → VHANFL in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_046454
Alternative sequencei274 – 427154Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_046455Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M21070, M21069 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA28409.1. Frameshift.
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF53923.1.
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN11088.1.
AY069565 mRNA. Translation: AAL39710.1.
BT122084 mRNA. Translation: ADE06690.1.
X03062 mRNA. Translation: CAA26868.1.
PIRiA26357.
RefSeqiNP_476954.1. NM_057606.6. [P09085-1]
NP_599128.1. NM_134301.4. [P09085-1]
UniGeneiDm.2073.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0081412; FBpp0080942; FBgn0000251. [P09085-1]
FBtr0081413; FBpp0089336; FBgn0000251. [P09085-1]
GeneIDi35341.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG1759.
UCSCiCG1759-RA. d. melanogaster. [P09085-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M21070, M21069 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA28409.1. Frameshift.
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF53923.1.
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN11088.1.
AY069565 mRNA. Translation: AAL39710.1.
BT122084 mRNA. Translation: ADE06690.1.
X03062 mRNA. Translation: CAA26868.1.
PIRiA26357.
RefSeqiNP_476954.1. NM_057606.6. [P09085-1]
NP_599128.1. NM_134301.4. [P09085-1]
UniGeneiDm.2073.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP09085.
SMRiP09085. Positions 277-332.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi61304. 18 interactions.
IntActiP09085. 1 interaction.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0080942.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP09085.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP09085.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0081412; FBpp0080942; FBgn0000251. [P09085-1]
FBtr0081413; FBpp0089336; FBgn0000251. [P09085-1]
GeneIDi35341.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG1759.
UCSCiCG1759-RA. d. melanogaster. [P09085-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi790.
FlyBaseiFBgn0000251. cad.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0848. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111W2J. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063388.
HOGENOMiHOG000063531.
InParanoidiP09085.
KOiK09312.
OMAiLHSMNPM.
OrthoDBiEOG71P2BK.

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiP09085.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii35341.
PROiP09085.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP09085.
ExpressionAtlasiP09085. differential.
GenevisibleiP09085. DM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.10.60. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR017970. Homeobox_CS.
IPR001356. Homeobox_dom.
IPR020479. Homeobox_metazoa.
IPR009057. Homeodomain-like.
IPR000047. HTH_motif.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00046. Homeobox. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00024. HOMEOBOX.
PR00031. HTHREPRESSR.
SMARTiSM00389. HOX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF46689. SSF46689. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00027. HOMEOBOX_1. 1 hit.
PS50071. HOMEOBOX_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Expression of the caudal gene in the germ line of Drosophila: formation of an RNA and protein gradient during early embryogenesis."
    Mlodzik M., Gehring W.J.
    Cell 48:465-478(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING (ISOFORM 1), TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  2. "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D.
    , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
    Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
  3. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: Berkeley.
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    Strain: Berkeley.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  5. Carlson J., Booth B., Frise E., Sandler J., Wan K., Yu C., Celniker S.
    Submitted (MAR-2010) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
  6. "Isolation of caudal, a Drosophila homeo box-containing gene with maternal expression, whose transcripts form a concentration gradient at the pre-blastoderm stage."
    Mlodzik M., Fjose A., Gehring W.J.
    EMBO J. 4:2961-2969(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 212-409 (ISOFORM 1), DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  7. "Zygotic caudal regulation by hunchback and its role in abdominal segment formation of the Drosophila embryo."
    Schulz C., Tautz D.
    Development 121:1023-1028(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  8. "Role of caudal in hindgut specification and gastrulation suggests homology between Drosophila amnioproctodeal invagination and vertebrate blastopore."
    Wu L.H., Lengyel J.A.
    Development 125:2433-2442(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  9. "The caudal homeodomain protein activates Drosophila E2F gene expression."
    Hwang M.S., Kim Y.S., Choi N.H., Park J.H., Oh E.J., Kwon E.J., Yamaguchi M., Yoo M.A.
    Nucleic Acids Res. 30:5029-5035(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  10. "Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila caudal homeobox gene by DRE/DREF."
    Choi Y.J., Choi T.Y., Yamaguchi M., Matsukage A., Kim Y.S., Yoo M.A.
    Nucleic Acids Res. 32:3734-3742(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  11. "Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos."
    Zhai B., Villen J., Beausoleil S.A., Mintseris J., Gygi S.P.
    J. Proteome Res. 7:1675-1682(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT THR-245, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Tissue: Embryo.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCAD_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P09085
Secondary accession number(s): A4V0Y1, D4G7D2, Q9VIJ6
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1988
Last sequence update: June 7, 2005
Last modified: July 6, 2016
This is version 157 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.